Exploration on the effect of predeposit autotransfusion on bone marrow hematopoiesis after femoral shaft fracture
Li ZZ, Wang H, Jia DL, Wang JH, Jia-Ming X, Li M, Guo JR
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2020
OBJECTIVE By observing the changes in the number and activity of CD34+ cells in bone marrow after predeposit autotransfusion (PAT) to patients with femoral shaft fracture (FSF), to evaluate the effects of PAT on hematopoietic function and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. METHODS Selected FSF patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (patients did not receive blood transfusion after surgery) and PAT group (patients received PAT after surgery). The content of RBC and Plt in blood samples were counted by blood routine. The cell cycle and proportion of CD34+ myelinated cells in blood samples was analyzed by flow cytometry. The telomere DNA length of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the control groups and PAT group at postoperation 24 was analyzed by southern blot. RESULTS The content of RBC and Plt in postoperation 6h and 24h in the control group was evidently higher compared to that in PAT group, while Hb content in control group was significantly lower compared to that in PAT group. The proportion of CD34+ myelinated cells in post-transfusion 6h and postoperation 24h in PAT group was evidently higher compared to that in the control group. In PAT group, S phase at postoperation 24h was significantly larger compared to that at post-transfusion 6h. The telomere DNA length of HSCs in PAT group was longer than that in the control group. CONCLUSION PAT can increase the number of HSC, while doesn't cause the abnormal aging of HSCs. PAT is suitable for postoperative blood transfusion of patients with FSF.
Restrictive versus liberal strategy for red blood-cell transfusion in hip fracture patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Zhu C, Yin J, Wang B, Xue Q, Gao S, Xing L, Wang H, Liu W, Liu X
BACKGROUND Most clinical guidelines recommend a restrictive red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusion threshold. However, indications for transfusion in patients with a hip fracture have not been definitively evaluated or remain controversial. We compared the pros and cons of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) to investigate the effects of a restrictive strategy versus its liberal counterpart in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The main clinical outcomes included delirium, mortality, infections, cardiogenic complications, thromboembolic events, cerebrovascular accidents, and length of hospital stay. The meta-analysis program of the Cochrane Collaboration (RevMan version 5.3.0) was used for data analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by both Cochran chi-squared test (Q test) and I test. Both Begg and Egger tests were used to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS We identified 7 eligible RCTs and 2 eligible RCSs, involving 3,575 patients in total. In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, we found no differences in frequency of delirium, mortality, the incidence rates of all infections, pneumonia, wound infection, all cardiovascular events, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic events or length of hospital stay between restrictive and liberal thresholds for RBC transfusion (P >.05). However, we found that the use of restrictive transfusion thresholds is associated with higher rates of acute coronary syndrome (P <.05) while liberal transfusion thresholds increase the risk of cerebrovascular accidents (P <.05). CONCLUSION In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, clinicians should evaluate the patient's condition in detail and adopt different transfusion strategies according to the patient's specific situation rather than merely using a certain transfusion strategy.
Blood transfusion and postoperative infection in spine surgery: A systematic review
Fisahn C, Schmidt C, Schroeder J E, Vialle E, Lieberman I H, Dettori J R, Schildhauer T A
Global Spine Journal. 2018;8((2)):198-207.
Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: Allogeneic blood transfusion-related immunomodulation may relatively suppress the immune system, heightening the risk of infection following spine surgery. This systematic review seeks to determine whether allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of postoperative infection and whether there are any factors that modify this association. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and reference lists from included studies were searched from inception to April 20, 2017 to identify studies examining the risk of infection following allogeneic blood transfusion in adult patients receiving surgery for degenerative spine disease. Results: Eleven retrospective cohort or case-control studies, involving 8428 transfusion patients and 43 242 nontransfusion patients, were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Regarding surgical site infection (SSI), the results were mixed with roughly half reporting a significant association. There was an association between allogeneic transfusion and urinary tract infection (UTI) and any infection, but not respiratory tract infection. There was no statistical modifying effect of lumbar versus thoracic surgery on the association of allogeneic transfusion and SSI, though subgroup analyses in 3 of 4 studies reported a statistical association between transfusion and postoperative infections, including SSI, UTI, and any infection within the lumbar spine. Conclusions: This systematic review failed to find a consistent association between allogeneic transfusion and postoperative infection in spine surgery patients. However, these studies were all retrospective with a high or moderately high risk of bias. To properly examine this association an observational prospective study of sufficient power, estimated as 2400 patients, is required.
Restrictive versus liberal strategy for red blood-cell transfusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis in orthopaedic patients
Gu W J, Gu X P, Wu X D, Chen H, Kwong J S W, Zhou L Y, Chen S, Ma Z L
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 2018;100((8)):686-695.
BACKGROUND Current guidelines recommend restrictive criteria for red blood-cell transfusion in most clinical settings. However, patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery may require distinct transfusion criteria since benefits and potential harm often vary considerably based on patient characteristics and surgical procedures. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, especially in important subgroups. METHODS Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials investigating restrictive (mostly a hemoglobin level of 8.0 g/dL or symptomatic anemia) versus liberal (mostly a hemoglobin level of 10.0 g/dL) transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. For the primary outcome of cardiovascular events, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to synthesize the evidence and to assess the effects in different subgroups according to patient characteristics (with versus without preexisting cardiovascular disease) and surgical procedures (hip fracture surgery versus elective arthroplasty). RESULTS Ten trials involving 3,968 participants who underwent hip or knee surgery were included. Mean participant age ranged from 68.7 to 86.9 years. Compared with liberal transfusion, restrictive transfusion increased the risk of cardiovascular events (8 trials; 3,618 participants; relative risk [RR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.98; p = 0.003; with no heterogeneity across all trials), irrespective of preexisting cardiovascular disease (pinteraction = 0.63). In a subgroup analysis, the increase was observed in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.10; p = 0.02), but did not reach significance in those undergoing elective arthroplasty (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.44; p = 0.07). To minimize the bias caused by variations in transfusion threshold, we conducted an analysis that only included trials using 8.0 g/dL hemoglobin or symptomatic anemia as the threshold for restrictive transfusion and obtained identical results (6 trials; 2,872 participants; RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.08; p = 0.01; I = 0%). The 2 arms did not differ with respect to the rates of all infections, 30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, wound infection, pulmonary infection (mainly pneumonia), and cerebrovascular accidents (mainly stroke). CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, when compared with liberal transfusion, restrictive transfusion increases the risk of cardiovascular events irrespective of preexisting cardiovascular disease. Importantly, the increased risk was observed in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery but did not reach significance in those undergoing elective arthroplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Mortality, Morbidity and Related Outcomes Following Perioperative Blood Transfusion in Patients with Major Orthopaedic Surgery: A Systematic Review
Muller S, Oberle D, Drechsel-Bauerle U, Pavel J, Keller-Stanislawski B, Funk MB
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2018;45((5):):355-367.
Background: Benefits and risks of liberal and restrictive transfusion regimens are under on-going controversial discussion. This systematic review aimed at assessing both regimens in terms of pre-defined outcomes with special focus on patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. Methods: We performed a literature search for mortality, morbidity and related outcomes following peri-operative blood transfusion in patients with major orthopaedic surgery in electronic databases. Combined outcome measure estimates were calculated within the scope of meta-analyses including randomised clinical trials comparing restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion regimens (e.g. MH risk ratio, Peto odds ratio). Results: A total of 880 publications were identified 15 of which were finally included (8 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) with 3,693 patients and 6 observational studies with 4,244,112 patients). Regarding RCTs, no significant differences were detected between the transfusion regimes for all primary outcomes (30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, stroke/transitory ischaemic attack, myocardial infarction, wound infection and pneumonia) and a secondary outcome (length of hospital stay), whereas there was a significantly reduced risk of receiving at least one red blood concentrate under a restrictive regimen. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review do not suggest an increased risk associated with either a restrictive or a liberal transfusion regimen in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery.
Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies for red blood cell transfusion after hip or knee surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mao T, Gao F, Han J, Sun W, Guo W, Li Z, Wang W
BACKGROUND Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are commonly used in surgical patients, but accompanied by many risks such as metabolic derangement, and allergic and febrile reactions. Indications for transfusion in patients after hip or knee surgery have not been definitively evaluated and remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the benefits and harms of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies in patients after hip or knee surgery. METHODS The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies through September 2015. The main clinical outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included 30-day mortality, infection rate, cardiogenic complications, and length of hospital stay. The meta-analysis program of the Cochrane Collaboration (RevMan version 5.3.0) was used for data analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by both Cochran chi-squared test (Q test) and I test. Begg and Egger test were used to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS We identified 10 eligible RCTs, involving 3788 patients in total. In patients undergoing hip or knee surgery, we found no differences in mortality, or the incidence rates of pneumonia, wound infection, myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure, between restrictive and liberal thresholds for RBC transfusion (P > .05). CONCLUSION Restrictive transfusion has no advantage over the liberal strategy. However, considerably less patients received blood transfusion via the restrictive strategy than with the liberal counterpart. Due to variations in the included studies, additional larger scale and well-designed studies are required to validate these conclusions.
Transfusion thresholds for major orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mitchell MD, Betesh JS, Ahn J, Hume EL, Mehta S, Umscheid CA
The Journal of Arthroplasty. 2017;32((12):):3815-3821
BACKGROUND More than a million surgeries are performed annually in the United States for hip or knee arthroplasty or hip fracture stabilization. One-fifth of these patients have blood transfusions during their hospital stay. Increases in transfusion rates have caused concern about increased adverse events from unnecessary transfusions. METHODS We systematically reviewed randomized trials examining the effect of restrictive vs liberal transfusion thresholds on patients having major orthopedic surgery. Study results were meta-analyzed with a random-effects model and heterogeneity was tested with the I2 statistic. Study risk of bias was assessed using a modified Jadad scale and evidence strength was measured using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. RESULTS A total of 504 published articles were screened, and 15 met inclusion criteria. The articles described 9 randomized trials, most comparing transfusion thresholds of 8 vs 10 g/dL hemoglobin. All involved hip or knee arthroplasty and/or hip fracture patients. Moderate-strength evidence suggested a reduction in need for transfusion (relative risk, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.71; I2 = 95%) and mean number of units transfused (-0.95 units, 95% CI, -1.48 to -0.41, I2 = 98%). There was a possible reduction in overall infections with more restrictive transfusion thresholds, although the result was not statistically significant (relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47-1.06; I2 = 54%). Moderate-strength evidence suggested no differences in other clinical outcomes between the groups. Limitations included incomplete blinding, inconsistency, and imprecision. CONCLUSION Moderate-strength evidence suggests that restrictive transfusion practices reduce utilization of transfusions and may decrease infections without increasing adverse outcomes in major orthopedic surgery.
Effects of positive suggestions on the need for red blood cell transfusion in orthopedic surgery
Szeverenyi C, Csernatony Z, Balogh A, Simon T, Varga K
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 2016;64((4)):404-18.
This study examined whether positive suggestions applied without a hypnotic induction in the perioperative period reduces the need for red blood cell transfusions in patients who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasties with spinal anesthesia. No hypnotic assessment was performed. Ninety-five patients were randomly assigned to the suggestion group (n = 45) and to the control group (n = 50). Patients in the suggestion group received verbal suggestions before and audiotaped suggestions during the surgery for reducing blood loss, anxiety, postoperative pain, and fast recovery. Our study showed that using positive suggestions in the perioperative period significantly decreases the necessity for transfusion.
Allogeneic blood transfusion is a significant risk factor for surgical-site infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
Kim JL, Park JH, Han SB, Cho IY, Jang KM
The Journal of Arthroplasty. 2016;32((1):):320-325
BACKGROUND Blood loss occurs significantly more frequently during total hip and knee arthroplasty than among any other type of orthopedic operation, which can sometimes lead to requiring a blood transfusion. Although allogeneic blood transfusion has been identified as a risk factor for postoperative surgical-site infection following arthroplasty, results are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to investigate whether having an allogeneic blood transfusion significantly increases the risk for surgical-site infection, particularly after total hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using random-effect models. Using an electronic database search, we selected 6 studies that included data on 21,770 patients and among these studies compared the postoperative infection rate between an allogeneic blood-transfusion exposure group and a nonexposure group. We calculated the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the groups. RESULTS The prevalences of surgical-site infections in our pooled analyses were 2.88% and 1.74% for the transfusion and nontransfusion groups, respectively. The allogeneic blood transfusion group had a significantly higher frequency of surgical-site infections based on pooled analysis using a random-effect model (pooled odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.40, P = .002). CONCLUSION Allogeneic blood transfusion is a significant risk factor for increasing the surgical-site infection rate after total hip and knee arthroplasty.
Postoperative red blood cell transfusion strategy in frail anemic elderly with hip fracture. A randomized controlled trial
Danish Medical Journal. 2016;63((4))
Hip fracture in the elderly is associated with poor recovery from physical disability and mortality. Perioperative blood loss is common, and anemia might be fatal in the frail elderly. Red blood cell transfusions might increase the risk of infection. In an observational study, a liberal transfusion strategy with hemoglobin (Hb) target of 7 mmol/l (11.3 g/dl) seemed to improve survival in nursing home residents with hip fracture compared to the recommended restrictive strategy with a Hb target of 6 mmol/l (9.7 g/dl) according to the Danish Health Authority. Our aim was to compare these two strategies in the frail elderly in a randomized controlled trial on the outcomes: recovery from physical disabilities, mortality, infection, infection biomarkers, and overall Quality of Life (OQoL). We included 284 elderly admitted to hospital for surgical hip fracture repair from nursing homes or sheltered housing facilities. The anemic patients were assigned postoperatively to the liberal or the restrictive transfusion strategy. Randomization divided each transfusion group into two equal blocks with regard to type of the residence. Hb was measured daily during the first three postoperative days, at least once during the following 4-6 days, then at least once a week during the subsequent three weeks. The transfusions were administered according to group assignments, but no later than 24 hours after the Hb determination, one unit at a time, and no more than two units per day. The intervention lasted for 30 days after surgery. Outcome measurements were performed on days 10, 30, 90, and 365. Blinded assessors evaluated physical performance and OQoL. The liberal transfusion strategy did not improve recovery from physical disabilities, mortality, infection rate, or OQoL compared to the restrictive strategy. However, in nursing home residents, 90-day mortality rate (20%) following the liberal strategy was statistically significantly lower than that (36%) after the restrictive strategy. Per protocol, the 30-day mortality rate was statistically significantly lower following the liberal strategy in all patients (7% versus 16%). No statistically significant difference was found in repeated leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein measurements, or in rate of all infections after ten days (66% versus 72%). Physical recovery from 30 days until one year after hip fracture surgery was improved by the liberal strategy. A liberal strategy did not improve 30-day OQoL. Physical performance was improved from 30 days to one year after fracture in patients treated according to the liberal strategy and was associated with better progress of OQoL in the same period. We conclude that according to our used Hb thresholds, the liberal Hb target of 7 mmol/l (11.3 g/dl) improves survival in the frailest elderly (the nursing home residents) without impairing recovery from physical disabilities and OQoL or increasing risk of infections compared to the restrictive Hb target of 6 mmol/l (9.7 g/dl). The liberal strategy seems to improve recovery of physical performance within one year after hip fracture surgery which was associated with better overall QoL.