Safety and efficacy of Ninjin'yoeito along with iron supplementation therapy for preoperative anemia, fatigue, and anxiety in patients with gynecological disease: an open-label, single-center, randomized phase-II trial
BMC women's health. 2022;22(1):229
BACKGROUND Preoperative anemia affects perioperative outcomes and often causes fatigue and psychological disorders. Therefore, anemia should be treated before a patient undergoes surgery. Ninjin'yoeito (NYT), a Japanese Kampo medicine composed of ginseng and Japanese angelica root with the other 10 herbs, is administered for anemia, fatigue and anxiety; however, there are a few reports that have prospectively examined the effects of NYT before surgery for gynecological diseases. Hence, we tended to investigate its efficacy and safety. METHODS In this open-label randomized trial, women with gynecological diseases accompanied by preoperative anemia (defined as < 11.0 g/dL Hemoglobin [Hb]) were randomly assigned (1:1) into the iron supplementation and NYT groups. Patients of the iron supplementation group and the NYT group received 100 mg/day iron supplementation with and without NYT (7.5 g/day) for at least 10 days before surgery. The primary endpoint was improvement in Hb levels before and after treatment, and Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) and Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) scores between groups. Statistical analyses were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher's exact test as appropriate. RESULTS Forty patients were enrolled of whom 30 patients were finally analyzed after allocating 15 to each group. There was no difference in the characteristics between both groups. Hb significantly increased in both groups (iron supplementation group, 9.9 ± 0.8 g/dL vs. 11.9 ± 1.6 g/dL; NYT group, 9.8 ± 1.0 g/dL vs. 12.0 ± 1.0 g/dL); the difference in the elevations in Hb between both groups was statistically insignificant (P = 0.72). Contrarily, CFS (17.9 ± 10.2 vs. 8.1 ± 5.2) and VAS-A (56 mm (50-70) vs. 23 mm (6-48)) scores were significantly decreased only in the NYT group and these changes were greater in the NYT group (∆CFS, P = 0.015; ∆VAS-A, P = 0.014). Liver dysfunction occurred in one patient of the NYT group. CONCLUSIONS For treating preoperative anemia in women with gynecological conditions, NYT administration along with iron supplementation safely and efficiently improved the preoperative fatigue and anxiety in addition to the recovery from anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION jRCT1051190012 (28/April/2019, retrospectively registered).
Prophylactic tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss and related morbidities during hysterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Obstetrics & gynecology science. 2022
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) versus a control (placebo or no treatment) during hysterectomy for benign conditions. Six databases were screened from inception to January 23, 2022. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. Outcomes were summarized as weighted mean differences and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals in a random-effects model. Five studies, comprising six arms and 911 patients were included in the study. Two and three studies had an overall unclear and low risk of bias, respectively. Estimated intraoperative blood loss, requirement for postoperative blood transfusion, and requirement for intraoperative topical hemostatic agents were significantly reduced in a prophylactic TXA group when compared with a control group. Moreover, postoperative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in the prophylactic TXA group than in the control group. Conversely, the frequency of self-limiting nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the prophylactic TXA group than in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of surgery duration, hospital stay, and diarrhea rate. All the RCTs reported no incidence of major adverse events in either group, such as mortality, thromboembolic events, visual disturbances, or seizures. There was no publication bias for any outcome, and leave-one-out sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability of the findings. Among patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign conditions, prophylactic TXA appeared largely safe and correlated with substantial reductions in estimated intraoperative blood loss and related morbidities.
The safty profile of blood salvage applied for collected blood with amniotic fluid during cesarean section
BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2022;22(1):160
BACKGROUND The guidelines of National Health Service(NHS, the United Kingdom) recommended for use in obstetrics at increased risk of bleeding, requiring two suction devices to reduce amniotic fluid contamination, however, when comes to massive hemorrhage, it is may difficult to operate because the complex operation may delay time. The aim of the study was to detect the effect of amniotic fluid recovery on intraoperative cell salvage in obstetrics and provide evidence for clinical applications. METHOD Thirty-four patients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the cumulative blood from the operation field, including the amniotic fluid, was collected using a single suction device for processing. In group 2, after suctioning away the amniotic fluid using another suction device for the cumulative blood from the operation field. From each group, four samples were taken, including maternal venous blood (sample I), blood before washing (sample II), blood after washing (sample III) and blood after filtration with a leukocyte filter (sample IV), to detect serum potassium (K +), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and squamous cell (SC) levels. RESULTS The AFP, K + and WBC levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly lower than sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05). Significantly more SCs were found in sample III than in sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05), but SCs of sample IV had no statistical difference compared to sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the K + , Hb, WBC, AFP and SC levels of sample IV between group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). The HbF levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION There is little or no possibility for AF contamination to enter the re-infusion system when used in conjunction with a leucodepletion filter. For maternal with Rh-negative blood, we recommend two suction devices to reduce HbF pollution. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR1800015684 , 2018.4.15.
Combined Efficacy of Balloon Occlusion and Uterine Artery Embolization on Coagulation Function in Patients with High-Risk Placenta Previa during Cesarean Section
International journal of clinical practice. 2022;2022:7750598
PURPOSE The present study was performed in order to investigate the conbined effect of balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization on coagulation function in patients with high-risk placenta previa during cesarean section. METHODS There involved a total of 38 patients with high-risk placenta previa undergoing cesarean section in our hospital from August 2019 to January 2021. The patients enrolled were randomly divided into study group (19 cases, receiving balloon occlusion combined with uterine artery embolization) and control group (19 cases, receiving conventional cesarean section). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, plasma injection volume and hospital stay of the two groups were recorded. Moreover, the postoperative coagulation function indexes, including thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FBI), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT), were monitored and compared. Neonatal Apgar score and postoperative complications of the two groups were regarded as parameters for comparison. RESULTS The intraoperative blood loss, plasma injection volume and hospital stay of the study group were significantly lower compared with the control group (P < 0.05), whereas the operation time of the two groups was comparable (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, the levels of TT, APTT and PT were lower while the level of FBI was higher in the study group (P < 0.05). The Apgar 1-min and 5-min scores of newborns were compared between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, the incidence of postoperative complications in the study group showed evidently lower outcomes compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The combined approach of balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization offered potential for improving the coagulation function of patients with high-risk placenta previa during cesarean section. In addition, the approach reduced the amount of blood loss and plasma injection, shortened the length of hospital stay, which was believed available for wide clinical application.
Optimal dose of misoprostol combined with oxytocin for preventing postpartum hemorrhage in cesarean section: A randomised controlled trial
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2022;78:103931
BACKGROUND The study analyzed an optimal misoprostol dosage in prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Also evaluated the side effects that might be related to dose of misoprostol. MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomised study was performed in mothers who received cesarean section. Participants were divided into 3 groups of 400, 600 and 800 μg intrauterine misoprostol insertion combined with oxytocin. Clinical characteristics, laboratory testing and operative data were collected. The primary outcome was the amount of intra-operative blood loss and side effects were assigned as a secondary outcome. RESULTS There were 357 eligible cases, 119 cases in each group equally. Baseline characteristics were similar in between groups. Higher misoprostol dosage demonstrated lower blood loss. Mean blood loss was 509.1, 465.7 and 441.1 ml in the 400, 600 and 800 μg misoprostol groups respectively which were significant difference (p value 0.027). Post-hoc pairwise t-tests found that 800 μg group diminished blood loss than 400 μg group (p value 0.004). Intra-operative blood loss ≥500 ml occurred less frequently in patients receiving higher misoprostol dosage (p value 0.035). However, PPH was not identified difference between groups (p value 0.707). Nausea and vomiting were complained in less than 1% while none of the cases exhibited shivering. Pyrexia was identified in all groups, however, there was a trend towards lower dosage related to less percentage of pyrexia. CONCLUSIONS Either 400, 600 or 800 μg of misoprostol can prevent PPH similarly. However, the study prefers 400 μg misoprostol because of minimization the side effects.
The efficacy of misoprostol in reducing intraoperative blood loss in women undergoing elective cesarean section. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of misoprostol to minimized blood loss during and after cesarean delivery (CD). SEARCH STRATEGY Screening of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to February 2021 using the keywords related to misoprostol, CD, postpartum hemorrhage, and intraoperative blood loss and their MeSH terms. SELECTION CRITERIA Only RCTs were included. Participants included women undergoing CD whether elective or selective. Thirty studies including 6593 women, 26 in English, 2 in Thai, 1 in French, and 1 in Chinese. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from all selected studies were extracted independently by two authors. Data extracted included location of the trial, sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants characteristics, intervention details including timing, dose, and route of drug administration. Outcomes assessed included estimated intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, occurrence of postpartum hemorrhage, the need for additional uterotonics, and hemoglobin difference. MAIN RESULTS Four studies (968 women) compared preoperative to postoperative misoprostol and found a mean difference in intraoperative blood loss of -205.00 (-339.22, -70.77), p = 0.003 and in postoperative blood loss -216.27 (-347.08, -85.46), p < 0.001 and a significantly lower need for additional uterotonics with a risk ratio of 0.54 (0.46, 0.64), p < 0.00001. Twenty-two studies (4701 participants) compared misoprostol to oxytocin. There was a mean difference in intraoperative blood loss of -108.43 (-156.04, -60.82), p < 0.0001. Nine of these trials with 1978 participants evaluated postoperative blood loss. These found a mean difference of -64.12 (-116.19, -12.04) with a p = 0.02. Fourteen trials with 3166 participants measured the difference between preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin. These found a mean difference of -0.25 (-0.35, -0.15) with a p < 0.001. Twenty trials with 4416 participants measured the need for administration of additional uterotonics. These found a risk ratio of 0.62 (0.49, 0.78) with a p value of <0.001. CONCLUSION The combined use of misoprostol and oxytocin during CD is effective in reducing blood loss during and after CD.
Tranexamic Acid for Prevention of Hemorrhage in Elective Repeat Cesarean Delivery - A Randomized Study
American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM. 2022;:100573
BACKGROUND The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists states that data is insufficient to recommend Tranexamic acid (TXA) prophylaxis for postpartum hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE This study's objective was to evaluate if prophylactic TXA reduces calculated blood loss versus placebo in women undergoing elective repeat cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examining calculated blood loss with prophylactic doses of 1-gram of TXA given before skin incision and after placental delivery and standard uterotonics in women with singleton pregnancies at least 37 weeks' gestation, presenting for their second or third cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia. The primary outcome was calculated blood loss at 24 hours. The calculation was based on the participant's height, weight, and the difference in hematocrit before the start of surgery and 24 hours after delivery. Prespecified secondary outcomes were quantification of maternal coagulation activity during the perioperative course. A sample size of 50 women per group was planned (N=100), based on a meta-analysis of mean reduction in blood loss after TXA. RESULTS 723 women were screened, and 110 women were randomized as follows: 55 to TXA and 55 to placebo. The primary outcome of mean calculated blood for TXA (2274 ± 469 mL) and the placebo group (2407 ± 388 mL), p > 0.05. In the secondary outcomes, D-dimer levels were lower in the TXA group than the placebo group 24 hours after delivery (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL versus 4.3 ± 2.4 µg/mL), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic tranexamic acid did not decrease mean calculated blood loss. Significantly less participants had calculated blood loss greater than 2000 mL in the tranexamic acid group compared to the placebo group with lower levels of D-dimer at 24 hours.
Women undergoing elective repeat caesarean delivery (n= 110).
Prophylactic doses of tranexamic acid (TXA) before skin incision and after placental delivery (n= 55).
Standard uterotonics (n= 55).
The mean calculated blood loss for TXA was 2,274 ± 469 mL, and for standard uterotonics was 2407 ± 388 mL. D-dimer levels were lower in the TXA group than the placebo group 24 hours after delivery (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL vs. 4.3 ± 2.4 µg/mL).
Intravenous Tranexamic acid versus placebo during Caesarian section: A comparative study
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(5):1183-1187
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of Tranexamic Acid in preventing postpartum hemorrhage against placebo in high-risk women undergoing cesarean section. METHODS A double-blinded placebo-controlled comparative trial was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Nishtar Hospital for one year, from 15(th) June 2020 to 15(th) June 2021. A total of 60 women who were at high risk of postpartum hemorrhage and had to undergo elective cesarean sections were included in the study. Among them, initial 30 patients were administered Tranexamic Acid before skin incision whereas later 30 were treated as the placebo group. These women were then observed for blood loss during surgery and within 24 hrs. after surgery and any postoperative complications such as thromboembolic events, the need for additional uterotonic agents, and blood transfusions. RESULTS Out of 60 women, 30 were placed in each group. The groups had no significant difference in terms of baseline data and post-partum hemorrhage-associated risk factors (p>0.05). However, the occurrence rate of primary post-partum hemorrhage (blood loss greater than 1000 ml) was significantly less in a tranexamic acid group than the placebo group (16.6% vs 60%, respectively, p<0.01). Similarly, the requirement of additional uterotonic agents (13.3% vs 43.3%, respectively) and the need for blood transfusion (6.0% vs 23.3%, respectively) was lower in a tranexamic group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSION The study highlighted the significance of tranexamic acid in controlling post-partum hemorrhages, the requirement of additional uterotonic agents, improving post-partum hemoglobin, and the need for blood transfusion.
Intraoperative Cell Salvage for Women at High Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage During Cesarean Section: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can lead to substantial blood loss that compromises maternal hemodynamic stability and consequently cause severe maternal complications such as organ dysfunction or death. Intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS), an effective method of blood conservation used in other surgical specialties, can be an alternative intervention for managing PPH. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IOCS for women at high risk of PPH undergoing cesarean sections. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to February 25, 2021 for randomized controlled studies and observational studies published in English or Mandarin about IOCS use in cesarean sections. Primary outcomes of interest were changes in postoperative hematologic parameters and any adverse events reported among patients that had IOCS and controls that had an allogeneic blood transfusion. The certainty of the evidence of the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE approach. A total of 24 studies with 5872 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 13 observational studies were analyzed. Postoperative hemoglobin levels were higher among patients with IOCS SMD 0.39 (95% CI; 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001, high certainty). Allogeneic blood transfusion increased adverse events RR = 1.81(95% CI; 1.24, 2.62; P = 0.002, low certainty). IOCS shortened hospital stay SMD - 0.59 (95% CI: - 0.98, - 0.19; P = 0.004, low certainty) and shortened prothrombin time SMD - 0.67 (95% CI; - 1.31, - 0.04), P = 0.037, low certainty). The lower incidence of transfusion-related adverse events and shorter hospital stay among other findings demonstrate that IOCS use in obstetrics is an effective and safe alternative for the management of PPH; however, high-quality randomized control studies are required to confirm this evidence.
Value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates in patients with intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;271:63-70
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates among patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. METHODS Four different databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ISI web of science) were searched for the available studies from inception to November 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich concentrates in the intervention group versus no injection of platelet-rich concentrates in the control group among women with intrauterine adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Revman software was utilized for performing our meta-analysis. Our primary outcomes were the adhesion score and incidence of recurrence of severe intrauterine adhesions postoperatively. Our secondary outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate, menstrual flow duration in days, and menstrual flow amount (number of pads). RESULTS Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria with a total number of 329 patients. We found that platelet-rich concentrates were linked to a significant reduction in the postoperative adhesion score (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.68, -0.32], p = 0.004). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of severe IUAs recurrence among the platelet-rich concentrates group (7.6%) compared to the control group (23.4%) after hysteroscopy (p = 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly increased among the platelet-rich concentrates group (37.1%) in comparison with the control group (20.7%) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis (p = 0.008). There were significant improvements in the menstrual flow duration and amount among the platelet-rich concentrates group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Intrauterine placement of platelet-rich concentrates is an effective method for the treatment of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy.