Intraoperative cell salvage in revision hip arthroplasty
The bone & joint journal. 2023;105-b(10):1038-1044
AIMS: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the evidence for the use of intraoperative cell salvage in patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty, and specifically to analyze the available data in order to quantify any associated reduction in the use of allogenic blood transfusion, and the volume which is used. METHODS An electronic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library was completed from the date of their inception to 24 February 2022, using a search strategy and protocol created in conjunction with the PRISMA statement. Inclusion criteria were patients aged > 18 years who underwent revision hip arthroplasty when cell salvage was used. Studies in which pre-donated red blood cells were used were excluded. A meta-analysis was also performed using a random effects model with significance set at p = 0.05. RESULTS Of the 283 studies which were identified, 11 were included in the systematic review, and nine in the meta-analysis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the proportion of patients requiring allogenic transfusion between groups, with an odds ratio of 0.331 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.165 to 0.663) associated with the use of cell salvage. For a total of 561 patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty who were treated with cell salvage, 247 (44.0%) required allogenic transfusion compared with 418 of 643 patients (65.0%) who were treated without cell salvage. For those treated with cell salvage, the mean volume of allogenic blood which was required was 1.95 units (390 ml) per patient (0.7 to 4.5 units), compared with 3.25 units (650 ml) per patient (1.2 to 7.0 units) in those treated without cell salvage. The mean difference of -1.91 units (95% CI -4.0 to 0.2) in the meta-analysis was also significant (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION We found a a significant reduction in the need for allogenic blood transfusion when cell salvage was used in patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty, supporting its routine use in these patients. Further research is required to determine whether this effect is associated with types of revision arthroplasty of differing complexity.
Large volume acute normovolemic hemodilution in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with intermediate-high risk of transfusion: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2023;87:111082
STUDY OBJECTIVE To investigate whether large volume acute normovolemic hemodilution (L-ANH), compared with moderate acute normovolemic hemodilution (M-ANH), can reduce perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion in patients with intermediate-high risk of transfusion during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING University hospital. PATIENTS Patients with transfusion risk understanding scoring tool ("TRUST") ≥2 points undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from May 2020 to January 2021 were included. INTERVENTIONS The patients were randomly assigned with a 1:1 ratio to M-ANH (5 to 8 mL/kg) or L-ANH (12 to 15 mL/kg). MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion units. The composite outcome included new-onset atrial fibrillation, pulmonary infection, cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) class ≥2, surgical incision infection, postoperative excessive bleeding, and resternotomy. MAIN RESULTS Total 159 patients were screened and 110 (55 L-ANH and 55 M-ANH) were included for final analysis. Removed blood volume of L-ANH is significantly higher than M-ANH (886 ± 152 vs. 395 ± 86 mL, P < 0.001). Perioperative RBC transfusion was median 0 unit ([25th, 75th] percentiles: 0-4.4) in M-ANH group vs. 0 unit ([25th, 75th] percentiles: 0-2.0) in L-ANH group (P = 0.012) and L-ANH was associated with lower incidence of transfusion (23.6% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.042, rate difference: 0.182, 95% confidence interval [0.007-0.343]). The incidence of postoperative excessive bleeding was significantly lower in L-ANH vs. M-ANH (3.6% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.029, rate difference: 0.146, 95% confidence interval [0.027-0.270]) without significant difference for other second outcomes. The volume of ANH was inversely related to perioperative RBC transfusion units (Spearman r = -0.483, 95% confidence interval [-0.708 to -0.168], P = 0.003), and L-ANH in cardiac surgery was associated with a significantly reduced risk of perioperative RBC transfusion (odds ratio: 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.98, P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS Compared with M-ANH, L-ANH during cardiac surgery inclined to be associated with reduced perioperative RBC transfusion and the volume of RBC transfusion was inversely proportional to the volume of ANH. In addition, LANH during cardiac surgery was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative excessive bleeding.
Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on anesthetic effect, plasma concentration, and recovery quality in elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery
BMC geriatrics. 2023;23(1):689
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) on the anesthetic effect, plasma concentration, and postoperative recovery quality in elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery. METHODS A total of 60 cases of elderly patients aged 65 to 75 years who underwent elective multilevel spinal surgery were assigned randomly into the ANH group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). Hemodynamic and blood gas analysis indexes were observed and recorded before ANH (T(1)), after ANH (T(2)), immediately after postoperative autologous blood transfusion (T(3)), 10 min (T(4)), 20 min (T(5)), 30 min (T(6)), 40 min (T(7)), and 50 min (T(8)) after the transfusion, and at the end of the transfusion (i.e., 60 min; T(9)). At T(3 ~ 9), bispectral index (BIS) and train-of-four (TOF) stimulation were recorded and the plasma propofol/cisatracurium concentration was determined. The extubation time and recovery quality were recorded. RESULTS The ANH group presented a lower MAP value and a higher SVV value at T(2), and shorter extubation and orientation recovery time (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. BIS values at T(8) and T(9) were lower in the ANH group than those in the control group (P < 0.05). TOF values at T(7 ~ 9) were lower in the ANH group than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the postoperative plasma concentrations of propofol and cisatracurium between the groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION During orthopedic surgery, the plasma concentration of elderly patients is increased after autologous blood transfusion of ANH, and the depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxant effect are strengthened, thus leading to delayed recovery of respiratory function and extubation.
Cell salvage for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion in adults undergoing elective surgery
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;9(9):Cd001888
BACKGROUND Concerns regarding the safety and availability of transfused donor blood have prompted research into a range of techniques to minimise allogeneic transfusion requirements. Cell salvage (CS) describes the recovery of blood from the surgical field, either during or after surgery, for reinfusion back to the patient. OBJECTIVES To examine the effectiveness of CS in minimising perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion and on other clinical outcomes in adults undergoing elective or non-urgent surgery. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases and two clinical trials registers for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews from 2009 (date of previous search) to 19 January 2023, without restrictions on language or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA We included RCTs assessing the use of CS compared to no CS in adults (participants aged 18 or over, or using the study's definition of adult) undergoing elective (non-urgent) surgery only. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS We included 106 RCTs, incorporating data from 14,528 participants, reported in studies conducted in 24 countries. Results were published between 1978 and 2021. We analysed all data according to a single comparison: CS versus no CS. We separated analyses by type of surgery. The certainty of the evidence varied from very low certainty to high certainty. Reasons for downgrading the certainty included imprecision (small sample sizes below the optimal information size required to detect a difference, and wide confidence intervals), inconsistency (high statistical heterogeneity), and risk of bias (high risk from domains including sequence generation, blinding, and baseline imbalances). Aggregate analysis (all surgeries combined: primary outcome only) Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if there is a reduction in the risk of allogeneic transfusion with CS (risk ratio (RR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.72; 82 RCTs, 12,520 participants). Cancer: 2 RCTs (79 participants) Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain whether there is a difference for mortality, blood loss, infection, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There were no analysable data reported for the remaining outcomes. Cardiovascular (vascular): 6 RCTs (384 participants) Very low- to low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain whether there is a difference for most outcomes. No data were reported for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Cardiovascular (no bypass): 6 RCTs (372 participants) Moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is probably a reduction in risk of allogeneic transfusion with CS (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.97; 3 RCTs, 169 participants). Very low- to low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain whether there is a difference for volume transfused, blood loss, mortality, re-operation for bleeding, infection, wound complication, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hospital length of stay (LOS). There were no analysable data reported for thrombosis, DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), and MACE. Cardiovascular (with bypass): 29 RCTs (2936 participants) Low-certainty evidence suggests there may be a reduction in the risk of allogeneic transfusion with CS, and suggests there may be no difference in risk of infection and hospital LOS. Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence means we are uncertain whether there is a reduction in volume transfused because of CS, or if there is any difference for mortality, blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, wound complication, thrombosis, DVT, PE, MACE, and MI, and probably no difference in risk of stroke. Obstetrics: 1 RCT (1356 participants) High-certainty evidence shows there is no difference between groups for mean volume of allogeneic blood transfused (mean difference (MD) -0.02 units, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.04; 1 RCT, 1349 participants). Low-certainty evidence suggests there may be no difference for risk of allogeneic transfusion. There were no analysable data reported for the remaining outcomes. Orthopaedic (hip only): 17 RCTs (2055 participants) Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if CS reduces the risk of allogeneic transfusion, and the volume transfused, or if there is any difference between groups for mortality, blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, infection, wound complication, prosthetic joint infection (PJI), thrombosis, DVT, PE, stroke, and hospital LOS. There were no analysable data reported for MACE and MI. Orthopaedic (knee only): 26 RCTs (2568 participants) Very low- to low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if CS reduces the risk of allogeneic transfusion, and the volume transfused, and whether there is a difference for blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, infection, wound complication, PJI, DVT, PE, MI, MACE, stroke, and hospital LOS. There were no analysable data reported for mortality and thrombosis. Orthopaedic (spine only): 6 RCTs (404 participants) Moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is probably a reduction in the need for allogeneic transfusion with CS (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.63; 3 RCTs, 194 participants). Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests there may be no difference for volume transfused, blood loss, infection, wound complication, and PE. There were no analysable data reported for mortality, re-operation for bleeding, PJI, thrombosis, DVT, MACE, MI, stroke, and hospital LOS. Orthopaedic (mixed): 14 RCTs (4374 participants) Very low- to low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if there is a reduction in the need for allogeneic transfusion with CS, or if there is any difference between groups for volume transfused, mortality, blood loss, infection, wound complication, PJI, thrombosis, DVT, MI, and hospital LOS. There were no analysable data reported for re-operation for bleeding, MACE, and stroke. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS In some types of elective surgery, cell salvage may reduce the need for and volume of allogeneic transfusion, alongside evidence of no difference in adverse events, when compared to no cell salvage. Further research is required to establish why other surgeries show no benefit from CS, through further analysis of the current evidence. More large RCTs in under-reported specialities are needed to expand the evidence base for exploring the impact of CS.
Adults undergoing elective surgery (106 randomised controlled trials, n= 14,528).
Intraoperative red blood cell salvage (CS).
No CS (usual care).
Cancer surgery (2 studies, n= 79) and vascular surgery (6 studies, n= 384): there is inconclusive evidence of the impact of cell salvage. Heart surgery without bypass (6 studies, n= 372): there is probably a reduction in the risk of needing a transfusion of donated blood because of cell salvage. Heart surgery with bypass (29 studies, n= 2,936): there may be a reduction in the risk of needing a transfusion of donated blood because of cell salvage. Caesarean section (1 study, n= 1,356): inconclusive evidence suggests there may be no difference in the risk of needing a transfusion of donated blood, alongside strong evidence that suggests there is no difference in the average amount of donated blood that is needed by the patient, because of cell salvage. Hip replacement surgery (17 studies, n= 2,055) and knee replacement surgery (26 studies, n= 2,568): there is inconclusive evidence of the impact of cell salvage. Spinal surgery (6 studies, n= 404): there is probably a reduction in the risk of needing a transfusion of donated blood because of cell salvage.
Safety of Intraoperative Cell Salvage in Cancer Surgery: An Updated Meta-Analysis of the Current Literature
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2022;49(3):143-157
BACKGROUND Allogeneic blood transfusions in oncologic surgery are associated with increased recurrence and mortality. Adverse effects on outcome could be reduced or avoided by using intraoperative autologous blood cell salvage (IOCS). However, there are concerns regarding the safety of the autologous IOCS blood. Previous meta-analyses from 2012 and 2020 did not identify increased risk of cancer recurrence after using autologous IOCS blood. The objective of this review was to reassess a greater number of IOCS-treated patients to present an updated and more robust analysis of the current literature. METHODS This systematic review includes full-text articles listed in PubMed, Cochrane, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science. We analyzed publications that discussed cell salvage or autotransfusion combined with the following outcomes: cancer recurrence, mortality, survival, allogeneic transfusion rate and requirements, length of hospital stay (LOS). To rate the strength of evidence, a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) of the underlying evidence was applied. RESULTS In the updated meta-analysis, 7 further observational studies were added to the original 27 observational studies included in the former 2020 analysis. Studies compared either unfiltered (n = 2,311) or filtered (n = 850) IOCS (total n = 3,161) versus non-IOCS use (n = 5,342). Control patients were either treated with autologous predonated blood (n = 484), with allogeneic transfusion (n = 4,113), or did not receive a blood transfusion (n = 745). However, the current literature still contains only observational studies on these topics, and the strength of evidence remains low. The risk of cancer recurrence was reduced in recipients of autologous salvaged blood with or without LDF (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.90) compared to nontransfused patients or patients with allogeneic transfusion. There was no difference in mortality (OR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.71-1.27) and LOS (mean difference -0.07 days, 95% CI: -0.63 to 0.48) between patients treated with IOCS blood or those in whom IOCS was not used. Due to high heterogeneity, transfusion rates or volumes could not be analyzed. CONCLUSION Randomized controlled trials comparing mortality and cancer recurrence rate of IOCS with or without LDF filtration versus allogeneic blood transfusion were not found. Outcome was similar or better in patients receiving IOCS during cancer surgery compared to patients with allogeneic blood transfusion or nontransfused patients.
Analysis of the Need for Postoperative Drainage Application for Hip Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2022;2022:2069468
OBJECTIVE To synthesize the evidence regarding the effect and safety of drainage after the hip arthroplasty in randomized control trials. BACKGROUND Although the standard of hip replacement has matured in recent years, the need for postoperative drainage is still controversial which also is a clinical problem that needs to be addressed. DESIGN A systematic review and meta-analysis based on the Cochrane methods and Prisma guideline. Data Resources. A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Ovid, Wan Fang database, CNKI, and CBM database was carried out from January 1, 2000, to December, 2021. Review Methods. The quality of included randomized controlled trials was assessed individually by two reviewers independently using criteria recommended in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. RESULTS Nineteen randomized control trials involving 3354 participants were included in this analysis. From the above analysis, we can know that compared with nondrainage, there was a statistically significant difference in VAS score on the postoperative first day (SD = -0.6; 95% CI: -0.79, -0.41) and second day (SD = -0.38, 95% CI: -0.58, -0.18), hematocrit reduction (MD =2.89; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.48), blood transfusion rate (OR =1.47; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.92), change of thigh circumstance (SMD = -0.48; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.31), and hospital stay (MD = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.39) in drainage. However, there were no statistically significant differences in hemoglobin and hematocrit level, hip function, total blood loss, transfusion volume, dressing use, and complications between them. CONCLUSION Drainage after hip arthroplasty can reduce swelling in the thigh and relieve pain while no drainage can bring down hematocrit reduction, decrease dressing uses, and shorten the hospital stay which promotes rapid recovery. This review provides a detailed theoretical reference for the proper clinical application of drains and improves the efficient use of resources.
Effect of Autotransfusion in HCC Surgery on Survival and Recurrence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND The chronic blood shortage has forced clinicians to seek alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusions during surgery. Due to anatomic uniqueness resulting in a vast vasculature, liver surgery can lead to significant blood loss, and an estimated 30% of patients require blood transfusions in major hepatectomy. Allogeneic transfusion harbors the risk of an immunologic reaction. However, the hesitation to reinfuse a patient's own blood during cancer surgery is reinforced by the potentiality of reintroducing and disseminating tumor cells into an individual undergoing curative treatment. Two methods of autotransfusions are common: autotransfusion after preoperative blood donation and intraoperative blood salvage (IBS). We aim to investigate the effect of autotransfusion on recurrence and survival rates of patients undergoing surgery for HCC. METHODS The protocol for this meta-analysis was registered at PROSPERO prior to data extraction. MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for publications on liver surgery and blood salvage (autologous transfusion or intraoperative blood salvage). Comparative studies were included. Outcomes focused on long-term oncologic status and mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) estimated outcomes with a fixed-effects model. Risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I, and certainty of evidence was evaluated with GRADE. Separate analyses were performed for liver transplantation and hepatectomies. RESULTS Fifteen studies were included in the analysis (nine on transplantation and six on hepatectomies), and they comprised 2052 patients. Overall survival was comparable between patients who received intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) or not for liver transplantation (HR 1.13, 95% CI [0.89, 1.42] p = 0.31). Disease-free survival also was comparable (HR 0.97, 95% CI [0.76, 1.24], p = 0.83). Autotransfusion after prior donation was predominantly used in hepatectomy. Patients who received autotransfusion had a significantly better overall survival than the control (HR 0.71, 95% CI [0.58, 0.88], p = 0.002). Disease-free survival was also significantly higher in patients with autotransfusion (HR 0.88, 95% CI [0.80, 0.96], p = 0.005). Although overall, the certainty of evidence is low and included studies exhibited methodological heterogeneity, the heterogeneity of outcomes was low to moderate. CONCLUSION Autotransfusion, including intraoperative blood salvage, does not adversely affect the overall or disease-free survival of patients with HCC undergoing resection or transplantation. The results of this meta-analysis justify a randomized-controlled trial regarding the feasibility and potential benefits of autotransfusion in HCC surgery.
Patients undergoing liver surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma (15 studies, n= 2,052).
Autologous transfusion (including intraoperative blood salvage).
No autologous transfusion.
Overall survival was comparable between patients who received intraoperative blood salvage or not for liver transplantation (Hazard ratio (HR): 1.13, 95% CI: 0.89-1.42). Disease-free survival also was comparable (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76-1.24). Autotransfusion after prior donation was predominantly used in hepatectomy. Patients who received autotransfusion had a significantly better overall survival than the control (HR, 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58-0.88). Disease-free survival was also significantly higher in patients with autotransfusion (HR, 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.96). Although overall, the certainty of evidence is low and included studies exhibited methodological heterogeneity, the heterogeneity of outcomes was low to moderate.
Safety of Intraoperative Blood Salvage During Liver Transplantation in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Annals of Surgery. 2022;276(2):239-245
OBJECTIVE The effects of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) on time to tumor recurrence, disease-free survival and overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing liver transplantation were assessed to evaluate the safety of IBS. BACKGROUND IBS is highly effective to reduce the use of allogeneic blood transfusion. However, the safety of IBS during liver transplantation for patients with HCC is questioned due to fear of disseminating malignant cells. METHODS Comprehensive searches through June 2021 were performed in 8 databases. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Robins-I tool. Meta-analysis with the generic inverse variance method was performed to calculate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for disease-free survival, HCC recurrence and overall survival. RESULTS Nine studies were included (n=1997, IBS n=1200, no-IBS n=797). Use of IBS during liver transplantation was not associated with impaired disease-free survival [HR=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.66-1.24, P=0.53, IBS n=394, no-IBS n=329], not associated with increased HCC recurrence (HR=0.83, 95% CI=0.57-1.23, P=0.36, IBS n=537, no-IBS n=382) and not associated with impaired overall survival (HR=1.04, 95% CI=0.79-1.37, P=0.76, IBS n=495, no-IBS n=356). CONCLUSIONS Based on available observational data, use of IBS during liver transplantation in patients with HCC does not result in impaired disease-free survival, increased HCC recurrence or impaired overall survival. Therefore, use of IBS during liver transplantation for HCC patients is a safe procedure.
The neurocognitive outcomes of hemodilution in adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2022;25(2):133-140
OBJECTIVE The study aimed to evaluate the effect of mild and moderate hemodilution during CPB on the neurocognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DESIGN A randomized clinical study. SETTING Cardiac center. PATIENTS 186 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTION The patients were classified into 2 groups (each = 93), Mild hemodilution group: The hematocrit value was maintained >25% by transfusion of packed-red blood cells plus hemofiltration during CPB. Moderate hemodilution group: the hematocrit value was maintained within the range of 21-25%. MEASUREMENTS The monitors included the hemofiltrated volume, number of transfused packed red blood cells, and the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. MAIN RESULTS The hemofiltrated volume during CPB was too much higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The number of the transfused packed red blood cells during CPB was higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001), but after CPB, the number of the transfused packed red blood cells was lower with the mild hemodilution group than the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The incidence of total postoperative neurological complications was significantly lower with the mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.033). The incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction was significantly lower with mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS The mild hemodilution was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction compared to moderate hemodilution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Also, the transfused packed red blood cells increased during CPB and decreased after CPB with the mild hemodilution than moderate hemodilution.
The Effect of Cell Salvage on Bleeding and Transfusion Needs in Cardiac Surgery
Anesthesiology research and practice. 2022;2022:3993452
INTRODUCTION Cell salvaging is well established in the blood management of cardiac patients, but there remain some concerns about its effects on perioperative bleeding and transfusion variables. This randomized controlled study investigated the potential effects of the centrifuged end-product on bleeding, transfusion rates, and other transfusion-related variables in adult cardiac surgery patients submitted to extracorporeal circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were randomly chosen to receive (cell-salvage group, 99 patients) or not to receive (control group, 110 patients) the centrifuged product of a cell salvage apparatus. Bleeding and transfusion rates according to the universal definition of perioperative bleeding (UDPB) classification, postoperative hemoglobin, coagulation, and oxygenation indices were recorded and compared between the groups. RESULTS Both groups had almost identical bleeding and transfusion rates (median value: 2 units of red blood cells (RBC) and no units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets (PLT) for both groups, p > 0.05). Patients in the cell-salvage group presented slightly higher hemoglobin concentrations (10.6 ± 1.1 vs. 10.1 ± 1.7 g/dL, p < 0.05, respectively) and a tendency towards better oxygenation indices (P(a)O(2)/F(i)O(2): 241 ± 94 vs. 207 ± 84, p=0.013) in the postoperative period albeit with a tendency for prolongation of prothrombin time (INR: 1.31 ± 0.18 vs. 1.26 ± 0.12, p=0.008). CONCLUSION Within the study's constraints, the perioperative use of the cell salvage concentrate does not seem to affect bleeding or transfusion variables, although it could probably ameliorate postoperative oxygenation in adult cardiac surgery patients. A tendency to promote coagulation disturbances was detected.