Single dose of tranexamic acid effectively reduces blood loss and transfusion rates in elderly patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial
The bone & joint journal. 2021;103-b(3):442-448
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce blood loss and transfusion rates in elderly patients undergoing surgery for a subcapital or intertrochanteric (IT) fracture of the hip. METHODS In this single-centre, randomized controlled trial, elderly patients undergoing surgery for a hip fracture, either hemiarthroplasty for a subcapital fracture or intramedullary nailing for an IT fracture, were screened for inclusion. Patients were randomly allocated to a study group using a sealed envelope. The TXA group consisted of 77 patients, (35 with a subcapital fracture and 42 with an IT fracture), and the control group consisted of 88 patients (29 with a subcapital fracture and 59 with an IT fracture). One dose of 15 mg/kg of intravenous (IV) TXA diluted in 100 ml normal saline (NS,) or one dose of IV placebo 100 ml NS were administered before the incision was made. The haemoglobin (Hb) concentration was measured before surgery and daily until the fourth postoperative day. The primary outcomes were the total blood loss and the rate of transfusion from the time of surgery to the fourth postoperative day. RESULTS Homogeneity with respect to baseline characteristics was ensured between groups. The mean total blood loss was significantly lower in patients who received TXA (902.4 ml (-279.9 to 2,156.9) vs 1,226.3 ml (-269.7 to 3,429.7); p = 0.003), while the likelihood of requiring a transfusion of at least one unit of red blood cells was reduced by 22%. Subgroup analysis showed that these differences were larger in patients who had an IT fracture compared with those who had a subcapital fracture. CONCLUSION Elderly patients who undergo intramedullary nailing for an IT fracture can benefit from a single dose of 15 mg/kg TXA before the onset of surgery. A similar tendency was identified in patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty for a subcapital fracture but not to a statistically significant level. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):442-448.
Application of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(7):23259671211016847
BACKGROUND It is unclear how and which factors affect the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PURPOSE To evaluate the clinical efficacy of PRP for arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tear and investigate the factors that affect its clinical efficacy. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS We searched Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and OVID to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients who received PRP treatment and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (PRP group) versus controls (no-PRP group). The primary outcomes included retear rate, Constant-Murley score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, short-term American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, and adverse events. RESULTS A total of 14 RCTs were included in this systematic review. Significant improvement in Constant-Murley, UCLA, and VAS pain scores were found in the PRP group during short-term, midterm, and long-term follow-up. The PRP group had a significantly decreased retear rate (risk ratio [RR], 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.78]; P = .0003), especially for long-term follow-up (RR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.17 to 0.83]; P = .02), large to massive tears (RR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.80]; P = .0008), use of leukocyte-poor PRP (RR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.76]; P = .001), and intraoperative application of PRP (RR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.79]; P = .0007). No significant difference between the 2 groups was found in the incidence of adverse events (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.83 to 2.15]; P = .23) or in ASES scores at short-term follow-up (weighted mean difference, 1.04 [95% CI, -3.10 to 5.19]; P = .62). CONCLUSION The results of this review indicated that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with PRP significantly reduced the long-term retear rate and shoulder pain and provided improved long-term shoulder function in patients. Intraoperative application of PRP, use of leukocyte-poor plasma, and large to massive tear size contributed to a significantly decreased retear rate for rotator cuff repair combined with PRP.
Effect of tranexamic acid in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong). 2021;29(2):23094990211017352
PURPOSE Perioperative blood loss remains a major challenge to surgeons in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery, despite of the introduction of minimally invasive approach. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is believed to reduce blood loss, which may minimise the complication of postoperative haemarthrosis with insufficient evidence on its effectiveness in ACLR. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of TXA on postoperative blood loss and other secondary outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR surgery. METHOD PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL database were systematically searched from its inception until November 2020. All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing TXA (intravenous or intra-articular) versus placebo in the arthroscopic ACLR surgery were included. Case series, case report and editorials were excluded. RESULTS Five RCTs comprising of a total of 580 patients (291 in TXA group, 289 in control group) were included for qualitative and quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to placebo, TXA group was significantly associated with lower postoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD): -81.93 ml; 95% CI -141.80 to -22.05) and lower incidence of needing knee aspiration (odd ratio (OR): 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.44). Patients who randomised to TXA were also reported to have better range of movement (MD: 2.86; 95% CI 0.54 to 5.18), lower VAS Pain Score (MD: -1.39; 95% CI -2.54 to -0.25) and higher Lysholm Score (MD: 7.38; 95% CI 2.75 to 12.01). CONCLUSION In this meta-analysis, TXA reduced postoperative blood loss with lesser incidence of needing knee aspiration along with better range of knee movement and Lysholm score in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR surgery.
Infographic: Single dose of tranexamic acid effectively reduces blood loss and transfusion rates in elderly patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial
The bone & joint journal. 2021;103-b(3):440-441
In Nonsurgically Managed Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture, Platelet-Rich Plasma Did Not Improve Healing or Function at 12 Months Compared with Placebo
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. 2021
Effects of Local Administration of Tranexamic Acid on Reducing Postoperative Blood Loss in Surgeries for Closed, Sanders III-IV Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study
Indian journal of orthopaedics. 2021;55(Suppl 2):418-425
PURPOSE To investigate whether local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in postoperative blood loss reduction in surgeries for Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures. METHODS Calcaneal fracture patients who were hospitalized in our hospital from August 2014 to April 2018 and underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) via lateral approach with an L-shaped incision were included in the present study. 53 Patients were randomly divided into three groups, groups A (17), B (17) and C (19). Twenty milliliters of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml TXA solution were perfused into the incision of patients in group A and group B, respectively. Twenty milliliters of saline were perfused into the incision of patients in group C as control. The volume of postoperative drainage, postoperative blood test, coagulation test, and wound complications were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local administration of TXA on blood loss reduction. RESULTS The amount of drainage at 24 and 48 h after the procedure was 110 ± 170, 30 ± 10 ml and 130 ± 160, 20 ± 17 ml for patients in group A and group B, respectively. The corresponding numbers for patients in group C were 360 ± 320, 20 ± 10 ml. The difference between group A and group C was statistically significant, so was the difference between group B and group C. No statistically significant difference was found between group A and group B. Postoperative blood test results revealed that the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in group A and group B when each compared to that of group C. In contrast, no difference was found between group A and group B. No significant difference was found between each experimental group and the control group in terms of platelet counts, prothrombin time (P.T.), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), and wound complications. CONCLUSION Local administration of TXA is effective in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in surgeries for Sanders III-IV types of calcaneal fractures without notably associated side effects.
Spine Surgery and Preoperative Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and Hemoglobin A1c: A Systematic Review
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568220979821
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. OBJECTIVES Synthesize previous studies evaluating clinical utility of preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c in patients undergoing common spinal procedures: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar decompression (LD). METHODS We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for literature on preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c and post-operative outcomes in adult patients undergoing ACDF, PCF, PLF, or LD surgeries. RESULTS Total of 4,307 publications were assessed. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. PCF AND ACDF Decreased preoperative Hb/Hct were significant predictors of increased postoperative morbidity, including return to operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusions, and increased length of stay (LOS). For increased HbA1c, there was significant increase in risk of postoperative infection and cost of hospital stay. PLF: Decreased Hb/Hct was reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events, blood transfusion, and increased LOS. Elevated HbA1c was associated with increased risk of infection as well as higher visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. LD: LOS and total episode of care cost were increased in patients with preoperative HbA1c elevation. CONCLUSION In adult patients undergoing spine surgery, preoperative Hb/Hct are clinically useful predictors for postoperative complications, transfusion rates, and LOS, and HbA1c is predictive for postoperative infection and functional outcomes. Using Hct values <35-38% and HbA1c >6.5%-6.9% for identifying patients at higher risk of postoperative complications is most supported by the literature. We recommend obtaining these labs as part of routine pre-operative risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.
Clinical Effectiveness of Intraoperative Tranexamic Acid Use in Shoulder Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The American journal of sports medicine. 2021;:363546520981679
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used across surgical specialties to reduce perioperative bleeding. It has been shown to be effective in spinal surgery and lower limb arthroplasty. Among all languages, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses investigating its clinical effectiveness for all types of shoulder surgery. PURPOSE To investigate the clinical effectiveness of TXA in all types of shoulder surgery, including open and arthroscopic procedures. To investigate the effect of TXA on bleeding and non-bleeding-related outcomes. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS A protocol for the study was designed and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020185482). The literature search included the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. All randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of TXA against placebo, in all types of shoulder surgery, were included. Assessments were undertaken for risk of bias and certainty of evidence. The primary outcome was total blood loss. Secondary outcomes included those not directly related to bleeding. Data from comparable outcomes were pooled and analyzed quantitatively or descriptively, as appropriate. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, and data from 7 of these studies were pooled in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in 2 of 3 outcomes measuring perioperative bleeding with TXA compared with controls: estimated total blood loss (mean difference, -209.66 mL; 95% CI, -389.11 to -30.21; P = .02) and postoperative blood loss as measured by drain output (mean difference, -84.8 mL; 95% CI, -140.04 to -29.56; P = .003). Hemoglobin reduction was reduced but not statistically significant (mean difference, -0.33 g/dL; 95% CI -0.69 to 0.03; P = .07). This result became significant with sensitivity analysis excluding arthroscopic procedures. CONCLUSION This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that TXA was effective in reducing blood loss in shoulder surgery. Larger randomized controlled trials with low risk of bias for specific surgical shoulder procedures are required. CLINICAL RELEVANCE TXA can be used across shoulder surgery to reduced perioperative blood loss. The use of TXA may have other beneficial features, including reduced postoperative pain and reduced operative time.
Effect of 4DryField® PH on blood loss in hip bipolar hemiarthroplasty following intracapsular femoral neck fracture - a randomized clinical trial
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2021;22(1):113
BACKGROUND One of the most common complications of hip arthroplasty is excessive blood loss that could necessitate allogenic blood transfusion, which is further associated with other complications, such as infections, transfusion reactions or immunomodulation. In gynecology, 4DryField®PH, an absorbable polysaccharide-based formulation, is used for hemostasis and adhesion prophylaxis. In this study, we evaluated its hemostatic effect in patients undergoing hip bipolar hemiarthroplasty following intracapsular femoral neck fracture. METHODS We studied 40 patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures (Garden III or IV) admitted at our institution between July 2016 and November 2017. We included patients above 60 years with simple fracture and without pathologic fractures. Patients were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 5 g of 4DryField® PH (subfascially and subcutaneously) during wound closure. Three drainages were inserted in a standardized manner (submuscular, subfascial, and subcutaneous) and drainage volume was measured immediately before extraction. Total blood loss was calculated using Mercuriali's formula and standard hemograms upon admission and five days after surgery. Volume of postoperative hematoma was measured using point-of-care ultrasound seven days after surgery. RESULTS Volume of the postoperative hematoma was reduced by 43.0 mL. However, significant reduction of total blood loss and drainage volume was not observed. CONCLUSIONS We observed that 4DryField® PH had a local hemostatic effect, thereby reducing volume of the postoperative hematoma. However, this reduction was small and had no effect on the total blood loss. Further studies are warranted to improve the application algorithm. TRIAL REGISTRATION DRKS, DRKS00017452 , Registered 11 June 2019 - Retrospectively registered.
Efficacy of Intraoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation and Postoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Booster Injection for Rotator Cuff Healing: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(6):23259671211006100
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been applied as an adjuvant treatment for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) to enhance rotator cuff healing. However, it remains debatable whether PRP enhances tendon-to-bone healing. PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of intraoperative augmentation and postoperative injection of PRP that was prepared using the double-spin method and calcium activation without thrombin in patients with ARCR. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1; and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS A total of 58 patients underwent ARCR using intraoperative PRP augmentation. Half of the patients were randomly assigned to receive an additional ultrasound-guided PRP injection at the repair site at 2 weeks postoperatively (PRP-booster group); the other half did not receive the booster injection (PRP-only group). A control group that did not receive any PRP treatment was retrospectively matched using propensity score matching. Structural integrity was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year postoperatively, and healing rates were compared between patients with tear sizes ≤2 cm versus >2 cm. Functional outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; VAS for satisfaction; shoulder range of motion; and Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Simple Shoulder Test scores at minimum 2-year follow-up. RESULTS In patients with tears >2 cm, the rate of healing failure at 1-year follow-up was significantly less in the overall PRP group than in the control group (12.9% vs 35.7%, respectively; P = .040), however, the PRP-booster group did not present a better healing rate than did the PRP-only group. The overall PRP group had lower VAS for pain scores compared with the control group (0.5 ± 1.1 vs 1.3 ± 1.8, respectively; P = .016) and higher VAS for satisfaction scores (9.2 ± 1.2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7; P = .023) at the final follow-up, whereas no statistical difference was found between the PRP-only and PRP-booster groups in functional outcomes. CONCLUSION Intraoperative PRP augmentation during ARCR demonstrated superior anatomic healing results in patients with rotator cuff tears >2 cm as well as reduced pain and increased subjective satisfaction. PRP booster injection provided no additional benefit to tendon integrity or functional recovery.