Perioperative intravenous iron to treat patients with fractured hip surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Health science reports. 2022;5(3):e633
BACKGROUND Treatment of preoperative anemia with intravenous iron is common within elective surgical care pathways. It is plausible that this treatment may improve care for people with hip fractures many of whom are anemic because of pre-existing conditions, fractures, and surgery. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for intravenous iron administration on outcomes after hip fracture. DESIGN We followed a predefined protocol and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of intravenous iron to treat anemia before and after emergency hip fracture surgery. The planned primary outcome was a difference in length of stay between those treated with intravenous iron and the control group. Other outcomes analyzed were 30-day mortality, requirement for blood transfusion, changes in quality of life, and hemoglobin concentration on discharge from the hospital. DATA SOURCES EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, DARE) databases, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISRCTN trial registries. Date of final search March 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Adult patients undergoing urgent surgery for hip fracture. Studies considered patients who received intravenous iron and were compared with a control group. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials (RCT, 732 patients) and nine cohort studies (2986 patients) were included. The RCTs were at low risk of bias, and the nonrandomized studies were at moderate risk of bias. After metanalysis of the RCTs there was no significant difference in the primary outcome, length of hospital stay, between the control group and patients receiving intravenous iron (mean difference: -0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]; -1.20 to 0.03; I (2) = 30%, p = 0.23). Intravenous iron was not associated with a difference in 30-day mortality (n = 732, OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.62-2.1; I (2) = 0%, p = 0.50), nor with the requirement for transfusion (n = 732, OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1.14; I (2) = 0%, p < 0.01) in the analyzed RCTs. Functional outcomes and quality of life were variably reported in three studies. CONCLUSION The evidence on the use of intravenous iron in patients with hip fracture is low quality and shows no difference in length of acute hospital stay and transfusion requirements in this population. Improved large, multicentre, high-quality studies with patient-centered outcomes will be required to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this treatment.
Intraoperative and Postoperative Iron Supplementation in Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2021
INTRODUCTION Postoperative anemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our primary objective was Postoperative anemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our primary objective was to determine whether perioperative iron supplementation improves postoperative hemoglobin levels in TJA. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects of perioperative iron on adverse events, quality of life, and functional measures in TJA. METHODS We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using six databases. We included English-language, randomized controlled trials investigating intraoperative or postoperative iron supplementation in elective TJA that reported postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients aged 18 years or older. Seven eligible studies were identified, among which substantial heterogeneity was noted. Bias risk was low in four studies, unclear in two studies, and high in one study. Three studies assessed oral iron supplementation, three assessed intravenous iron supplementation, and one compared oral and intravenous iron supplementation. All intravenous iron was administered intraoperatively, except in the oral versus intravenous comparison. RESULTS Postoperative oral iron supplementation had no effect on postoperative hemoglobin levels. Intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation was associated with higher postoperative hemoglobin levels and greater increases in hemoglobin levels. Two studies reported rates of anemia and found that intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation reduced rates of postoperative anemia at postoperative day 30. No adverse events were associated with iron supplementation. One study found that intravenous iron improved quality of life in TJA patients with severe postoperative anemia compared with those treated with oral iron. Perioperative iron had no effects on functional outcomes. DISCUSSION We found no evidence that postoperative oral iron supplementation improves hemoglobin levels, quality of life, or functional outcomes in elective TJA patients. However, intraoperative and postoperative intravenous iron supplementation may accelerate recovery of hemoglobin levels in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Association of iron supplementation with risk of transfusion, hospital length of stay, and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgeries: a meta-analysis
European geriatric medicine. 2021;12(1):5-15
AIMS: To assess the efficacy and safety of iron supplementation for perioperative anemia in geriatric patients with hip fracture. METHODS A systematic search was conducted for studies published using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Databases that compared iron supplementation with placebo in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The outcomes were blood transfusion rate and volume, length of stay, infection and mortality (last follow-up). Sub-group and sensitivity analyses were performed in cases of substantial heterogeneity. RESULTS The meta-analysis (6 studies: 1201 patients) indicated that iron supplements were not associated with reducing blood transfusion rate (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.60-1.41; P = 0.69), but high heterogeneity (I(2) = 61%) was detected and a significant association was found in sensitivity analysis of four studies (n = 637; OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.95; P = 0.02). A significant reduction was detected in transfusion volume (two studies: n = 234; MD - 0.45 units/patient, 95% CI - 0.74 to - 0.16; P = 0.002), hospital stay (five studies: n = 998; MD - 1.42, 95% CI - 2.18 to - 0.67; P = 0.0002) and caused no increased risk of mortality (five studies: n = 937; OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36; P = 0.76) and infection (four studies: n = 701; OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.90; P = 0.01). Sub-group analyses of four studies showed that the preoperative intravenous use of iron at 200-300 mg (two studies) may be the beneficial option for hip fractures patients. CONCLUSIONS Iron supplementation, especially preoperative intravenous use of 200-300 mg iron, is safe and associated with reducing transfusion requirement and hospital stay. Unfortunately, data were too limited to draw a definite conclusion. Further evaluation is required before recommending iron supplementation for older patients with hip fracture surgeries.
Use of preoperative erythropoietin therapy to facilitate autologous blood donation in orthopedic surgery: A meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Autologous blood transfusion helps to avoid or reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing major surgery. We examined the value of erythropoietin therapy to support preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis, Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched from October 26th, 1989 until September 30th, 2017. Primary outcomes were percentages of patients able to donate ≥4 units of blood for autologous transfusion, amount of allogeneic blood transfused, changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels from before PABD to immediately before surgery, and adverse events. RESULTS Of 256 studies identified, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 1914 patients (mean age 51-69 years), of whom 1153 were treated with erythropoietin. Erythropoietin was associated with a greater percentage of patients able to donate ≥4 units of blood for autologous use compared to controls (OR = 6.00, 95% CI = 3.97 to 9.09, P < .001). Patients receiving preoperative erythropoietin had significantly less of a reduction in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels from before PABD to immediately before surgery compared with controls (hematocrit: mean differences = -1.438, 95% CI = -2.14 to -0.73, P < .001; hemoglobin: mean differences = -1.426, 95% CI = -1.78 to -1.07, P < .001). No significant differences were observed in the amount of allogenic blood transfused between patients receiving erythropoietin and controls (difference in means = -0.220, 95% CI = -0.536 to 0.097, P = .174). Patients who received erythropoietin were less likely to experience dizziness than controls, but the incidence of nausea or fatigue were similar between groups. CONCLUSION Erythropoietin therapy during the PABD period results in less of a reduction in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and an increase in the percentage of patients able to donate blood preoperatively.
Effectiveness of iron supplementation in the perioperative management of total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review
Knee surgery & related research. 2020;32(1):44
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation during total knee arthroplasty (TKA): (1) Is the iron supplementation necessary during TKA? (2) When is the optimal timing of iron supplementation? (3) Which is better, between orally and intravenously administered iron supplementation? And (4) What is the optimal dose of iron supplementation? MATERIALS AND METHODS A rigorous and systematic approach was used and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality. Data about study design, total number of cases enrolled, iron administration method, timing, and dose were extracted. Change in hemoglobin and transfusion rates were extracted to evaluate the effectiveness of iron supplementation. RESULTS Eleven studies were included in the final analysis. Most of studies reported that hemoglobin change between iron and control group did not show any difference. Only one study reported that iron supplementation could reduce the decrease in hemoglobin. However, transfusion rate showed a decrease in the iron supplementation group compared with the control group. There was no clear consensus on the optimum timing and dose of iron supplementation and intravenously administered iron was more effective than orally administered iron, especially in anemic patients. CONCLUSION Iron supplementation is not clear as a way to raise hemoglobin levels after TKA, but an effective treatment for lowering transfusion rate, especially in patients with anemia. We could not determine the optimal timing and dose of the iron. Intravenously administered iron was similar to, or better than, orally administered iron for improving hemoglobin levels and transfusion rate.
Preoperative Anemia Treatment With Intravenous Iron in Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery: A Systematic Review
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil. 2020;11:2151459320935094
Introduction: Based upon the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, iron deficiency anemia is the cause of at least 20% of cases of anemia in adults over the age of 65. This is especially relevant in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery as substantial perioperative blood loss is possible, leading to a high rate of allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip replacements, total knee replacements, and hip fracture repairs. Significance: The results of this systematic review may be of interest to clinicians and hospital administrators evaluating the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of intravenous (IV) iron administration prior to major orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: The original studies considered for this review included patients who were over 18 years of age, undergoing major orthopedic surgery, and who received an IV iron treatment in the preoperative setting. A total of 1083 articles were identified and reviewed. After removing duplicates, 1031 publications were screened, and 105 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility. A total of 98 were excluded and 7 articles remained which met the criteria for this review. The primary outcome examined in the included studies was the allogeneic blood transfusion rate. The secondary areas of interest were changes in serum hemoglobin, morbidity and mortality, length of stay, and cost effectiveness. Results: This systematic review found little evidence that IV iron therapy is effective at reducing transfusion in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Conclusions: We do not recommend preoperative IV iron therapy for all patients scheduled for major orthopedic surgery.
Efficacy of perioperative intravenous iron therapy for transfusion in orthopedic surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2019;14(5):e0215427
Perioperative anemia frequently occurs in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intravenous iron therapy (IVIT) on transfusion and recovery profiles during orthopedic surgery. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Google Scholar for eligible clinical trials (randomized controlled trials, RCTs; case-control studies, CCSs) in comparing IVIT and no iron therapy, up to September 2018. Primary outcomes were the effects of IVIT on the proportion of patients transfused and units of red blood cells (RBCs) transfused perioperatively. Secondary outcomes were the effects of IVIT on recovery profiles, such as length of hospital stay (LOS), post-operative infection, and mortality. Subgroup analysis was performed based on iron dose (low: ≤ 300 mg, high: > 400 mg), IVIT period (pre-operative, post-operative, perioperative), and study design. We identified 12 clinical trials (4 RCTs with 616 patients and 8 CCSs with 1,253 patients). IVIT significantly reduced the proportion of patients transfused by 31% (RR, 0.69; P = 0.0002), and units of RBCs transfused by 0.34 units/person (MD, -0.34; P = 0.0007). For subgroup analysis by iron dose, low- or high-dose IVIT significantly reduced the proportion of patients transfused (RR, 0.73, P = 0.005; RR, 0.68, P = 0.008), and RBC units transfused (MD, -0.47, P < 0.0001; MD, -0.28, P = 0.04). For subgroup analysis by period, IVIT administered post-operatively significantly reduced the proportion of patients transfused (post-operative: RR, 0.60, P = 0.002; pre-operative: RR, 0.74, P = 0.06) and RBC units transfused (post-operative: MD, -0.44, P <0.00001; pre-operative: MD, -0.29, P = 0.06). For subgroup analysis by study design, IVIT decreased the proportion of patients transfused and RBC units transfused in the group of CCSs, but IVIT in the group of RCTs did not. IVIT significantly shortened LOS by 1.6 days (P = 0.0006) and reduced post-operative infections by 33% (P = 0.01). IVIT did not change mortality. Perioperative IVIT during orthopedic surgery, especially post-operatively, appears to reduce the proportion of patients transfused and units of RBCs transfused, with shorter LOS and decreased infection rate, but no change in mortality rate. These were only found in CCSs and not in RCTs due to the relatively small number of RCTs with low to high risk of bias.
A meta-analysis and systematic review evaluating the use of erythropoietin in total hip and knee arthroplasty
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2018;14:1191-1204.
Purpose: The debate is still ongoing on the effectiveness and safety of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment in orthopedic surgeries. Specifically, previous studies have not compared the dynamic change of hemoglobin (Hb) levels between different transfusion methods. Besides, complications or side effects of this alternative have not been quantitatively analyzed. We conducted a meta-analysis and systemic review to evaluate the efficacy of EPO on Hb levels observed during the whole perioperative period as well as the volume of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT), the risk of venous thromboembolism, and application frequency of ABT in hip and knee surgery. Materials and methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched from inception to November 2017. The data from randomized controlled trials were extracted and the risk of bias assessed using Cochrane's Collaboration's tool. Results: Twenty-five randomized controlled trials involving 4,159 patients were included in this meta-analysis. EPO could reduce exposure to allogeneic blood transfused (odds ratio [OR] =0.42, P=0.001) and reduce the average volume of allogeneic blood transfused (OR = -0.28, P=0.002). When EPO and preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) were compared, the use of EPO was associated with lower exposure to ABT (OR =0.48, P=0.03), but no significant decrease in the average volume of allogeneic blood transfused (OR = -0.23, P=0.32). The use of EPO was associated with a higher level of Hb with or without use of PABD at all the 4 time points (preoperation, 24-48 hours postoperation, 3-5 days postoperation, discharge of last observation) (P<0.0001), which means EPO could increase the level of Hb significantly during the perioperative period. The results also indicated EPO does not increase the risk of a venous thromboembolism event. Conclusion: Preoperative administration of EPO was shown to generally increase Hb levels during the whole perioperative period; however, the extent of the positive effects varies with time points. Additionally, EPO minimizes the need for transfusion significantly in patients undergoing hip or knee surgery without increasing the chance of developing thrombotic complications. Therefore, EPO offers an alternative blood management strategy in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty.
The effectiveness and safety of preoperative use of erythropoietin in patients scheduled for total hip or knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
INTRODUCTION Because allogeneic blood transfusion carries a risk of serious complications, erythropoietin (EPO) has been used in patients scheduled for total hip or knee arthroplasty in an effort to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion; however, its efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety are still controversial. The purpose of this review was to determine the hematopoiesis-promoting effect and potential complications, as well as the cost-effectiveness, of preoperative use of EPO in patients scheduled for total hip or knee arthroplasty. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for relevant literature from 2000 to 2015. Risk of bias was assessed for all included studies and data were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS Preoperative use of EPO was associated with lower exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion (odds ratio = 0.41) and higher hemoglobin concentration after surgery (standardized mean difference = 0.86, P < 0.001). Complications were not generally reported, but there was no significant difference between the group with and without EPO based on given data. Cost-effectiveness was also summarized but was not conclusive. CONCLUSION Preoperative administration of EPO reduces the requirement for allogeneic blood transfusion and increases hemoglobin level after surgery. The studies of cost-effectiveness were not conclusive. Further studies and guidelines specific to blood management in the perioperative stage of total knee and hip arthroplasty are expected.
Erythropoietin to reduce allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty
Vox Sanguinis. 2016;111((3):):219-225
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To determine the value of erythropoietin in reducing allogeneic transfusions, it is important to assess the effects, safety and costs for individual indications. Previous studies neither compared the effects of erythropoietin between total hip and total knee arthroplasty, nor evaluated the safety or costs. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of erythropoietin in total hip and knee arthroplasty separately. Safety and costs were evaluated as secondary outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of erythropoietin in total hip and knee arthroplasty until April 2014. Study data were extracted using standardized forms and pooled using a random-effects model. Strength of the evidence was evaluated using Cochrane's Collaboration's tool for risk of bias assessment. RESULTS Seven studies were included (2439 patients). Erythropoietin significantly reduced exposure to allogeneic transfusion in both hip (RR 0.45; 95%CI 0.33-0.61) and knee (RR 0.38; 95%CI 0.27-0.53) arthroplasty, without differences between indications (P = 0.44). Mean number of transfused red blood cell units was significantly decreased in erythropoietin-treated patients (mean difference -0.57; 95%CI -0.86 to -0.29)(unable to split). No differences in thromboembolic or adverse events were found. Only one study evaluated costs, so that no pooled cost-effectiveness estimates could be given. CONCLUSION Erythropoietin is effective in both hip and knee arthroplasty and can be considered as safe. However, the decision to use erythropoietin on a routine base should be balanced against its costs, which may be relatively high.