A Meta-Analysis of Complications of Tranexamic Acid Use in Lower-Limb Orthopedic Surgery
AORN journal. 2021;113(6):657-660
Utility of Viscoelastic Tests to Predict Flap Thrombosis: A Systematic Review
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open. 2021;9(8):e3769
BACKGROUND Flap thrombosis is a rare but devastating complication in microsurgery. Preoperative identification of patients at increased risk for microvascular thrombosis remains challenging. Viscoelastic testing (VET) provides a comprehensive evaluation of the clotting process and can effectively identify hypercoagulability. However, the utility of VET in microvascular reconstruction remains unclear. METHODS A systematic review of the association between VET and pedicle thrombosis and free flap loss was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. Identified studies were reviewed independently by two authors for pertinent data. RESULTS Six studies met inclusion criteria. Heterogenous study design and outcome reporting complicated direct comparisons and precluded a formal meta-analysis. Four studies found a statistically significant relationship between VET results and flap thrombosis or flap loss. The maximum clot strength and the fibrinogen-to-platelet ratio (FPR) were key viscoelastic parameters in these studies, both representing a measure of maximal clot strength. Specifically, an elevated FPR (>42%) generated a sensitivity and specificity for flap loss ranging from 57% to 75% and 60% to 82%, respectively. Notably, the negative predictive value for flap failure with a normal preoperative FPR was greater than 90% in all studies reporting a correlation. The remaining two studies reported no predictive value for VET with respect to flap failure or pedicle thrombosis. CONCLUSION The results of this review suggest that VET, particularly parameters relating to clot strength, may help clinicians identify patients at risk for flap thrombosis. However, uncontrolled and heterogenous reporting limit definitive conclusions, and high-quality diagnostic studies are needed to better determine the clinical utility of viscoelastic testing for free flap patients.
Intraarticular injections of platelet rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors with arthrocenthesis or arthroscopy in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders: A systematic review
Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2021
Intra-articular platelet rich plasma injections [PRP] or platelet rich growth factors [PRGF] injections have been used as therapeutic treatment options for patients with temporomandibular joint disorder [TMD] in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the level of the available scientific evidence in the current literature on the benefits of applying PRP or PRGF injections to patients with TMD simultaneously or after arthrocentesis or arthroscopy to reduce post-operative pain and improve temporomandibular joint function. This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA criteria and an electronic database search was carried out in the PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases during May 2021. The patients in the study group were injected with intra-articular PRP or PRGF simultaneously or after arthrocentesis or arthroscopy while the patients in the control group had arthrocentesis or arthroscopy without an intra-articular injection or received an injection of hyaluronic acid or Ringer's lactate solution. Eight randomised controlled clinical trials were selected. The PRP and PRGF intra-articular injections demonstrated significant differences in terms of pain reduction in three studies and improved mandibular function in two. The treatment with PRP or PRFC intra-articular injections demonstrated slightly better clinical results but of little significance in comparison with the control group. Evidence of their effectiveness is crucial to establish them as non-invasive treatments and as an affordable option for treating some types of TMDs. In accordance with Evidence-based dentistry principles, this review has been assigned a C recommendation.
Tranexamic acid for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in women undergoing cesarean delivery: an updated meta-analysis
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic tranexamic acid administration in comparison with standard uterotonic agents alone among women undergoing cesarean delivery. DATA SOURCES Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar were systematically searched from inception to June 30, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous tranexamic acid administration to placebo in women undergoing cesarean delivery and receiving standard prophylactic uterotonic agents were held eligible. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS The risk of bias of individual studies was appraised with the RoB-2 tool. Meta-analysis was conducted by fitting random-effects models using restricted maximum likelihood. Subgroup analysis was performed based on country, protocol availability, double-blinding, risk of bias, sample size and tranexamic acid dose. One-stage meta-analysis was performed as a sensitivity analysis. The credibility of outcomes was appraised with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS Overall, 36 studies with 10,659 women were included. Tranexamic acid administration was associated with significantly lower total blood loss (Mean difference-MD: -189.44 ml, 95% confidence intervals-CI: -218.63; -160.25), lower hemoglobin drop (MD: 8.22%, 95% CI: 5.54; 10.90), decreased risk of blood loss >1000 ml (Odds ratio-OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.22; 0.60), transfusion requirement (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26; 0.65) and need of additional uterotonics (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.25; 0.52). Subgroup analysis indicated a greater effect of tranexamic acid on total blood loss reduction in low-middle income countries. The outcomes remained stable by separately evaluating women at low bleeding risk. One-stage meta-analysis demonstrated similar outcomes with the primary analysis. The quality of evidence was judged to be moderate regarding total blood loss and hemoglobin percentage change and low for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis suggests that prophylactic tranexamic acid administration is effective among women undergoing cesarean delivery in lowering postpartum blood loss and limiting hemoglobin drop. Further research is needed to test its efficacy in high-risk populations and to verify its safety profile.
Women undergoing caesarean delivery (36 studies, n= 10,659).
Standard uterotonic agents alone.
Tranexamic acid administration was associated with significantly lower total blood loss (Mean difference (MD): -189.44 ml), lower haemoglobin drop (MD: 8.22%), decreased risk of blood loss >1000 ml, transfusion requirement and need of additional uterotonics. Subgroup analysis indicated a greater effect of tranexamic acid on total blood loss reduction in low-middle income countries. The outcomes remained stable by separately evaluating women at low bleeding risk. One-stage meta-analysis demonstrated similar outcomes with the primary analysis. The quality of evidence was judged to be moderate regarding total blood loss and haemoglobin percentage change and low for the other outcomes.
Impact of time to esophagogastroduodenoscopy in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico (English). 2021
INTRODUCTION There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefit of urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for reducing mortality and rebleeding, in the context of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. AIM: To describe the decrease in the risk for mortality, rebleeding, and red blood cell transfusion, with the performance of urgent EGD, in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS We carried out a search for cohort studies or controlled clinical trials, published from December 1966 to May 2020, that compared urgent EGD versus elective EGD in the management of adults with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, utilizing the MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Our primary outcome was the hospital mortality comparison. The incidence of rebleeding and the mean number of red blood cell units transfused were also compared. A random effects model was utilized for the meta-analysis. RESULTS Twenty-one studies that met the eligibility criteria were included, involving 489,622 patients. We found no differences in the mortality of subjects exposed to urgent EGD versus elective EGD (RR 1.12 [0.72-1.72]). There was a significant increase in the risk for rebleeding (RR 1.30 [1.05-1.60]) in the subjects exposed to urgent EGD, and fewer red blood cell units were transfused in those patients (RR 0.52 [0.05-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS Urgent EGD in subjects with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding does not appear to have a significant impact on short-term mortality.
Effectiveness of Iron Supplementation With or Without Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents on Red Blood Cell Utilization in Patients With Preoperative Anaemia Undergoing Elective Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
Patient Blood Management (PBM) is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, patient-centred approach to optimizing the care of patients who might need a blood transfusion. This systematic review aimed to collect the best available evidence on the effectiveness of preoperative iron supplementation with or without erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on red blood cell (RBC) utilization in all-cause anaemic patients scheduled for elective surgery. Five databases and two trial registries were screened. Primary outcomes were the number of patients and the number of RBC units transfused. Effect estimates were synthesized by conducting meta-analyses. GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. We identified 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 non-RCTs comparing the effectiveness of preoperative iron monotherapy, or iron + ESAs, to control (no treatment, usual care, placebo). We found that: (1) IV and/or oral iron monotherapy may not result in a reduced number of units transfused and IV iron may not reduce the number of patients transfused (low-certainty evidence); (2) uncertainty exists whether the administration route of iron therapy (IV vs oral) differentially affects RBC utilization (very low-certainty evidence); (3) IV ferric carboxymaltose monotherapy may not result in a different number of patients transfused compared to IV iron sucrose monotherapy (low-certainty evidence); (4) oral iron + ESAs probably results in a reduced number of patients transfused and number of units transfused (moderate-certainty evidence); (5) IV iron + ESAs may result in a reduced number of patients transfused (low-certainty evidence); (6) oral and/or IV iron + ESAs probably results in a reduced number of RBC units transfused in transfused patients (moderate-certainty evidence); (7) uncertainty exists about the effect of oral and/or IV iron + ESAs on the number of patients requiring transfusion of multiple units (very low-certainty evidence). Effect estimates of different haematological parameters and length of stay were synthesized as secondary outcomes. In conclusion, in patients with anaemia of any cause scheduled for elective surgery, the preoperative administration of iron monotherapy may not result in a reduced number of patients or units transfused (low-certainty evidence). Iron supplementation in addition to ESAs probably results in a reduced RBC utilization (moderate-certainty evidence).
Autologous Platelet Concentrate of 2(nd) and 3(rd) generations efficacy in the surgical treatment of gingival recession: an overview of systematic reviews
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2021;25(6):463-479
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet concentrate (APC)/platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) of second and third generations has increased use in periodontics to optimize wound healing. Few systematic reviews (SRs) have reported improved clinical outcomes, while other studies reported significantly better results for the connective tissue graft (CTG). There is still unclear clinical evidence about APC/PRF use to treat gingival recession (GR) defects. Then, the purpose of this SR was to evaluate the use of APC/PRF membranes (2(nd) and 3(rd) generations) in root coverage (RC) procedures and assess its efficacy as a substitute biomaterial. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Google Scholar, BookSC databases, and gray literature. The search strategy, without date restriction up to April 2020, included keywords as "platelet-rich fibrin," "autologous platelet concentrates," "blood," "systematic review," "periodontics," "surgery," "tissue," "gingiva," "gingival recession," "connective tissue," "graft," and "root coverage." The methodological quality was evaluated through the AMSTAR2, and a population, index test, comparator, outcome strategy was used to assess specific clinical parameters such as recession depth, clinical attachment levels, and RC outcomes. RESULTS Nine SRs were included. Only three articles described the technique of APC/PRF production. Three studies reported unfavorable outcomes using APC, while six reported favorable results and postoperative discomfort reduction. Articles included in this SRs that provided information about APC/PRF membranes (n = 13) showed no significant difference between APC/PRF and the control group for the parameters analyzed. CONCLUSIONS This implies that APC/PRF may be considered a feasible substitute biomaterial for treating GR defects, although the CTG still provides superior outcomes. Further long-term and controlled studies are needed to verify this finding.
Timing of temporizing neurosurgical treatment in relation to shunting and neurodevelopmental outcomes in post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation of prematurity: a meta-analysis
The Journal of pediatrics. 2021
OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between timing of initiation of temporizing neurosurgical treatment and rates of ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) and neurodevelopmental impairment in premature infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD). STUDY DESIGN We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials for studies that reported on premature infants with PHVD who received TNP. Timing of TNP, gestational age, birth weight, and outcomes of conversion to VPS, moderate-to-severe NDI, infection, TNP revision, and death at discharge were extracted. RESULTS Sixty-two full-length articles and six conference abstracts (n=2533 patients) published through November 2020 were included. Pooled rate for conversion to VPS was 60.5% (95% CI=54.9-65.8), moderate-severe NDI 34.8% (95% CI=27.4-42.9), infection 8.2% (95% CI=6.7-10.1), revision 14.6% (95% CI=10.4-20.1), and death 12.9% (95% CI=10.2-16.4). Average age at TNP was 24.2+/-11.3 days. On meta-regression, older age at TNP was a predictor of conversion to VPS (p<0.001) and NDI (p<0.01). Later year of publication predicted increased survival (p<0.01) and external ventricular drains were associated with more revisions (p=0.001). Tests for heterogeneity reached significance for all outcomes and qualitative review showed heterogeneity in study inclusion and diagnosis criteria for PHVD and initiation of TNP. CONCLUSIONS Later timing of TNP predicted higher rates of conversion to VPS and moderate-severe NDI. Outcomes were often reported relative to number of patients who received TNP and criteria for study inclusion and initiation of TNP varied across institutions. There is need for more comprehensive outcome reporting that includes all infants with PHVD regardless of treatment.
Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Adult Liver Transplant Recipients: A Case Series and Literature Review
Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2021
Antibody-mediated rejection is a rare complication following liver transplantation and there is a lack of a comprehensive treatment strategy to provide detailed information about the dose and duration of antibody-mediated rejection treatment. This study describes eight adult liver transplantation recipients who developed antibody-mediated rejection between 2002 and 2021 in our center, as well as a review of the literature on the reported cases of antibody-mediated rejection in liver transplantation recipients. Our center's medical records were reviewed retrospectively to extract the necessary data on patients' characteristics, management, and outcomes. Then, a comprehensive search using Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar databases was conducted without time limitation until June, 2021. Finally, a stepwise protocol was developed for managing acute, chronic, and recurrent antibody-mediated rejection in liver transplantation patients, based on our own experience, reported cases in the literature, and data from kidney transplantation. By review of the literature, 24 case studies containing 64 patients were identified and their management strategies and outcomes were evaluated. Although, various combinations of corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and biological agents are used in the treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection in liver transplantation, treatment strategies should be classified according to the type, severity, and the timing of its onset. Given the importance of early treatment, rituximab and/or bortezomib should be started as soon as possible if no improvement in liver enzymes/bilirubin is observed during the initial treatment strategy using corticosteroids, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Autologous blood pleurodesis for the treatment of postoperative air leaks. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Thoracic cancer. 2021
BACKGROUND Postoperative air leaks are a common complication after lung surgery. They are associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased postoperative pain and treatment costs. The treatment of prolonged air leaks remains controversial. Several treatments have been proposed including different types of sealants, chemical pleurodesis, or early surgical intervention. The aim of this review was to analyze the impact of autologous blood pleurodesis in a systematic way. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was conducted until July 2020. Studies with more than five adult patients undergoing lung resections were included. Studies in patients receiving blood pleurodesis for pneumothorax were excluded. The search strategy included proper combinations of the MeSH terms "air leak", "blood transfusion" and "lung surgery". RESULTS Ten studies with a total of 198 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled success rate for sealing the air leak within 48 h of the blood pleurodesis was 83.7% (95% CI: 75.7; 90.3). The pooled incidence of the post-interventional empyema was 1.5%, with a pooled incidence of post-interventional fever of 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the idea that autologous blood pleurodesis leads to a faster healing of postoperative air leaks than conservative treatment. The complication rate is very low. Formal recommendations on how to perform the procedure are not possible with the current evidence. A randomized controlled trial in the modern era is necessary to confirm the benefits.