Combined and intravenous administration of TXA reduces blood loss more than topical administration in primary total knee arthroplasty: A randomized clinical trial
Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia. 2022;166(1):68-76
AIM: To determine the most effective administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). MATERIAL AND METHOD We enrolled a total of 400 patients (154 men and 346 women) in this randomized trial (4 groups, each of 100 patients). The first group (IV1) had a single intravenous dose (15 mg TXA/kg) prior to skin incision. Group 2 (IV2) had TXA in 2 intravenous doses (15 mg TXA/kg): prior to skin incision and 6 hours after the first dose. Group 3 (TOP) had 2 g TXA in 50 mL of saline irrigated topically at the end of the surgery. The fourth group (COMB) combined IV1 and TOP regimens. We monitored the amount of total blood loss (TBL), haemoglobin drop, use of blood transfusions (BTs), and complications in each patient. RESULTS The amount of TBL was significantly lower in IV1, IV2 and COMB regimens compared to the TOP (P<0.0001). The lowest decrease in haemoglobin within 12 hours after surgery was observed in intravenous regimens (P=0.045). A significant difference in haemoglobin decrease on day 1 after the surgery was demonstrated in the COMB and intravenous regimens (P=0.011). CONCLUSION In primary TKA, it is preferable to administer TXA intravenously in two doses or in a combined regimen. Simple topical administration of TXA was not as effective and is indicated only in cases where systemic administration of TXA is contraindicated. No substantial complications occurred in either group of patients.
Tranexamic acid combined with compression dressing reduces blood loss in gluteal muscle contracture surgery
BMC surgery. 2022;22(1):46
BACKGROUND Blood loss and incision-related complications caused by the surgical procedure to release gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) put negative effects on the surgical outcomes. Current procedures to prevent blood loss and complications are not satisfactory. The current study aimed to determine whether tranexamic acid (TXA) in combination with pressure dressing reduce the amount of blood loss, the rate of incision-related complications, and the rate of readmission for patients undergoing surgeries to release GMC. METHODS 49 GMC patients were finally included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: study group and control group. Patients in both groups received minimally invasive surgery to release GMC except that in the study group, patients were administered a dosage of 20 mg/kg of intravenous TXA preoperatively, and 2 subsequent dosages of TXA at 10 mg/kg at two time points: 3 and 6 h after the first dose. Gauze soaked with TXA was used to pack the wound for 10 min before the incision closure. Then the wound was pressure-wrapped with a hip-spica bandage for 24 h after the surgery in the study group. RESULTS The level of UBL in the study group was significantly lower compared to that in the control group. Similar results were also found for UMHD and UMAD. The incision-related postoperative complications were greatly decreased in the study group compared to those of the control group as well. So was the 30-day readmission rate. All patients in both groups reached "excellent" or "good" level with respect to the postoperative function evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous and topical application of TXA combined with 24 h pressure hip-spica bandage reduces perioperative blood loss, rate of incision-related complications, and the rate of readmission for GMC patients undergoing minimally invasive surgical releasing procedure. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical and Trial Registry ChiCTR2000039216, registration date 2020/10/22, retrospectively registered.
Influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) analogues on healing and clinical outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery: a systematic review
European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie. 2022
PURPOSE To systematically review the effect of PRP on healing (vascularization, inflammation and ligamentization) and clinical outcomes (pain, knee function and stability) in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction and compare the preparation and application of PRP. METHODS Independent systematic searches of online databases (Medline, Embase and Web of Science) were conducted following PRISMA guidelines (final search 10th July 2021). Studies were screened against inclusion criteria and risk of bias assessed using Critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) Randomised controlled trial (RCT) checklist. Independent data extraction preceded narrative analysis. RESULTS 13 RCTs were included. The methods of PRP collection and application were varied. Significant early increases in rate of ligamentization and vascularisation were observed alongside early decreases in inflammation. No significant results were achieved in the later stages of the healing process. Significantly improved pain and knee function was found but no consensus reached. CONCLUSIONS PRP influences healing through early vascularisation, culminating in higher rates of ligamentization. Long-term effects were not demonstrated suggesting the influence of PRP is limited. No consensus was reached on the impact of PRP on pain, knee stability and resultant knee function, providing avenues for further research. Subsequent investigations could incorporate multiple doses over time, more frequent observation and comparisons of different forms of PRP. The lack of standardisation of PRP collection and application techniques makes comparison difficult. Due to considerable heterogeneity, (I(2) > 50%), a formal meta-analysis was not possible highlighting the need for further high quality RCTs to assess the effectiveness of PRP. The biasing towards young males highlights the need for a more diverse range of participants to make the study more applicable to the general population. TRAIL REGISTRATION CRD42021242078CRD, 15th March 2021, retrospectively registered.
Leukocyte-Rich and Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma in Rotator Cuff Repair: A Meta-analysis
International journal of sports medicine. 2022
To systematically review of randomized controlled trials(RCTs) to compared the effects of leukocyte-rich and leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Two independent reviewers comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Comparison of leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma or leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repair in a level I RCTs. Methodological quality assessment was carried out using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3 software. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Nine RCTs with 540 patients were included in this review. Meta-analysis showed that leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in significantly reduced retear rate in rotator cuff repair [RR=0.56 95%CI (0.42,0.75); P＜0.05), and in clinical results, the constant score [MD=3.67, 95%CI (1.62,5.73); P=0.0005], UCLA score [MD=1.60, 95%CI (0.79,2.42); P=0.0001], ASES score [MD=2.16, 95%CI(0.12,4.20);P=0.04] were significantly improved. There was a significant result in favor of PRP for the Constant score [MD=-1.24, 95%CI(-1.50,-0.99); P＜0.00001], while SST scores were not significantly different among all groups [MD=0.21, 95%CI(-0.21,0.64); P=0.32]. In conclusion, leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma can improved the clinical function and reduced retear rate in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In contrast, the efficacy of leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma was not significantly improved with the exception of VAS score.
Administration of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Intra-articular Hemarthrosis in ACL Reconstruction: A Systematic Review
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2022;10(1):23259671211061726
BACKGROUND Although tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce bleeding in joint replacement procedures, its effectiveness for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has not been widely reported. PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of TXA to reduce postoperative hemarthrosis and improve clinical outcomes after ACLR. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS A systematic review of the literature following the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was performed; literature retrieval was carried out using the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases. The inclusion criteria were comparative studies in English that reported the administration of intravenous or intra-articular TXA versus other modalities or placebo in patients undergoing ACLR. RESULTS Six studies comprising 418 patients who were treated with TXA were included. Heterogeneity among studies did not allow for the pooling of data. Five studies showed decreased drainage volume in the first 24 or 48 hours postoperatively as compared with control (ACLR with no TXA). Four studies showed lower hemarthrosis grades and visual analog scale scores in TXA versus control in the early postoperative period, although this difference was not evident at 4 weeks postoperatively. No studies showed differences in infection, deep venous thrombosis, or adverse events between the TXA and control groups. CONCLUSION The current best available evidence suggests that TXA administration at the time of ACLR results in decreased intra-articular bleeding (measured using a drainage system), hemarthrosis grade, and pain when compared with control.
Serum Levels of VWF, t-PA, TNF-α, and ICAM-1 in Patients Receiving Hemocoagulase Combined with Platelet-Rich Plasma during Total Hip Replacement
Genetics research. 2022;2022:2766215
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate the effect of hemocoagulase combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in total hip replacement (THR) on reducing bleeding and improving knee joint function in the patients with osteoarthritis. METHODS From February 2018 to February 2020, 80 osteoarthritis patients undergoing THR were included in the study, of which 40 cases were treated with PRP and hemocoagulase (test group) in the joint capsule in THR and the other 40 cases received saline and thrombin in the joint capsule after THR (control group). Postoperative drainage and corresponding functional exercise were performed for the two groups 12 hours after operation. The outcome measures including operation time, soft-tissue release, blood routine, drainage volume, perioperative blood loss, postoperative incision inflammation, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and range of motion (ROM) of the joint were recorded. RESULTS The hemoglobin and hematocrit values of the test group on the second postoperative day were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The postoperative drainage volume and perioperative blood loss were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The test group was better than the control group in the ROM of the joint at 7 and 15 days after the operation (P < 0.05). A lower value of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time was revealed in the test group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the operation time, intraoperative soft-tissue release, postoperative incision inflammation, incidence of DVT, incidence of deep infection, and ROM at day 90 after THR was found in the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The application of hemocoagulase combined with PRP in THR can reduce perioperative blood loss, increase wound healing speed and quality, and improve coagulation and immune function. It is a safe and effective method for the patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent THR.
A prospective randomized study, use of closed suction drainage after revision hip arthroplasty may lead to excessive blood loss
Scientific reports. 2022;12(1):881
Suction drainage after primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) offers no benefits. Revision hip arthroplasties (RHA) are more demanding procedures and associated with greater blood loss compared to primary cases. There is still a lack of literature regarding the application of drainage in RHA. A total of 40 patients who underwent RHA were included in this prospective study. Simple randomization with an allocation ratio 1:1 was performed. Primary outcomes: total blood loss, hemoglobin drop, joint hematoma size in USG, infection. Secondary outcomes: blood transfusion rate, soft tissue hematomas, C-reactive protein levels, Visual Analogue Scale before and on 3rd day after surgery, Harris Hip Score before and 6 weeks after surgery. An intention to treat analysis was performed, with a 2-year follow up. Statistically significant differences between groups was in blood loss: drainage 1559.78 ml, non-drainage 1058.27 ml, (p = 0.029) and hemoglobin level on 1st day after surgery: drainage 10.58 g/dl, non-drainage 11.61 g/dl (p = 0.0496). In terms of the other analyzed parameters, statistical differences were not found. Our study revealed that the use of suction drainage may lead to higher blood loss in the early postoperative period. Further studies are needed to evaluate our results.
Intra-articular Versus Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Primary Total Knee Replacement
Background Total knee replacement (TKR) is an artificial joint surgical procedure that replaces the damaged articular surfaces of the knee joint. Despite several studies on the efficacy of intra-articular and intravenous Tranexamic acid (TX) use in reducing blood loss following TKR, the route of TXA administration is still an ongoing topic of debate. Our study aimed to compare total knee replacement efficacy (hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, hospital stay, and complications) of intra-articular and intravenous tranexamic acid administration. Material and Methods A Prospective study was conducted at the Department of Orthopedics, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad. The study duration was six months (August 2020 to February 2021). A sample size of 60 patients was calculated using the WHO calculator. Patients were selected through non-probability consecutive sampling. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group A was given intraarticular TXA, while group B was given intra-venous TXA following total knee replacement. Patients were followed for 48 hours. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24. An Independent T-test was applied, and a P value≤0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 60 patients were included in the study. There were 20 (33.3%) male and female 40 (66.7%). The mean age of patients was 64.4±10.8SD. Post-operative hemoglobin level in group A was 11.09±0.39SD, and in group B was 9.93±1.73SD (p=0.03). Postoperatively, the mean HCT level in group A was 30.53±4.26SD and group B 26.88±5.48SD (p=0.01). Conclusion Intra-articular administration of TXA is more effective than intravenous administration in controlling postoperative blood loss following total knee replacement.
Scaling up Quality Improvement for Surgical Teams (QIST)-avoiding surgical site infection and anaemia at the time of surgery: a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives to introduce change in the NHS
Implementation science : IS. 2022;17(1):22
BACKGROUND The aim of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives to implement large-scale change in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, specifically for improving outcomes in patients undergoing primary, elective total hip or knee replacement. METHODS We undertook a two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the roll-out of two preoperative pathways: methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) decolonisation (infection arm) and anaemia screening and treatment (anaemia arm). NHS Trusts are public sector organisations that provide healthcare within a geographical area. NHS Trusts (n = 41) in England providing primary, elective total hip and knee replacements, but that did not have a preoperative anaemia screening or MSSA decolonisation pathway in place, were randomised to one of the two parallel collaboratives. Collaboratives took place from May 2018 to November 2019. Twenty-seven Trusts completed the trial (11 anaemia, 16 infection). Outcome data were collected for procedures performed between November 2018 and November 2019. Co-primary outcomes were perioperative blood transfusion (within 7 days of surgery) and deep surgical site infection (SSI) caused by MSSA (within 90 days post-surgery) for the anaemia and infection trial arms, respectively. Secondary outcomes were deep and superficial SSIs (any organism), length of hospital stay, critical care admissions and unplanned readmissions. Process measures included the proportion of eligible patients receiving each preoperative initiative. RESULTS There were 19,254 procedures from 27 NHS Trusts included in the results (6324 from 11 Trusts in the anaemia arm, 12,930 from 16 Trusts in the infection arm). There were no improvements observed for blood transfusion (anaemia arm 183 (2.9%); infection arm 302 (2.3%) transfusions; adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 0.52-2.75, p = 0.67) or MSSA deep SSI (anaemia arm 8 (0.13%); infection arm 18 (0.14%); adjusted odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.42-2.46, p = 0.98). There were no significant improvements in any secondary outcome. This is despite process measures showing the preoperative pathways were implemented for 73.7% and 61.1% of eligible procedures in the infection and anaemia arms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Quality improvement collaboratives did not result in improved patient outcomes in this trial; however, there was some evidence they may support successful implementation of new preoperative pathways in the NHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION Prospectively registered on 15 February 2018, ISRCTN11085475.
A randomized controlled trial: Comparison of one-per-mil tumescent technique and tourniquet in surgery for burn hand contracture in creating clear operative field and assessment of functional outcome
Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2022
BACKGROUND This study aims to compare the use of one-per-mil tumescent solution (a mixture of epinephrine and 0.2% lidocaine in a ratio of 1:1,000,000 in normal saline solution) and tourniquet to create clear operative fields and to evaluate the functional outcomes after post burn hand contracture surgery. METHODS The subjects of this randomized controlled trial were divided into one-permil tumescent technique and tourniquet group for a similar surgical procedure. Three independent assessors evaluated the clarity of the operative fields through recorded videos for the first 15 min and the first 10-minute of each hour of the surgery. Functional outcome was evaluated at least three months postoperatively using total active and passive motion (TAM and TPM) of each digit. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were tested during baseline (5 min before the procedures), ischemia phase, and reperfusion phase (a phase when the blood flow returned to the tissue). RESULTS 35 subjects were included in this study: 17 in the tumescent group and 18 in the tourniquet group. We found a significant difference in the clarity of operative field between tumescent and tourniquet groups, 5 vs 35 bloodless operative fields, respectively (p < 0.05). TAM and TPM of each digit before surgery and 3 months postoperatively showed no significant difference between both groups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, we found no difference in MDA and TNF-α levels between both groups at their respective phases. CONCLUSIONS The use of one-per-mil tumescent technique does not replace tourniquet use to create bloodless operative fields in burned hand contracture surgery. However, the postoperative functional results were similar in both groups showing that tumescent technique can be used as an alternative to tourniquet without compromising outcomes. The MDA and TNF-α examinations do not provide conclusive outcomes regarding ischemia and reperfusion injury.