A Meta-Analysis of Complications of Tranexamic Acid Use in Lower-Limb Orthopedic Surgery
AORN journal. 2021;113(6):657-660
Multimodal Peri-articular Injection with Tranexamic Acid can reduce postoperative blood loss versus Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):546
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) has shown significant reductions in blood loss and transfusion rates in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the optimal administration route continues to be debated. The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) versus peri-articular injection (PAI) application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled, double-blinded study. A total of 93 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA were randomly distributed between 2 groups: the IV group (47 cases; 1 g TXA IV) and the PAI group (46 cases; 1 g TXA injected peri-articularly). The amount of total and hidden blood loss (HBL), drainage, transfusion rate, hemoglobin and hematocrit drift, and complications were recorded. RESULTS Peri-articular injection of TXA reduced total blood loss (P < 0.001) and HBL more than IV use of TXA (P < 0.001). No patients in either group received a transfusion. No symptomatic deep venous thrombosis or other severe complications occurred. CONCLUSION Peri-articular injection of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss and hidden blood loss to a greater degree than IV injection in total knee arthroplasty without reduction of drainage volume. TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-INR-16010270 . Date of registration: December 27, 2016.
A Single Dose of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss After Reverse and Anatomic Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Randomized Control Trial
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Hematoma formation and blood transfusions are commonly reported complications after shoulder arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used in hip and knee arthroplasty to decrease perioperative blood loss. The role of TXA is still being established in shoulder arthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a double-blinded randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous TXA to placebo in 60 patients undergoing primary anatomic and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. 29 patients received a placebo whilst 31 received a single dose of 2g of intravenous TXA. Patient demographics as well as drain tube output, blood loss, hematoma formation, transfusion requirement, length of hospital stay and pain scores were recorded. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks to assess for complications. RESULTS Patients who received TXA had lower drain tube outputs at all time points, 41ml compared to 133ml at 6 hours, 75ml compared to 179ml at 12 hours and 94ml compared to 226ml at 24 hours (all P<0.001). They also had higher postoperative Hb (12.3 vs 11.4; P=0.009), lower change in Hb (1.7 vs 2.3; P=0.011), lower total Hb loss (0.078g vs 0.103g; P=0.042) and blood volume loss (0.55L vs 0.74L; P=0.021), higher postoperative hematocrit (36.7 vs 34.6; P=0.020) and lower hematocrit change (5.4 vs 7.6; P=0.022). There was no significant difference in pain scores or length of hospital stay and no patients required a transfusion. CONCLUSION A single dose of 2g intravenous Tranexamic Acid decreases blood loss and drain tube output in primary anatomic and reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder. There were no differences detected in occurrence of complications, need for transfusion, pain scores or length of hospital stay. With the mounting evidence now available, patients undergoing an elective primary shoulder arthroplasty should be given intravenous TXA to decrease peri-operative blood loss.
Intraarticular injections of platelet rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors with arthrocenthesis or arthroscopy in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders: A systematic review
Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2021
Intra-articular platelet rich plasma injections [PRP] or platelet rich growth factors [PRGF] injections have been used as therapeutic treatment options for patients with temporomandibular joint disorder [TMD] in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the level of the available scientific evidence in the current literature on the benefits of applying PRP or PRGF injections to patients with TMD simultaneously or after arthrocentesis or arthroscopy to reduce post-operative pain and improve temporomandibular joint function. This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA criteria and an electronic database search was carried out in the PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases during May 2021. The patients in the study group were injected with intra-articular PRP or PRGF simultaneously or after arthrocentesis or arthroscopy while the patients in the control group had arthrocentesis or arthroscopy without an intra-articular injection or received an injection of hyaluronic acid or Ringer's lactate solution. Eight randomised controlled clinical trials were selected. The PRP and PRGF intra-articular injections demonstrated significant differences in terms of pain reduction in three studies and improved mandibular function in two. The treatment with PRP or PRFC intra-articular injections demonstrated slightly better clinical results but of little significance in comparison with the control group. Evidence of their effectiveness is crucial to establish them as non-invasive treatments and as an affordable option for treating some types of TMDs. In accordance with Evidence-based dentistry principles, this review has been assigned a C recommendation.
Synergistic Effect of a Prolonged Combination Course of Tranexamic Acid and Dexamethasone Involving High Initial Doses in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The journal of knee surgery. 2021
The optimal regimes of tranexamic acid (TXA) and dexamethasone (DXM) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are still uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a prolonged course of intravenous TXA and DXM involving a high initial dose in TKA. Patients who underwent primary TKA at our center were randomized to receive one of four regimes: control (group A), prolonged course of TXA (B), prolonged course of DXM (C), or the combination of a prolonged course of TXA and DXM (D). The four groups were compared in primary outcomes (fibrinolytic and inflammatory markers, knee function, postoperative pain levels, and consumption of opioids) and secondary outcomes (blood loss, maximal drop in hemoglobin, coagulation, fasting blood glucose, and complications). A total of 162 patients were enrolled. On postoperative days 2 and 3, fibrinolytic markers were lower in groups B and D than in groups A and C; inflammatory markers were lower in groups C and D than in groups A and B. Inflammatory markers were lower in group B than in group A on postoperative day 3. Postoperative pain levels and oxycodone consumption were lower, and knee function was better in groups C and D. The four groups did not differ in any of the secondary outcomes. A prolonged course of intravenous TXA and DXM involving high initial doses can effectively inhibit postoperative fibrinolytic and inflammatory responses, reduce pain, and improve knee function after TKA.
Peri-operative platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic femoroacetabular impingement surgery: a randomized controlled trial
Journal of hip preservation surgery. 2021;8(1):14-21
This study aimed to determine whether the addition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) during hip arthroscopy improves functional outcomes in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery. This was a prospective randomized single-blinded trial of arthroscopic hip patients aged between 16 and 50 years with a diagnosis of FAI conducted at a single centre. Patients with any previous hip surgery and significant osteoarthritic changes (Tonnis grade > 2) were excluded. Before surgery, patients were randomly assigned to receive either a PRP injection or a saline placebo. Efficacy was evaluated at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-surgery using patient-reported outcomes. The short version International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT12) was the primary outcome. Recruited patients (n = 113) were aged 36.0 ± 10.5 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 56% male. At baseline, iHOT12 scores of the PRP (mean 43.8 ± 22.4) and placebo groups (mean 45.2 ± 21.5) were similar. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, both groups had improved iHOT12 scores (PRP: mean 83.6 ± 13.4, control: mean 77.1 ± 23.3), with no significant difference in change between the two groups (P = 0.19). There were no significant group differences for the change in Non-Arthritic Hip and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Shortform scores between the two groups (P = 0.22 and 0.46, respectively). The present study does not support the peri-operative use of PRP in arthroscopic surgery for FAI for mid-term improvement. There were no significant differences in outcome between PRP and placebo groups at 2-year minimum follow-up after surgery.
The efficacy and safety of high-dose tranexamic acid in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a meta-analysis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):53
BACKGROUND This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using high-dose intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) to reduce blood loss in idiopathic scoliosis surgery. METHODS This study was a meta-analysis, which consisted of retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) and randomized control trials (RCTs) found by searching electronic databases, namely PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Google Scholar Database, dating from 1960 to 2019. The points of interest included total blood loss, a need for transfusion and transfusion criteria, surgery time, and the evidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, such as seizures or thromboembolic events. The weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of blood loss in the TXA intervention group compared to the control or placebo group were extracted and combined using the random effects model. RESULTS In this meta-analysis, there was a total of three RCSs and two RCTs, which involved 334 patients. The results showed that blood loss is significantly reduced, with a weighted mean difference in the TXA group (WMD = - 525.14, P = 0.0000, CI ranged from - 839.83, - 210.44, I(2) = 82%). Heterogeneity was assessed using the random effects model. CONCLUSIONS A high dose of intravenous TXA reduced blood loss during adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery and did not lead to any significant thromboembolic event. Therefore, a high dose appears to be effective and safe for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery. However, more high-quality research based on larger randomized controlled trials is still needed.
Time to reconsider the routine use of tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty surgery
The bone & joint journal. 2021;:1-10
AIMS: Many surgeons choose to perform total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery with the aid of a tourniquet. A tourniquet is a device that fits around the leg and restricts blood flow to the limb. There is a need to understand whether tourniquets are safe, and if they benefit, or harm, patients. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits and harms of tourniquet use in TKA surgery. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and trial registries up to 26 March 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing TKA with a tourniquet versus without a tourniquet. Outcomes included: pain, function, serious adverse events (SAEs), blood loss, implant stability, duration of surgery, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS We included 41 RCTs with 2,819 participants. SAEs were significantly more common in the tourniquet group (53/901 vs 26/898, tourniquet vs no tourniquet respectively) (risk ratio 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.73). The mean pain score on the first postoperative day was 1.25 points higher (95% CI 0.32 to 2.19) in the tourniquet group. Overall blood loss did not differ between groups (mean difference 8.61 ml; 95% CI -83.76 to 100.97). The mean length of hospital stay was 0.34 days longer in the group that had surgery with a tourniquet (95% CI 0.03 to 0.64) and the mean duration of surgery was 3.7 minutes shorter (95% CI -5.53 to -1.87). CONCLUSION TKA with a tourniquet is associated with an increased risk of SAEs, pain, and a marginally longer hospital stay. The only finding in favour of tourniquet use was a shorter time in theatre. The results make it difficult to justify the routine use of a tourniquet in TKA surgery.
Results of a randomized phase III/IV trial comparing intermittent bolus versus continuous infusion of antihaemophilic factor (recombinant) in adults with severe or moderately severe haemophilia A undergoing major orthopaedic surgery
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION In patients with haemophilia A undergoing surgery, factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy by continuous infusion (CI) may offer an alternative to bolus infusion (BI). AIM: To compare the perioperative haemostatic efficacy and safety of antihaemophilic factor (recombinant) (ADVATE(®) ; Baxalta US Inc., a Takeda company, Lexington, MA, USA) CI or BI administration. METHODS In this multicentre, phase III/IV, controlled study (NCT00357656), 60 previously treated adult patients with severe or moderately severe disease undergoing elective unilateral major orthopaedic surgery (knee replacement, n = 48; hip surgery, n = 4; other, n = 8) requiring drain placement were randomized to receive antihaemophilic factor (recombinant) CI (n = 29) or BI (n = 31) through postoperative day 7. Primary outcome measure was cumulative packed red blood cell (PRBC)/blood volume in the drainage fluid within 24 h after surgery, used to establish non-inferiority of CI to BI. RESULTS CI:BI ratio of cumulative PRBC volume in the 24-h drainage fluid was 0.92 (p-value <.001 for non-inferiority; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.05). Total antihaemophilic factor (recombinant) dose per kg body weight received in the combined trans- and postoperative periods was similar with CI and BI to maintain targeted FVIII levels during/after surgery. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were reported in five patients treated by CI (eight events) and five treated by BI (six events), including two serious AEs in each arm. CONCLUSION CI administration of antihaemophilic factor (recombinant) is a viable alternative to BI in patients with haemophilia A undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, providing comparable efficacy and safety.
Early intravenous tranexamic acid intervention reduces post-traumatic hidden blood loss in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture: a randomized controlled trial
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):106
PURPOSE Elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures exhibit post-traumatic hidden blood loss (HBL). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reducing post-traumatic HBL via early intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) intervention in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted with 125 patients (age ≥ 65 years, injury time ≤ 6 h) who presented with intertrochanteric fracture from September 2018 and September 2019. Patients in the TXA group (n = 63) received 1 g of IV TXA at admission, whereas those in the normal saline (NS) group (n = 62) received an equal volume of saline. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) were recorded at post-traumatic admission (PTA) and on post-traumatic days (PTDs) 1-3. HBL was calculated using the Gross formula. Lower extremity venous ultrasound was performed to detect venous thrombosis. RESULTS Hgb on PTDs 2 and 3 was statistically higher in the TXA group than in the NS group. Hct and HBL on PTDs 1-3 were significantly less in the TXA group compared to the NS group. Preoperative transfusion rate was significantly lower in the TXA group compared with the NS group. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the rates of complications. CONCLUSION Early IV TXA intervention could reduce post-traumatic HBL and pre-operative transfusion rate in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures without increasing the risk of venous thrombosis.