Blood product transfusion and lung transplant outcomes: A systematic review
Clinical transplantation. 2021
The perioperative transfusion of blood products has long been linked to development of acute lung injury and associated with mortality across both medical and surgical patient populations. The need for blood product transfusion during and after lung transplantation is common and, in many instances, unavoidable. However, this practice may potentially be modifiable. In this systematic review, we explore and summarize what is known regarding the impact of blood product transfusion on outcomes following lung transplantation, highlighting the most recent work in this area. Overall, the majority of the literature consists of single center retrospective analyses or the work of multicenter working groups referencing the same database. In the end, there are a number of remaining questions regarding blood product transfusion and their downstream effects on graft function and survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Surgical oncology. 2021;38:101592
This study aimed at systematically analyzing and evaluating the impact of perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) on oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. This systematic review follows the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions and was conducted in line with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR II criteria. A comprehensive database search was performed based on the PICO criteria. Two independent reviewers performed all screening steps and quality assessment. Risk of bias and certainty in evidence were assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomized trials and the GRADE approach. Of 1123 identified studies 20 were eligible for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitative analysis reporting on 21,915 patients. Receiving a PBT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29 [1.18, 1.40]; p < 0.001), cancer-specific mortality (HR [CI]: 1.27 [1.15; 1.41]; p < 0.001) and disease recurrence (HR [CI]: 1.22 [1.12; 1.34]; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of transfusion timing revealed a significantly increased risk of mortality with intraoperative or combined intra- and postoperative transfusions compared to postoperative transfusion only for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). Leukocyte-depletion was associated with increased all-cause mortality, but not cancer-specific mortality. The administration of PBT negatively impacts oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Therefore, careful treatment indication and strict adherence to transfusion guidelines is encouraged in order to avoid adverse effects during the perioperative course.
Liberal blood transfusion strategies and associated infection in orthopedic patients: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.
Association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative venous thromboembolism: Review meta-analysis
Annals of vascular surgery. 2020
OBJECTIVES Several studies have shown that preoperative blood transfusion is associated with postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE. METHODS Published articles were identified through a comprehensive review of PUBMED and EMBASE. Data from studies reporting relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios comparing the risk of postoperative VTE among participants who had preoperative blood transfusion versus those without preoperative blood transfusion were analyzed. A random-effect model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confident intervals (CI). RESULTS Eight studies, which included 3,504,778 participants, aligned with our inclusion criteria, and were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed an association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE, with an odds ratio of 2.95 (95%CI, 1.65, 5.30; I(2) = 89.1%). In subgroup analyses, the positive association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE were still exist in studies with confounders adjustment. Sensitivity analysis by one-study removed analysis confirmed the robustness of our results. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated that preoperative blood transfusion was associated with higher odds of postoperative VTE. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE.
Patients undergoing surgery (8 studies, n= 3,504,778).
Preoperative blood transfusion.
Without preoperative blood transfusion.
Pooled analysis showed an association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). In subgroup analyses, the positive association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE still existed in studies with confounders adjustment.
Total hip arthroplasty in sickle cell disease: a systematic review
EFORT Open Rev. 2020;5(3):180-188
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can be a challenging procedure.This systematic review evaluated the revision rate, functional outcomes and complications of THA in sicklers.A systematic search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, using four search engines from inception to May 2019.Fifteen studies with 971 THAs were included. There were 437 cemented and 520 uncemented THAs.There were 164 revision THAs (16.8%); 52 uncemented and 105 cemented THAs.Forty-two infections were recorded; 16 infections for cemented and 23 for uncemented THAs.Fifty-seven cups, 26 stems, eight cup/stem with aseptic loosening that were more frequently cemented were reported. The 28 unspecified aseptic loosening cases were more frequently uncemented THAs.All studies demonstrated the functional improvement of patients.There were 109 medical complications (14.3%). Sickle cell crises (SCC) and transfusion reactions were most usually recorded.Forty-six intraoperative complications (4.7%) were reported; 18 femoral fractures, four acetabular and 18 femoral perforations. Seventeen femoral fractures occurred during uncemented THA.THA in SCD is still related to a high risk of complications. The outcomes in properly selected sicklers have been improved. Perioperative adequate hydration, warming, oxygen supply and transfusion protocols are mandated to prevent SCC and transfusion reactions. The surgeon must be prepared to deal with a high rate of intraoperative fractures and have different implant options readily available. No definite conclusion can be made regarding the best fixation mode. Cemented implants demonstrated a higher revision rate and uncemented implants a higher risk for intraoperative complications. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:180-188. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190038.
Prognostic impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncological outcomes of patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy: A systematic review
Arab journal of urology. 2020;19(1):24-30
Objective: To conduct a systematic review of whether blood transfusions may be associated with worse outcomes for patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy (RC), as there has been a recent increase in studies addressing this clinically relevant topic. Methods: PubMed, Ovid Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with pre-specified search terms for studies published between January 2010 and May 2020. The systemic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 17 studies with 19 627 patients were included after 183 records were screened for eligibility. In all, 10 studies proposed perioperative blood transfusion to be associated with impaired prognosis regarding overall survival, nine studies regarding cancer-specific and four studies regarding recurrence-free survival. The timing of blood transfusion might affect patient outcomes. Notably, several studies did not find a significant correlation between blood transfusions and prognosis. As all studies to date are of retrospective design, the grade of evidence is still limited. Conclusions: Despite the lack of prospective trials, perioperative blood transfusion may lead to worse oncological outcomes. These results, as well as known non-oncological side-effects and associated costs, are important arguments to carefully consider the indication for blood transfusion. Abbreviations BCa: bladder cancer; CSS: cancer-specific survival; HR: hazard ratio; (N)MIBC: (non-) muscle-invasive BCa; OS: overall survival; PBT, perioperative blood transfusion; PRISMA, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; RC: radical cystectomy; RFS: recurrence-free survival.
Association between blood transfusions and complications in head and neck reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2020
PURPOSE The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the correlation between blood transfusions and the medical/surgical complications after head and neck reconstructive surgery. METHODS The PRISMA protocol was used and the literature search was performed on Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science up to March 13, 2020. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed through the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS A total of 1219 records were screened after the electronic search, 22 of which were included in the qualitative analysis. Of there 22 scores, 18 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The OR for medical and surgical complications of transfused patients was 1,64 (95% CI 1.23-2.21); while, the OR for hospital readmission was 1.53 (95% CI 1.29-1.81). CONCLUSIONS The results of this meta-analysis suggested that blood transfusions are associated with both an increased risk of surgical and medical complications of head and neck flaps and with the hospital readmission.
Leukodepleted Packed Red Blood Cells Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiovascular Surgical Procedure: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Cardiology research and practice. 2019;2019:7543917
Background: Leukocytes contained in the allogeneic packed red blood cell (PRBC) are the cause of certain adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion. Leukoreduction consists of eliminating leukocytes in all blood products below the established safety levels for any patient type. In this systematic review, we appraise the clinical effectiveness of allogeneic leukodepleted (LD) PRBC transfusion for preventing infections and death in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgical procedures. Methods: We searched randomized controlled trials (RCT), enrolling patients undergoing a major cardiovascular surgical procedure and transfused with LD-PRBC. Data were extracted, and risk of bias was assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. In addition, trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to assess the need of conducting additional trials. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results: Seven studies met the eligibility criteria. Quality of the evidence was rated as moderate for both outcomes. The risk ratio for death from any cause comparing the LD-PRBC versus non-LD-PRBC group was 0.69 (CI 95% = 0.53 to 0.90; I (2) = 0%). The risk ratio for infection in the same comparison groups was 0.77 (CI 95% = 0.66 to 0.91; I (2) = 0%). TSA showed a conclusive result in this outcome. Conclusions: We found evidence that supports the routine use of leukodepletion in patients undergoing a major cardiovascular surgical procedure requiring PRBC transfusion to prevent death and infection. In the case of infection, the evidence should be considered sufficient and conclusive and hence indicated that further trials would not be required.
Is blood transfusion associated with an increased risk of infection among spine surgery patients?: A meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Blood transfusions are associated with many adverse outcomes among spine surgery patients, but it remains unclear whether perioperative blood transfusion during spine surgery and postoperative infection are related. Recently, many related cohort studies have been published on this topic. METHODS This study was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible published studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies, and a random-effects model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the source of heterogeneity. RESULTS The final analysis included 8 cohort studies with a total of 34,185 spine surgery patients. These studies were considered to be of high or moderate quality based on their NOS scores, which ranged from 5 to 9. Pooled estimates indicated that blood transfusion increased the infection rate (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.59; I = 86%), which was consistent with the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that perioperative blood transfusion is a risk factor for postoperative infection among spine surgery patients. Further study is necessary to identify other influencing factors and to establish the mechanism underlying this relationship. Additional measures may be needed to reduce unnecessary blood transfusions during spine surgery.
Clinical Outcomes Associated With Allogeneic Red Blood Cell Transfusions in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review
Global spine journal. 2019;9(4):434-445
Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: The objectives of this systematic review were to report the available clinical evidence on patient outcomes associated with perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in adult patients undergoing spinal surgery and to determine whether there is any evidence to support an association between transfusion timing and clinical outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify all articles examining outcomes of adult spinal surgery patients who received perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusions. The level of evidence for each study was assessed using the "Oxford Levels of Evidence 2" classification system. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the heterogeneity of reports. Results: A total of 2759 unique citations were identified and 76 studies underwent full-text review. Thirty-four studies were selected for analysis. All the studies, except one, were retrospective. Eleven studies investigated intraoperative or postoperative transfusions. Only one article compared outcomes related to intraoperative versus postoperative transfusions. Conclusions: Perioperative transfusion is associated with increased rates of postoperative complications, especially infectious complications, and prolonged length of stay. Some evidence suggests that a dose-response relationship may exist between morbid events and the number of RBC units administered, but these findings are inconsistent. Because of the heterogeneity of reports and inconsistent findings, the incidence of specific complications remains unclear. Limited research activity has focused on intraoperative versus postoperative transfusions, or the effect of transfusion on functional outcomes of spine surgery patients. Further research is warranted to address these clinical issues.