Time to Total Knee Arthroplasty after Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid or Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(14)
Intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are increasingly being prescribed for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, failure of the medical treatment may result in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We wondered if IA HA or PRP injections (intervention) may delay the time to TKA (outcome) among KOA patients (population), compared to KOA patients not receiving these injections (comparator). For this systematic literature review (SLR) and meta-analysis, we selected observational studies with at least one group of patients receiving IA HA or PRP and with TKA data available. The main outcome was time from the diagnosis of KOA to TKA. We included 25 articles in the SLR (2,824,401 patients) and four in the meta-analysis. The mean strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) score was 63%. For patients receiving versus not receiving HA injections, the delay between a declared diagnosis of KOA to TKA was increased by 9.8 months (95% CI (8.2-11.4)). As compared with standard of care, the effect size of HA injections for this outcome was 0.57 (95% CI (0.36-0.76)). Only one study described a median time from PRP injections to TKA of 4.1 years (range 0.3-14.7). IA HA injections were associated with increased time to TKA. Causality cannot be concluded because of missing confounder factors as comorbidities. Data were insufficient to conclude any effect of PRP injections on TKA delay.
Do the New Protocols of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Centrifugation Allow Better Control of Postoperative Complications and Healing After Surgery of Impacted Lower Third Molar? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2022
PURPOSE Platelet concentrate generation protocols have undergone several modifications in recent years; in light of this new development, this study review aims to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and the new centrifugation protocols, advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF), and leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), after extraction of impacted mandibular third molar. Specifically, we assessed pain control, edema, trismus, and soft tissue healing, and also measured the degree of periodontal regeneration adjacent to the second molar. METHODS PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Virtual health library (BVS), and Cochrane Library were searched up to Julye 202; randomized controlled studies were included. This report followed the PRISMA statement and PICO questions. This review has been registered at PROSPERO under the number CRD42019136701. The risk of bias screening and data extraction was performed according to the guidelines recommended by Cochrane. The quantitative analysis was performed using RevMan version 5.4. RESULTS Of 17 studies included in the systematic review, 11 were eligible for the meta-analysis. The use of L-PRF was not associated with better soft tissue healing at day 7. (SMD = -0.70; 95% confidence interval, -3.50 to 2.10; Z = 0.49; P = .62; Pheterogeneity = 0.00001; I(2) = 97%). With L-PRF, qualitative analysis revealed better pocket depth and insertion level, and also better pain control at 1 and 3 days. With A-PRF, a lower consumption of analgesics was observed than with L-PRF. With both A-PRF and L-PRF, better control of edema (but not trismus) was observed. CONCLUSIONS The use of L-PRF and A-PRF allows better control of pain and edema compared with the use of standard PRF protocols, but neither has an effect on trismus. The PRF and L-PRF protocols improve soft tissue healing, although not to a statistically significant degree; however, they could improve probing depth at the third month after third molar surgery.
The role of Platelet Rich Plasma and other orthobiologics in bone healing and fracture management: A systematic review
Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma. 2022;25:101759
BACKGROUND Treatment of large bone defects and fracture healing complications (delayed and non-union) presents a substantial challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Given that bone healing requires mechanical stability as well as a favourable biological microenvironment, orthobiologics such as Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) may have a significant clinical role to play. AIMS To perform a systematic review of the available literature to assess the clinical effect of PRP, with or without other orthobiologics, on bone healing. METHOD Two independent reviewers performed the literature search based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Clinical studies of any evidence, assessing effect of PRP with or without other orthobiologics on bone healing, were included. A qualitative analysis was carried out on the clinical and radiological outcomes reported. RESULT 27 articles with 1631 patients (mean age = 43.56, 57.1% male, mean follow-up = 17.27 months) were included in the qualitative. Of the 27 studies, 13 dealt with fracture complications (delayed or non-unions), 7 with acute fracture healing, 4 with tibial osteotomies and lengthening procedures and 3 with lumbar spine pathology. 18/27 studies showed a clinical benefit of PRP, 8/27 showed no significant effect, and 1/27 showed a worse outcome with PRP. CONCLUSION Our review suggests PRP may play a clinical role in bone healing but further randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using standardised outcomes should be performed to establish its efficacy.
Leukocyte-Rich and Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma in Rotator Cuff Repair: A Meta-analysis
International journal of sports medicine. 2022
To systematically review of randomized controlled trials(RCTs) to compared the effects of leukocyte-rich and leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Two independent reviewers comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Comparison of leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma or leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repair in a level I RCTs. Methodological quality assessment was carried out using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3 software. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Nine RCTs with 540 patients were included in this review. Meta-analysis showed that leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma in significantly reduced retear rate in rotator cuff repair [RR=0.56 95%CI (0.42,0.75); P＜0.05), and in clinical results, the constant score [MD=3.67, 95%CI (1.62,5.73); P=0.0005], UCLA score [MD=1.60, 95%CI (0.79,2.42); P=0.0001], ASES score [MD=2.16, 95%CI(0.12,4.20);P=0.04] were significantly improved. There was a significant result in favor of PRP for the Constant score [MD=-1.24, 95%CI(-1.50,-0.99); P＜0.00001], while SST scores were not significantly different among all groups [MD=0.21, 95%CI(-0.21,0.64); P=0.32]. In conclusion, leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma can improved the clinical function and reduced retear rate in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In contrast, the efficacy of leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma was not significantly improved with the exception of VAS score.
Influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) analogues on healing and clinical outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery: a systematic review
European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie. 2022
PURPOSE To systematically review the effect of PRP on healing (vascularization, inflammation and ligamentization) and clinical outcomes (pain, knee function and stability) in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction and compare the preparation and application of PRP. METHODS Independent systematic searches of online databases (Medline, Embase and Web of Science) were conducted following PRISMA guidelines (final search 10th July 2021). Studies were screened against inclusion criteria and risk of bias assessed using Critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) Randomised controlled trial (RCT) checklist. Independent data extraction preceded narrative analysis. RESULTS 13 RCTs were included. The methods of PRP collection and application were varied. Significant early increases in rate of ligamentization and vascularisation were observed alongside early decreases in inflammation. No significant results were achieved in the later stages of the healing process. Significantly improved pain and knee function was found but no consensus reached. CONCLUSIONS PRP influences healing through early vascularisation, culminating in higher rates of ligamentization. Long-term effects were not demonstrated suggesting the influence of PRP is limited. No consensus was reached on the impact of PRP on pain, knee stability and resultant knee function, providing avenues for further research. Subsequent investigations could incorporate multiple doses over time, more frequent observation and comparisons of different forms of PRP. The lack of standardisation of PRP collection and application techniques makes comparison difficult. Due to considerable heterogeneity, (I(2) > 50%), a formal meta-analysis was not possible highlighting the need for further high quality RCTs to assess the effectiveness of PRP. The biasing towards young males highlights the need for a more diverse range of participants to make the study more applicable to the general population. TRAIL REGISTRATION CRD42021242078CRD, 15th March 2021, retrospectively registered.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Lowers Retear Rates and Improves Short-Term Postoperative Functional Outcome Scores: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Arthroscopy, sports medicine, and rehabilitation. 2022;4(2):e823-e833
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears. We will (1) conduct a systematic review of the current meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma available in the literature, (2) evaluate the quality of these meta-analyses using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) methodology, (3) identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears, and develop guidance to improve future studies in this area. METHODS We carried out a systematic review of previous meta-analyses published on the clinical outcomes of PRP used in the treatment of rotator cuff tears. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases, using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "rotator cuff" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human meta-analysis studies involving the repair of the rotator cuff tendon surgically in the English language. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcomes. Following this, a meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS Thirteen meta-analyses met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All were considered of similar quality with Oxman-Guyatt index of 9 and PRISMA score of more than 24. A total of 1,800 patients with an average follow up of 12 to 36 months. The use of PRP for arthroscopic rotator cuff tear, when compared with controls, leads to a lower number of retears, improved short-term postoperative scores, and functional outcome. The following postoperative scores were reported: Constant: 12, Simple Shoulder Test: 10, ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons): 9, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) 11, SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation) 1, VAS (visual analog scale): 6, and Retears: 13. Subgroup analysis showed that leukocyte content and gel application make no difference in the effectiveness of PRP. VAS score subgroup analysis showed short-term pain relief. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PRP is effective in reducing retears after rotator cuff repair and improving functional outcome scores and reducing short-term pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level III, systematic review of Level I-III studies.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma on meniscus repair surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can enhance the effect of meniscus repair, but some studies have suggested different views on the role of PRP. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether PRP can enhance the effect of meniscus repair with respect to pain reduction and improved functionality and cure rate in patients with meniscus injury. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library Databases, clinicaltrials.gov, and the CNKI Database were searched from their inception till December 1, 2020. The RCTs reporting the outcomes of the Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Lysholm score, healing rate, and adverse events were included. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane collaborative tools. The simulated results were expressed with effect size and 95% confidence interval, and sensitivity and subgroup analysis were performed. RESULTS The meta-analysis included 8 RCTs and 431 participants. Compared with the control group, use of PRP during meniscus surgery significantly improved the VAS (SMD: -0.40, P = .002, 95%CI: -0.66 to -0.15) and Lysholm score (MD: 3.06, P < .0001, 95%CI: 1.70-4.42) of meniscus injury, but the PRP showed no benefit in improving the healing rate of meniscus repair (RR: 1.22, P = .06, 95%CI: 0.99-1.51). No serious adverse events were reported in any study. CONCLUSIONS PRP is safe and effective in improving the effect of meniscus repair as augment. High quality RCTs with long follow-up and definitive results are needed in the future to confirm the use and efficacy of PRP in meniscus tears.
Efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A network meta-analysis of different injection treatments
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:906075
Purpose: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common form of median nerve compression in the wrist caused by focal peripheral neuropathy. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy could improve the healing ability by exposing the injured tissues to high concentrations of autologous growth factors. Our study aims to compare all injective treatments for CTS and assess the efficacy and priority of PRP therapy. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, and Clinicaltrial.gov until 17 October 2022. We only included data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated PRP injection therapy or drug injection therapy. The included RCTs measured at least one of the following three outcomes with validated instruments: in the visual analog scale (VAS), symptom severity scale (SSS), and functional status scale (FSS). Results: Overall, 19 studies with 1,066 patients were included in this study. We used the SUCRA rankings to determine the merits of various therapies. In all, 5% dextrose injections were the best treatment strategy for the VAS (MD -1.22, 95% CI -2.66 to 0.23; SUCRA = 79.2%), followed by triamcinolone (high-dose) injections (MD -0.69, 95% CI -2.11 to 0.73; SUCRA = 62.7%) and PRP injections (MD -0.39, 95% CI -1.67 to 0.89; SUCRA = 60.0%). In the SSS, the most effective intervention was hydroxyprogesterone injections (MD -0.62, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.16; SUCRA = 91.0%). The SUCRA ranking of PRP was second only to steroids and estrogen (MD -0.39, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.18; SUCRA = 60.8%). In the FSS, the best regimen strategy was hydroxyprogesterone injections (MD 0.12, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.54; SUCRA = 99.5%), followed by triamcinolone (low-dose) injections (MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.49; SUCRA = 87.4%) and PRP injections (MD -0.26, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.09; SUCRA = 77.1%). Conclusion: PRP is an alternative choice for CTS treatment. PRP injection is second only to steroids and estrogen in the treatment efficacy of CTS, with a wide indication and safe outcome.
Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Clinical Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2022;10(1):23259671211061535
BACKGROUND Many studies have documented the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) alongside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in the management of ACL injury, but evidence on the benefits of PRP in improving the clinical outcomes of ACLR is inconsistent. PURPOSE To help in our understanding, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of PRP on patient-reported functional scores, the clinical assessments of knee function and structure, and complications. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS We searched 9 online databases for RCTs published in English or Chinese that examined the effects of PRP on ACLR. The primary outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. The secondary outcomes included KT-1000 arthrometer, pivot-shift test, Lysholm and Tegner scores, tunnel widening, graft characterization, and complications. Subgroup analyses were performed according to time of assessments. Fixed- and random-effects models were selected for data analysis. RESULTS A total of 14 studies were included. When PRP was injected to graft tunnels, the pooled VAS scores of the 2 groups were similar (P = .31), and the subgroup analysis found that VAS and IKDC only improved at 3 months postoperatively (P = .0003 and P < .00001, respectively). When PRP was used at the bone-patellar tendon-bone harvest sites, VAS was decreased in the first 6 months postoperatively (P < .00001), whereas IKDC score was not remarkably different (P = .07). After PRP injection, Lysholm scores at 3 months postoperatively was different between the 2 groups (P < .00001), but the Tegner scores (P = .86), KT-1000 measurements (P = .12), the positive rate of pivot-shift test (P = .64), the enlargement of tunnels (femoral, P = .91; tibial, P = .80), and the characterization of grafts (P = .05) were not different. No difference in complications was found in either group. CONCLUSION PRP applied alongside ACLR could reduce postoperative pain and improve knee function in the short and medium terms but is ineffective in the long term. PRP does not improve knee stability and the enlargement of tunnels and does not accelerate the healing of grafts. Further studies would be required.
Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Orthopaedic surgery. 2022
This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for patients operated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Databases of PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were independently retrieved by two authors, for identifying the eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical and imaging outcomes of ACL reconstructed patients augmented with or without PRP. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was utilized to assess the risk of bias of the included trials. We qualitatively synthesized the outcomes include the image evaluations on the healing of bone tunnels, graft remodeling, donor site healing and tunnel widening, and clinical evaluations on knee stability and function, pain symptom by visual analogue scale (VAS), inflammatory parameters and so on. A total of 16 RCTs, including 1025 patients, were included for eligibility. Generally, the included studies were of low risk of bias, but the conducting of allocation concealment was not clearly described in many studies. Three imaging techniques, including MRI, CT and ultrasound, were selected in these trials. Significant improvement on graft remodeling, bone tunnel healing, harvest site healing and bone tunnel diameters were demonstrated in one of five (20.0%), three of five (60.0%), two of four (50.0%) and one of five (20.0%) studies respectively, for PRP group. Various clinical outcomes, such as IKDC score, Lysholm score, Tegner score, knee anteroposterior and rotational laxity, range of motion and VAS, could not be improved with PRP application. The PRP is associated with very limited role in improving knee outcomes following ACLR, and there is no indication for PRP procedures in ACLR at this stage.