Post-Tonsillectomy Ibuprofen: Is There a Dose-Dependent Bleeding Risk?
The Laryngoscope. 2021
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a potentially life-threatening complication. A recent meta-analysis suggests that ibuprofen may increase the risk of PTH. The aims of this study were to 1) re-evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on PTH given additional recent evidence and 2) to evaluate a potential dose effect of ibuprofen. STUDY DESIGN Meta-analysis and meta-regression; single-institution retrospective review. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of 12 studies comparing postoperative ibuprofen analgesia to non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) controls. Next, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess for an effect of dose, if any, on rates of PTH. Five studies specifying a dose of 5 mg/kg (828 patients, 1,411 controls) and 7 studies using 10 mg/kg (5,633 patients, 7,656 controls) were included. We then conducted a novel single-institution, retrospective review of data for 1,046 patients prescribed intermediate-dose 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen. RESULTS Ibuprofen was not associated with an increased rate of PTH (log odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.15, 0.57). Meta-regression showed that ibuprofen dose (5 and 10 mg/kg) did not have a statistically significant effect on PTH (OR, 1.32; 95% CI 0.30, 5.84). Uncontrolled, aggregate rates of PTH across all studies were 2.29% (N = 828) for 5 mg/kg and 4.65% (N = 5,633) for 10 mg/kg dosing. The rate of secondary hemorrhage in patients prescribed 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen was 3.10% (N = 1,046). CONCLUSION We found no statistically significant increased risk of PTH when ibuprofen is prescribed at the low or high range of commonly used clinical dosages, compared to a non-ibuprofen regimen. Further studies with less heterogeneity are needed to determine if there is a clinically relevant dose-dependent difference in PTH with ibuprofen. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
Iron supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 2021
PURPOSE Iron supplementation has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for its potential to increase baseline hemoglobin and decrease red blood cell transfusion during cardiac surgery. This study's main objective was to evaluate the current evidence for iron administration in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science databases, and Google Scholar from inception to 19 November 2020 for RCTs evaluating perioperative iron administration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The RCTs were assessed using a risk of bias assessment and the quality of evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations, assessments, development, and evaluations. RESULTS We reviewed 1,767 citations, and five studies (n = 554) met the inclusion criteria. The use of iron showed no statistical difference in incidence of transfusion (risk ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.13). Trial sequential analysis suggested an optimal information size of 1,132 participants, which the accrued information size did not reach. CONCLUSION The current literature does not support or refute the routine use of iron therapy in cardiac surgery patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42020161927); registered 19 December 2019.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery (5 studies, n= 554).
Placebo, or no-treatment.
Based on the pooling of data from four trials (n= 449), the use of iron showed no statistical difference in the incidence of transfusion (RR, 0.86). There was low heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 0%). One trial (n= 60) reported a significant decrease in the number of red blood cells transfused (mean differences, -1.0 units). All five trials (n= 554) showed no difference in serious adverse events using iron therapy (risk difference, 0.0).
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Evaluating the Impact of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Aesthetic surgery journal. 2021
BACKGROUND Recent evidence suggests tranexamic acid (TXA) may improve outcomes in aesthetic surgery patients. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to investigate the impact of TXA use in aesthetic plastic surgery on bleeding and aesthetic outcomes. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies evaluating TXA use in aesthetic plastic surgery. The primary outcome of interest was perioperative bleeding, reported as total blood loss (TBL), ecchymosis, and hematoma formation. Meta-analyses analyzing TBL, and postoperative hematoma were performed. RESULTS Of 287 identified articles, 14 studies evaluating TXA use in rhinoplasty (6), rhytidectomy (3), liposuction (3), reduction mammaplasty (1), and blepharoplasty (1) were included for analysis. Of 820 total patients, 446 (54.4%) received TXA. Meta-analysis demonstrated TXA is associated with 26.3mL average blood loss reduction (95% CI: -40.0mL to -12.7mL, p < 0.001) and suggested a trend toward decreased odds of postoperative hematoma with TXA use (OR: 0.280, 95% CI: 0.076 - 1.029, p = 0.055). Heterogeneity among reporting of other outcomes precluded meta-analysis; however, 5 of 7 studies found significantly decreased postoperative ecchymosis levels within 7 days of surgery, three studies found statistically significant reductions in postoperative drain output, and one study reported significantly improved surgical site quality for patients who received TXA (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS TXA is associated with decreased blood loss and a trend toward decreased hematoma formation in aesthetic plastic surgery. Its use has the potential to increase patient satisfaction with postoperative recovery and decrease costs associated with complications, including hematoma evacuation.
A Literature Review to Assess Blood Loss in Minimally Invasive Liver Surgery Versus in Open Liver Resection
Aim and objectives The aim of the study was to assess the amount of blood loss in minimally invasive hepatectomy and open liver resection for both benign and neoplastic conditions. Introduction Minimally invasive surgery has progressively developed to a stage where once-novel and highly specialized surgical techniques are now common practice. Colorectal surgery is the key example that has shown minimally invasive surgery as highly beneficial. Successes in the colorectal laparoscopic approach have now been integrated into the speciality of hepatopancreaticobiiary (HPB) surgery. In this review, we will compare the amount of blood loss in minimally invasive liver resection with the more traditional approach of open liver resection. Methods A literature review was conducted which included the length of patient mobilization as a postoperative complication following laparoscopic and open liver resections. Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane were accessed to review previously published studies. Twelve studies were selected, and all of them were in English, ranged from the year 2000 to 2020. Results Eleven out of the 12 included studies indicated that minimally invasive liver resection is associated with reduced blood loss. Conclusion In comparing both minimally invasive liver resection and classic open surgery, minimally invasive liver resection was shown to have reduced blood loss; this was seen in both malignant and benign tumours. Therefore, laparoscopic liver resection could be favoured over the classical open approach to avoid excessive blood loss intra-operatively.
Optimal timing of endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Internal and emergency medicine. 2021
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the most common indication for urgent endoscopy, but the correct timing of endoscopy in these patients is still debated. Our systematic review with meta-analysis was aimed at investigating the potential clinical benefit of very early endoscopy for UGIB patients. We performed an electronic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library up to 23rd May 2020 and considered only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing management of UGIB patients by very early vs early endoscopy. Only five RCTs were considered eligible for quantitative analysis, with a total population of 926 cases (468 in the very early endoscopy arm and 458 in the early). The meta-analysis showed no statistically significant benefit for very early endoscopy compared to early endoscopy in terms of risk of rebleeding, mortality, ICU admission, blood transfusion, surgery and length of hospital stay. However, our results showed a significantly higher need for haemostatic treatment when very early endoscopy was performed (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.42, p < 0.01) in comparison to early endoscopy.
Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain in the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Literature Review
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:4439867
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to review the literature regarding the blood loss and postoperative pain in the isolated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Investigating the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, articles were selected from 1970 to 2021 in the English published databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Article retrieval and selection were performed by two authors, and they independently evaluated them based on the eligibility criteria. The articles meeting the search criteria had especially at least 30 patients. RESULTS In the review of intraoperative blood loss, a total of 139 articles were retrieved and restricted to 6 articles (SSRO: 4; IVRO 2). In the review of postoperative pain, a total of 174 articles were retrieved and restricted to 4 articles (SSRO: 3; IVRO 1). The mean blood loss of SSRO and IVRO was ranged from 55 to 167 mL and 82 to 104 mL, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the first postoperative day were 2 to 5.3 in SSRO and 2.93 to 3.13 in IVRO. The mean VAS scores of the second postoperative day were 1 to 3 in SSRO and 1.1 to 1.8 in IVRO. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional SSRO, IVRO had a significantly lower amount of blood loss. However, the blood transfusion is not necessary in a single-jaw operation (SSRO or IVRO). Postoperative pain was similar between SSRO and IVRO.
Platelet-Rich Product Supplementation in Rotator Cuff Repair Reduces Retear Rates and Improves Clinical Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the clinical and imaging outcomes of all four types of platelet-rich therapies [pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP), leukocyte and platelet-rich plasma (L- PRP), pure platelet-rich fibrin (P-PRF), and leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF)] in rotator cuff repairs. METHODS A systematic literature search was performed to identify RCTs comparing any of the four types of platelet-rich products (PRP) to a control in rotator cuff repair. Data extracted from the studies included retear rates diagnosed with imaging studies, as well as outcome scores such as Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and visual analog scale (VAS). Meta-analyses compared postoperative outcome scores and retear rates between the control and study groups. RESULTS Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. When pooling data from all studies, retear rate for the treatment group was 19.3%, compared to 25.4% for the control group (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, p =0.0037). When stratified based on PRP type, only P-PRP resulted in a significant reduction in retear rate (OR 0.26, p=0.0005). Overall, treatment with PRP significantly improved Constant scores when compared to controls (mean difference [MD] 2.41, p = 0.0027), as well as VAS scores (MD -0.12, p = 0.0014), and SST scores (MD 0.41, p = 0.0126). There was no significant difference in ASES scores (MD 0.37, p = 0.7762) or UCLA scores (MD 0.76, p = 0.2447) between treatment and controls when pooling data from all studies. CONCLUSIONS This analysis demonstrates significant reductions in retear rates when rotator cuff repair is augmented with PRP. P-PRP appears to be the most effective formulation, resulting in significantly improved retear rates and clinical outcome scores when compared with controls. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level II, meta-analysis of Level I and Level II studies.
Efficacy and Safety of Ligation Combined With Sclerotherapy for Patients With Acute Esophageal Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:664454
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic variceal ligation + endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EVL+EIS) to control acute variceal bleeding (AVB). Methods: Online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine (CBM) disc, VIP, and Wanfang, were searched to identify the studies comparing the differences between EVB+EIS and EVB, EIS from the inception of the databases up to December 30, 2020. STATA 13.0 was used for the meta-analysis. Results: A total of eight studies involving 595 patients (317 patients in the EVL group and 278 patients in the EVL+EIS group) were included. The results of the meta-analysis did not reveal any statistically significant differences in the efficacy of acute bleeding control (P = 0.981), overall rebleeding (P = 0.415), variceal eradication (P = 0.960), and overall mortality (P = 0.314), but a significant difference was noted in the overall complications (P = 0.01). Conclusion: EVL is superior to the combination of EVL and EIS in safety, while no statistically significant differences were detected in efficacy. Further studies should be designed with a large sample size, multiple centers, and randomized controlled trials to assess both clinical interventions.
Inconclusive evidence for the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing transfusions, postoperative infection or hematoma formation after primary shoulder arthroplasty: A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis
Shoulder & elbow. 2021;13(1):38-50
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid efficacy on clinically relevant adverse outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty has been contradictory. The aim of this review was to analyze whether tranexamic acid administration could decrease transfusions, infection and hematoma formation in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to May 2019 for randomized controlled trials comparing tranexamic acid to placebo in shoulder arthroplasty. Random-effect models were performed to meta-analyze the evidence. Trial sequential analysis was used to calculate and to establish the conclusiveness of the evidence derived from the meta-analysis. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials comprising 375 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed no effect of tranexamic acid on transfusion rate (RR = 0.48 (adjusted 95% CI 0.05 to 3.85)). The possible effect of tranexamic acid on hematoma formation or infection rates after shoulder arthroplasty is non-estimable with the current evidence. The sample size necessary to reliably determine if tranexamic acid decreases transfusions, infection rates and hematoma formation is not available from the current literature as determined by the trial sequential analysis. DISCUSSION While tranexamic acid has proven its efficacy in decreasing blood loss in shoulder arthroplasty, this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials clarifies that there is currently no conclusive evidence for a positive effect of tranexamic acid upon transfusion rate, infection rates or hematoma formation in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty.
Impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Surgical oncology. 2021;38:101592
This study aimed at systematically analyzing and evaluating the impact of perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) on oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. This systematic review follows the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions and was conducted in line with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR II criteria. A comprehensive database search was performed based on the PICO criteria. Two independent reviewers performed all screening steps and quality assessment. Risk of bias and certainty in evidence were assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomized trials and the GRADE approach. Of 1123 identified studies 20 were eligible for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitative analysis reporting on 21,915 patients. Receiving a PBT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29 [1.18, 1.40]; p < 0.001), cancer-specific mortality (HR [CI]: 1.27 [1.15; 1.41]; p < 0.001) and disease recurrence (HR [CI]: 1.22 [1.12; 1.34]; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of transfusion timing revealed a significantly increased risk of mortality with intraoperative or combined intra- and postoperative transfusions compared to postoperative transfusion only for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). Leukocyte-depletion was associated with increased all-cause mortality, but not cancer-specific mortality. The administration of PBT negatively impacts oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Therefore, careful treatment indication and strict adherence to transfusion guidelines is encouraged in order to avoid adverse effects during the perioperative course.