Tranexamic acid for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in women undergoing cesarean delivery: an updated meta-analysis
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic tranexamic acid administration in comparison with standard uterotonic agents alone among women undergoing cesarean delivery. DATA SOURCES Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar were systematically searched from inception to June 30, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous tranexamic acid administration to placebo in women undergoing cesarean delivery and receiving standard prophylactic uterotonic agents were held eligible. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS The risk of bias of individual studies was appraised with the RoB-2 tool. Meta-analysis was conducted by fitting random-effects models using restricted maximum likelihood. Subgroup analysis was performed based on country, protocol availability, double-blinding, risk of bias, sample size and tranexamic acid dose. One-stage meta-analysis was performed as a sensitivity analysis. The credibility of outcomes was appraised with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS Overall, 36 studies with 10,659 women were included. Tranexamic acid administration was associated with significantly lower total blood loss (Mean difference-MD: -189.44 ml, 95% confidence intervals-CI: -218.63; -160.25), lower hemoglobin drop (MD: 8.22%, 95% CI: 5.54; 10.90), decreased risk of blood loss >1000 ml (Odds ratio-OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.22; 0.60), transfusion requirement (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26; 0.65) and need of additional uterotonics (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.25; 0.52). Subgroup analysis indicated a greater effect of tranexamic acid on total blood loss reduction in low-middle income countries. The outcomes remained stable by separately evaluating women at low bleeding risk. One-stage meta-analysis demonstrated similar outcomes with the primary analysis. The quality of evidence was judged to be moderate regarding total blood loss and hemoglobin percentage change and low for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis suggests that prophylactic tranexamic acid administration is effective among women undergoing cesarean delivery in lowering postpartum blood loss and limiting hemoglobin drop. Further research is needed to test its efficacy in high-risk populations and to verify its safety profile.
Women undergoing caesarean delivery (36 studies, n= 10,659).
Standard uterotonic agents alone.
Tranexamic acid administration was associated with significantly lower total blood loss (Mean difference (MD): -189.44 ml), lower haemoglobin drop (MD: 8.22%), decreased risk of blood loss >1000 ml, transfusion requirement and need of additional uterotonics. Subgroup analysis indicated a greater effect of tranexamic acid on total blood loss reduction in low-middle income countries. The outcomes remained stable by separately evaluating women at low bleeding risk. One-stage meta-analysis demonstrated similar outcomes with the primary analysis. The quality of evidence was judged to be moderate regarding total blood loss and haemoglobin percentage change and low for the other outcomes.
Prophylactic use of platelet-rich plasma for post-spinal low back pain following gynecological surgery: a randomized clinical trial
Brazilian journal of anesthesiology (Elsevier). 2021
BACKGROUND Post-spinal back pain is suggested to occur as a result of a localized inflammatory response that is often associated with some degree of muscle spasm. We aimed to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in reducing the incidence of post-spinal back pain. METHODS One hundred patients were randomly enrolled and scheduled for elective gynecological surgery under spinal anesthesia. After the subarachnoid block, group A (placebo) received 2 mL of sodium chloride 0.9% injected into the track of spinal needle during its withdrawal (2 mm after outward withdrawal in muscles and subcutaneous tissues). While patients in group B (PRP); received 2 ml of PRP injected into the track of the spinal needle during its withdrawal. The primary outcome was the number of patients who developed post-spinal low back pain within the first week following the subarachnoid block. Secondary outcomes included the time of the first analgesic request and total meperidine consumption during the first 24 h postoperatively. RESULTS Fifteen patients in the PRP group developed low back pain during the first week following subarachnoid block compared to 26 patients in the placebo group (p = 0.037). There was a significant decrease in the mean meperidine consumption during first 24 h postoperatively in PRP group (174 ± 14 mg) compared to placebo group (210 ± 22 mg) (p < 0.0001). Also, the first analgesic request was significantly delayed in PRP group (243 ± 21 min.) compared to placebo group (185 ± 31 min.) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION This study demonstrated the positive effects of platelet-rich plasma on the prevention of post-spinal backache.
Comparison of intra operative hemorrhage by blunt and sharp expansion of uterine incision at cesarean section
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2021;37(7):1994-1998
OBJECTIVES To compare the effect of blunt and sharp incision of uterus at cesarean section on intra-operative haemorrhage. METHODS This trial was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Pakistan Ordinance Factory Hospital, Wah Cantt from 14(th) January to 13(th) July 2012. Total 80 women planned for lower segment cesarean section through Pfannensteil incision were randomized to either blunt uterine incision (Group-A, n=40) or sharp uterine incision (Group-B, n=40). The fall in Haemoglobin and HCT was compared in two groups and analyzed with help of SPSS version 10. RESULTS Both groups were similar in terms of demographic features like age, parity, gestational age and indication for cesarean section. The participants in Group-A reveled significantly less drop of mean Hb concentration as compared to Group-B (1.47±1.08 and 1.95±0.85 respectively, P value 0.031). Similarly, the fall in mean HCT was significantly less in Group-A in comparison to Group-B (3.21±1.3 and 4.21±2.17 respectively, P-value 0.015). CONCLUSION Blunt expansion of uterine incision during caesarean section is associated with less fall in Haemoglobin and HCT as compared to sharp expansion.
The Effect of Vasopressin during Hysteroscopic Myomectomy in Patients with Submucosal Myoma: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Advanced biomedical research. 2021;10:22
BACKGROUND The aim was to assess the effect of vasopressin in reducing the time of surgery, amount of bleeding, and fluid deficit during hysteroscopic myomectomy of submucosal myoma from 2016 to 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial on the premenopausal women ranged from 18 to 62 years' old. A number of 80 patients were randomly assigned to each arm of the study according to random consecutive numbers. The control group (n = 40) of patients underwent conventional hysteroscopic myomectomy without vasopressin and the case group (n = 40) underwent hysteroscopic myomectomy with the injection of diluted vasopressin. Measured outcomes were time for myomectomy, fluid deficit, inflow volume, visual clarity, and postoperation hemoglobin level. RESULTS The mean time of myomectomy was 38.1 and 77.38 min in vasopressin and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean inflow volume was 2800 and 4100 in vasopressin and control groups, respectively (P = 0.029). The visual clarity score was 8.5 and 6.5 in the vasopressin and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The injection of vasopressin during hysteroscopic myomectomy is effective in the management of fluid deficit, time of surgery, and improvement of visual clarity.
Effectiveness of preoperative tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during caesarean section at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano: a randomized controlled trial
The Pan African medical journal. 2021;39:34
INTRODUCTION bleeding during and after caesarean section is one of the contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity. Tranexamic acid can be given before surgery to significantly reduce the amount of blood loss during caesarean section. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during caesarean section at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. METHODS this was a randomized double blind placebo controlled study that was carried out among 244 women who were to have emergency caesarean section between December 2017 and June 2018 and were randomly assigned to the study group or control group. Women in the study group received lg (10mls) of tranexamic acid intravenously while women in the control group received 10ml of normal saline. Oxytocin was administered in the two groups according to protocol. Measurement of blood loss was done immediately after surgery. Postoperative drop in haemoglobin and haematocrit were also determined. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 22. RESULTS the average intra operative blood loss was 414.0 ml in the study group and 773.8 ml in the control group (t = - 16.18, p ≤ 0.01). Average postoperative haemoglobin was 10.1 g/dl in the study group and 9.5 g/dl in the control group (t = 4.99, p ≤ 0.01). Average postoperative haematocrit was 31.5% in the study group and 29.9% in the control group (t = 4.70, p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION there was a significant reduction in the blood loss when preoperative tranexamic acid was given to patients who were to undergo emergency caesarean section.
Women having emergency caesarean section in a single centre in Nigeria (n= 244).
Intravenous tranexamic acid (n= 122).
Normal saline (n= 122).
There was a significant reduction in blood loss when preoperative tranexamic acid compared to the normal saline. The average intra operative blood loss was 414.0 ml in the study group and 773.8 ml in the control group. Average postoperative haemoglobin was 10.1 g/dl in the study group and 9.5 g/dl in the control group. Average postoperative haematocrit was 31.5% in the study group and 29.9% in the control group.
Effects of colloid preload on the incidence of hypotension in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Chinese medical journal. 2021
BACKGROUND Hypotension is a common complication caused by spinal anesthesia (SA), which may have adverse impacts on the condition of the parturient and fetus. Liquid infusion was found to be relatively effective for reducing the incidence of hypotension. However, the question of whether colloid preload can optimize hemodynamic variables in the cesarean section remains controversial. This study aims to determine the effects of colloid preload on the incidence of hypotension induced by SA in elective cesarean section. METHODS Related keywords were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from inception dates to May 2020. Studies included were evaluated for eligibility and quality. The primary outcome was the intra-operative incidence of hypotension and severe hypotension. The secondary outcomes included the lowest intra-operative systolic blood pressure, the maximal intra-operative heart rate, the intra-operative needs of ephedrine and phenylephrine, the incidence of maternal nausea and/or vomiting, and neonatal outcomes (umbilical artery pH and Apgar scores). Apart from the above, RevMan 5.3 was used for the data analysis. RESULTS Altogether nine randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences in the incidence of intra-operative hypotension, severe hypotension, or neonatal outcomes between the colloid preload group and control group, except for the umbilical artery pH. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that colloid preload does not significantly reduce the incidence of hypotension associated with SA in elective cesarean section.
Assessment of the perioperative effect of vasopressin in patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy: A double-blind randomised study
Indian journal of anaesthesia. 2021;65(2):139-145
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Myomectomy is associated with perioperative bleeding. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of intramyometrial vasopressin on blood loss and the associated cardiovascular complications during myomectomy. METHODS The study included 194 patients classified into two groups- 1) Vasopressin group: the vasopressin was diluted as 0.1 unit/ml and 15 ml was injected by the surgeon in the plane between the myometrium and the myoma. 2) Control group: The patients received an equal amount of normal saline. The monitored parameters included the amount of blood loss, required blood transfusion, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, the incidence of hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and the blood troponin I level. RESULTS The heart rate decreased significantly in both groups, but the decrease was lower with vasopressin than the control group through the time points T3 to T5 (P < 0.05) The mean arterial blood pressure increased significantly in both groups, but the increase was higher with vasopressin than the control group through T3 to T5 (P < 0.05). The amount of blood loss decreased significantly with vasopressin than the control groups (P = 0.001). The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower with vasopressin than the control group (P = 0.001). The incidence of hypertension, bradycardia and atrial extrasystole was higher with vasopressin than the control group (P = 0.005, P = 0.012, P = 0.033, respectively). CONCLUSION Intramyometrial vasopressin decreases blood loss and blood transfusion, but it is associated with cardiovascular complications that may be serious as reported in other studies. Therefore, anaesthesiologists and gynaecologists must follow the precautions to avoid and minimise the incidence of complications with intramyometrial vasopressin.
Ovarian function following use of various hemostatic techniques during treatment for an endometrioma: A randomized controlled trial
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of hemostatic techniques (bipolar energy versus hemostatic sealants versus suture) on the ovarian reserve of patients submitted to laparoscopic cystectomy for the surgical excision of a unilateral endometrioma. METHODS A randomized controlled trial conducted in a teaching hospital included 84 patients with a unilateral endometrioma. The patients underwent laparoscopic stripping for excision of the unilateral endometrioma between March 2018 and February 2020. Three different hemostatic techniques - bipolar energy (Group 1), hemostatic sealants (Group 2) and suture (Group 3) - were compared. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured prior to and 1 and 6 months after surgery to determine changes in ovarian function. RESULTS Following surgery, AMH levels decreased in all the groups; however, this decrease was not statistically significant. Comparison between groups showed no statistically significant differences in AMH levels between the three hemostatic techniques used. Six months after surgery, median AMH levels were: 1.65 (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.62-2.08) ng/ml in Group 1, 1.87 (IQR: 1.27-2.97) in Group 2, and 1.53 (IQR: 1.18-2.44) in Group 3. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that there is no difference between the different hemostatic techniques used in laparoscopic cystectomy for the treatment of unilateral endometriomas.
The Efficiency of Temporary Uterine Artery Ligation on Prevention of the Bleeding in Cesarean Section
Gynecologic and obstetric investigation. 2021;:1-8
OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the effect of temporary ligation of the uterine artery on postpartum bleeding during uncomplicated cesarean section. DESIGN This was a prospective, randomized, and controlled study. We recruited a total of 200 patients, including 100 cases and 100 controls. METHODS The bilateral uterine artery was temporarily clamped 2 cm below the uterine incision in the study group and compared with controls. Patient demographics, the amount of intraoperative bleeding, the duration of the operation, the closure time of the uterine incision, the need for additional uterotonics, the need for additional sutures, and the hemoglobin values before and after birth were assessed. RESULTS The mean value of the amount of bleeding in the clamped and control groups was 267.3 ± 131.8 mL and 390.2 ± 116.4 mL, respectively. The amount of bleeding was significantly decreased for clamped group (p < 0.001). A significant reduction occurred in the results of pre- and postoperative values of hemoglobin and hematocrit difference, operation duration, and the closing time of the uterine incision in the experimental group which has temporary uterine artery clamping. LIMITATIONS The cases of recurrent cesareans were not included in this study. CONCLUSION Temporary uterine artery ligation can be used to reduce the amount of bleeding during uncomplicated cesarean delivery and prevent postpartum hemorrhage.
Prophylactic Administration of Uterotonics to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage in Women Undergoing Cesarean Delivery for Arrest of Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Obstetrics and gynecology. 2021;137(3):505-513
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether prophylactic administration of oxytocin plus ergonovine or oxytocin plus carboprost is more effective than oxytocin alone in reducing the need for additional uterotonics among women undergoing cesarean delivery for labor arrest. METHODS In this double-blind, three-arm randomized controlled trial, participants were assigned to receive either oxytocin 5 units intravenous alone, or with ergonovine 0.25 mg intravenous or carboprost 0.25 mg intramuscular immediately after delivery, followed with maintenance infusion of oxytocin 40 milliunits/minute in all groups. Uterine tone was assessed at 3, 5, and 10 minutes after delivery, and additional uterotonics were administered if deemed necessary. The primary outcome was intraoperative need for additional uterotonics. Secondary outcomes included uterine tone, calculated blood loss, and side effects. A sample size of 34 per group (n=102), based on the null hypothesis that there is no association between treatment assignment and the need for additional uterotonics, permitted independent post hoc pairwise comparisons between oxytocin plus ergonovine, oxytocin plus carboprost, and oxytocin alone using an adjusted P-value of .025. The association between the need for additional uterotonics and treatment group was assessed using the χ2 test. RESULTS From June 2013 through July 2019, 105 participants were randomized (35 per group) and data from 100 participants were analyzed: oxytocin (n=35), oxytocin plus ergonovine (n=33), and oxytocin plus carboprost (n=32). There was no difference in the requirement of additional intraoperative uterotonics across groups (oxytocin [37%] vs oxytocin plus ergonovine [33%] vs oxytocin plus carboprost [34%], P=.932). Uterine tone and calculated blood loss were similar across groups. Incidence of nausea or vomiting was higher in oxytocin plus ergonovine (85%; odds ratio [OR] 5.3, 95% CI 1.7-16.9, P=.003) and oxytocin plus carboprost (72%; OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.9-6.7, P=.086) compared with the oxytocin (51%) group. CONCLUSION Compared with oxytocin alone, prophylactic use of a combination of uterotonic drugs did not reduce the need for additional uterotonics at cesarean delivery for labor arrest. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01869556.