The effects of tourniquet use on blood loss and perioperative complications in total knee arthroplasty
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):847
BACKGROUND There has been ongoing debate about the use of tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty, and their application is widely studied. A comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of tourniquet use during the procedure is crucial for optimizing surgical outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of tourniquet application, with a particular focus on blood loss and perioperative complications, providing valuable insights for clinical practice. METHODS Fifty patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized into tourniquet (n = 25) and nontourniquet (n = 25) groups. The same surgeon performed all surgical procedures. The follow-up time was 14 days after surgery. Primary outcomes were hemoglobin level changes, blood loss, operation time, and perioperative plasma D-dimer levels. Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications, including thrombotic and nonthrombotic events. RESULTS No significant differences were found in drainage, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin levels, or blood transfusion between the two groups (P > 0.05). No differences in D-dimer levels were observed on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 14 between the two groups, except on postoperative Day 7, when the D-dimer level in the tourniquet group was lower than that in the nontourniquet group (P = 0.03). The incidence of local complications (thigh bruising, blisters, pain, fat liquefaction, and superficial infections) in the tourniquet group was significantly higher than that in the nontourniquet group (P = 0.03), but no significant differences were found in thromboembolic and nonthromboembolic events or overall complications (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION We conclude that tourniquet use does not reduce the length of surgery or blood loss but does increase local complications in total knee arthroplasty.
Silicone ring tourniquet could be a substitute for a conventional tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty with a longer surgical field: a prospective comparative study in simultaneous total knee arthroplasty
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):363
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of silicon ring tourniquets and conventional pneumatic tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study compared the operation time, total bleeding amount, length from the tourniquet distal end to the patella superior pole (L_TP), and complications related to the two tourniquet application methods and attempted to determine whether the silicon ring tourniquet has advantages over conventional pneumatic tourniquets. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective comparative study included 30 patients who underwent bilateral simultaneous TKA for degenerative osteoarthritis in August to December 2021. All patients underwent TKA on one side with a conventional pneumatic tourniquet, while TKA on the other side with a silicon ring tourniquet. The primary outcomes were the L_TP, operation time, tourniquet time, total bleeding amount, total drainage amount, and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score of the tourniquet applied site at 6, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. The secondary outcome was tourniquet-related complications in both groups. RESULTS L_TP was significantly longer in the silicon ring tourniquet group compared with that in the pneumatic tourniquet group (20.22 ± 2.74 cm versus 15.12 ± 2.40, p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in other results. The tourniquet applied site pain was less in the silicon ring tourniquet group (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS Silicon ring tourniquet application resulted in better clinical outcomes than conventional pneumatic tourniquets in TKA. Because we can obtain a wider surgical field using silicon ring tourniquets without complications, silicon ring tourniquets could be a substitute for conventional pneumatic tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty or distal femoral surgeries.
Tourniquets can further reduce perioperative blood loss in patients on dexamethasone and tranexamic acid during cemented total knee arthritis: a single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial
Journal of orthopaedics and traumatology : official journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 2023;24(1):17
BACKGROUND Multiple doses of dexamethasone and tranexamic acid can inhibit postoperative inflammation and reduce fibrinolysis and perioperative blood loss in total knee arthroplasty. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, the aim was to investigate whether applying a tourniquet to patients on dexamethasone and tranexamic acid could further reduce perioperative blood loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients who underwent cemented total knee arthroplasty at our hospital were randomized to receive a tourniquet (n = 71) or not (n = 70) during the procedure. All patients received multiple doses of dexamethasone and tranexamic acid perioperatively. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss, while secondary outcomes were surgery duration, postoperative laboratory indices of inflammation and fibrinolysis, range of knee motion, VAS pain score, knee circumference, knee swelling rate, homologous transfusion, albumin use, and complications. RESULTS Using a tourniquet was associated with significantly lower intraoperative blood loss (P < 0.001) and total blood loss (P = 0.007) as well as significantly shorter surgery duration (P < 0.001). In contrast, the tourniquet did not significantly affect hidden blood loss, postoperative inflammation or fibrinolysis, range of knee motion, VAS pain score, knee circumference, knee swelling rate, homologous transfusion, albumin use, or complications. CONCLUSIONS The results of this randomized clinical trial demonstrate that applying a tourniquet during cemented total knee arthroplasty to patients receiving multiple doses of dexamethasone and tranexamic acid can further reduce perioperative blood loss without increasing the risk of inflammation, fibrinolysis, or other complications. Thus, it is advised to use tourniquets combined with dexamethasone and tranexamic acid to reduce perioperative blood loss and avoid tourniquet-related adverse events. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic Level I. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trail Registry, ChiCTR2200060567. Registered 5 June 2022-retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=171291.
Tourniquet use benefits to reduce intraoperative blood loss in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: An updated meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong). 2023;31(2):10225536231191607
PURPOSE The efficacy and safety of tourniquets use during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis remain debated. This updated systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to further evaluate the role of tourniquets use in patients undergoing TKA for knee osteoarthritis by introducing trial sequential analysis. METHODS PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool for quality assessment. Statistical heterogeneity across studies was evaluated using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata/SE 14.0, and trail sequential analysis was performed using TSA software version 0.9.5.10 Beta. In addition, qualitative summary was also used to describe results. RESULTS 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1202 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that tourniquet use during TKA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD)= -123.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): -163.37 to -84.32, p < .001)and shortened operation time (MD = -4.71, 95% CI: -7.6 to -1.82, p = .001), but there were no significant differences in postoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, transfusion rate (p = .939), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) rate between the tourniquet and no-tourniquet groups. TSA confirmed that the result of operation time was false positive, but the results of other outcomes were conclusive. The results of qualitative summary showed conflicting findings in terms of pain, range of motion (RoM) and swelling ratio between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Tourniquet use in patients receiving TKA for osteoarthritis benefits to reduce intraoperative blood loss but has no effect on postoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, operation time, transfusion rate, and DVT rate. In addition, it remains unclear the difference between the tourniquet and non-tourniquet groups in terms of pain, RoM and swelling ratio.
Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for osteoarthritis (15 randomised controlled trials, n= 1,202).
Non-use of tourniquet.
The pooled results showed that tourniquet use during TKA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD)= -123.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) [-163.37, -84.32]) and shortened operation time (MD= -4.71; 95% CI [-7.6 to, -1.82]), but there were no significant differences in postoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, transfusion rate, and deep venous thrombosis rate between the tourniquet and no-tourniquet groups. Trial sequential analyses confirmed that the result of operation time was false positive, but the results of other outcomes were conclusive. The results of qualitative summary showed conflicting findings in terms of pain, range of motion and swelling ratio between the two groups.
Comparison of the radiographic outcomes and total blood loss between pinless navigation and conventional method in minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2023;18(1):254
BACKGROUND Computer-assisted surgical navigation has been used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures for years trying to the accuracy of prosthesis placement. We conducted this prospective randomized clinical trial to compare the accuracy of the radiographic parameters of the prosthesis, total blood loss (TBL), and related complications, between a new pinless navigation system (Stryker OrthoMap Express Knee Navigation) and conventional method in patients undergoing minimally invasive (MIS) TKA procedures. PATIENT AND METHODS A consecutive series of 100 patients underwent unilateral primary TKA were randomly assigned into two groups: navigation group and convention group. The radiographic parameters of the knee implant and the alignment of lower limb were measured at 3 months after surgery. TBL was calculated according to Nadler's method. The duplex ultrasonography of both lower limbs was performed in all patients to detect the presence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). RESULTS Totally, 94 patients have completed the radiographic measures. Only the coronal femoral component angle in the navigation group (89.12° ± 1.83°) had significant differences from that in the convention group (90.09° ± 2.18°) (p = 0.022). There were no differences in the rate of outliers. The mean TBL in the navigation group was 841 ± 267 mL, which was similar to that in the convention group at 860 ± 266 mL (p = 0.721). Postoperative DVT risk did not differ between the two groups (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.315). CONCLUSION This pinless navigation TKA showed a comparable acceptable alignment compared with conventional MIS-TKA. There were no differences regarding postoperative TBL between the two groups.
Does the accelerometer-based navigation system reduce blood loss and transfusion in one-stage sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty? A randomized double-blind controlled trial
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):531
BACKGROUND Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with significant blood loss and postoperative transfusion. The accelerometer-based navigation (ABN) system guides the bone cutting plane without breaching the intramedullary canal, which may reduce bleeding. This study aimed to investigate blood loss and transfusion compared between the ABN system and the conventional procedure in patients undergoing one-stage sequential bilateral TKA (SBTKA). METHODS A total of 66 patients scheduled for SBTKA were randomly allocated to either the ABN or conventional group. Postoperative hematocrit (Hct) level, drainage blood loss, transfusion rate, and amount of packed red cell transfusion were collected. Total red blood cell (RBC) loss was then calculated for the primary outcome. RESULTS The mean calculated total RBC loss in the ABN and conventional group was 669.7 and 630.0 mL, respectively (p = 0.572). There was no significant difference between groups for other evaluated outcome parameters, including postoperative Hct level, drainage blood loss, or packed red cell transfusion volume. All patients in the conventional group required postoperative blood transfusion while 96.8% of patients in the ABN group were transfused. CONCLUSIONS The total RBC loss and volume of packed red cells transfusion were not significant difference between interventions, which suggest no benefit of the ABN system in reducing blood loss and transfusion in patients undergoing SBTKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION The protocol of this study was registered in the Thai Clinical Trials Registry database no. TCTR20201126002 on 26/11/2020.
Tourniquet use for people with peripheral arterial disease undergoing major lower limb amputations
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;7(7):Cd015232
BACKGROUND At least 7000 major lower limb amputations (MLLAs) are performed in the UK each year, 80% of which are due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Intraoperative blood loss can have a deleterious effect on patient outcomes, and its replacement with transfused blood is not without risk. Tourniquets can be used in lower limb surgical procedures to provide a bloodless surgical field, minimise intraoperative blood loss, and reduce perioperative blood transfusion requirements. Although their safety has been demonstrated in certain orthopaedic operations, their use among people with PAD undergoing MLLA remains controversial. Many clinicians are concerned about tourniquets potentially compromising perfusion of the stump and thereby impacting wound healing through direct tissue injury, damage to the arterial supply of the wound, or both. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety and effectiveness of tourniquet use in people undergoing MLLA for complications of PAD, specifically with regard to intraoperative blood loss, change in haemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, wound healing, need for revision surgery, and postoperative complications including mortality. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers from inception to 17 May 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tourniquet use to no tourniquet use among people with PAD undergoing MLLA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methods. Primary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss, fall in haemoglobin levels, and perioperative blood transfusion requirement. Secondary outcomes were primary wound-healing rates, stump revision rates, other postoperative complications defined as per Clavien-Dindo classification, and postoperative mortality at 30 days and at maximal follow-up. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS One RCT met our inclusion criteria, which was a prospective randomised blinded controlled trial conducted in Sheffield, UK in 2006. In total 64 participants undergoing transtibial amputation for non-reconstructable PAD were randomised to either tourniquet or no tourniquet to assess for intraoperative blood loss, fall in haemoglobin, transfusion requirement, wound healing, stump breakdown and revision. Ten participants were excluded postrandomisation (five from the tourniquet group and five from the no tourniquet group). The reported median volume of intraoperative blood loss was significantly less in the tourniquet group (255 mL (interquartile range (IQR) 150 to 572.5 mL))) compared to the control group (550 mL (IQR 255 to 1050 mL)) (P = 0.014). There was a significantly lower median drop in haemoglobin concentration in the tourniquet group (1.0 g/dL (IQR 0.6 to 2.4 g/dL)) compared to the control group (1.8 g/dL (IRQ 0 to 1.2 g/dL)) (P = 0.035). There was a significantly lower perioperative blood transfusion requirement in the tourniquet group (8 participants, 32%) compared to the control group (14 participants, 48%) (P = 0.047). There were no clear differences in wound breakdown, stump revision, primary wound healing at six weeks, postoperative complications (myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema), and death between groups. We assessed the one included study as at low risk of bias for sequence generation and blinding of outcome assessors; high risk of bias for incomplete outcome data and selective outcome reporting; and unclear risk of bias for allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, and other sources of bias. We assessed the certainty of the evidence as low or very low due to risk of bias, small sample size, and the study being insufficiently powered for most outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS This review identified only one small historical RCT evaluating tourniquet use in MLLA. Tourniquets appeared to reduce intraoperative blood loss, drop in haemoglobin, and blood transfusion requirements following transtibial amputations for people with PAD. However, it is unclear whether tourniquets affect wound healing, stump revision rates, postoperative complications, or mortality. High-certainty evidence is required to inform clinical decision-making for the use of tourniquets in these patients.
Tourniquet use in ankle arthroscopy: A systematic review
Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. 2023
BACKGROUND Ankle arthroscopy is commonly performed using a thigh tourniquet and is thought to improve visibility and reduce operative time. However, the current evidence is unclear as to whether the use of a tourniquet provides these benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any clinical benefit of using a tourniquet in ankle arthroscopy. METHODS A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken. All clinical studies published in Medline, Embase, PubMed and the Cochrane Library Database from inception until January 2023 reporting on the use of a tourniquet in ankle arthroscopy were included. RESULTS 180 studies were identified of which 3 (164 patients) met the inclusion criteria. All studies showed no statistically significant difference in mean surgical time and complication rate between the tourniquet and non-tourniquet groups. Overall, the quality of the evidence was moderate to poor without data in favour or against the routine use of tourniquets in ankle arthroscopy. CONCLUSION The current literature suggests that there are no significant differences in mean surgical time and complication rate between the tourniquet and non-tourniquet groups.
Hemostatic effect and safety evaluation of oxidized regenerated cellulose in total knee arthroplasty- a randomized controlledtrial
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):797
BACKGROUND Oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) is a type of biodegradable hemostatic material, which has been widely used in the field of surgery. However, its hemostatic effect in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is uncertain. Accordingly, this study investigated the effectiveness and safety of ORC in patients receiving TKA. METHODS Seventy patients undergoing unilateral TKA were randomized into blank control group and ORC (2 pieces of ORC placed in the joint cavity) groups. Then, the two groups were compared for primary (perioperative blood loss [total blood loss, intraoperative blood loss, and hidden blood loss] and hemoglobin drop values) and secondary (coagulation indicators, inflammatory indicators,operation time, and complication rates) outcomes. RESULTS The total blood loss in the ORC group was 902.32 ± 307.82 mL, which was statistically significantly lower than that in the control group (1052.25 ± 308.44 mL) (P < 0.05). Postoperative hidden blood loss was also statistically markedly lower in the ORC group (801.61 ± 298.80 mL) than in the control group (949.96 ± 297.59 mL) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of coagulation indicators, inflammatory indicators, operation time, and complication rates. CONCLUSION In conclusion, our prospective RCT study proved that regenerated oxidized cellulose can be used safely in vivo and can effectively reduce postoperative blood loss in patients, which is a potential method for preventing blood loss after TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION This prospective RCT was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Honghui Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (No: 202,211,007) and was designed and conducted according to the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from patients or their legal guardians.
Bone wax reduces blood loss after total hip arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized controlled study
Frontiers in medicine. 2023;10:1246733
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of bone wax in reducing blood loss in various orthopedic surgeries. However, the effect of bone wax on total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of bone wax in THA. METHODS We enrolled 104 patients in this randomized controlled trial. These patients were randomized (1:1) to either the bone wax or control group. The primary outcome was total blood loss after THA. The secondary outcomes included serum hemoglobin (Hb) level, change in Hb level, lower limb diameters on the first and third postoperative day (POD), range of motion at discharge, length of postoperative hospital stay, and adverse events. RESULTS Patients in the bone wax group had significantly lower total blood loss on PODs 1 and 3 (p < 0.05). Moreover, patients in the bone wax group performed better in terms of postoperative serum Hb level, change in Hb level on PODs 1 and 3, and length of postoperative hospital stay (all p < 0.05). Patients in the bone wax group did not experience any bone wax-related adverse events. CONCLUSION Bone wax administration in THA significantly reduced perioperative blood loss. Therefore, bone wax is promising for optimizing blood-conserving management protocols in THA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION [https://clinicaltrials.gov/], identifier [ChiCTR2100043868].