Does bone wax make sense in off-pump coronary surgery? A prospective randomized study
Kardiochirurgia i torakochirurgia polska = Polish journal of cardio-thoracic surgery. 2023;20(2):67-71
INTRODUCTION The effect of bone wax on sternal infection and intraoperative bleeding in off-pump coronary surgery has not been reported in current literature. AIM: To prospectively evalute this in a cohort of high risk patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery surgery at our institution. The potential impact on cell saver utilization was also studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective randomized study was performed in 58 diabetic patients operated on for two-vessel coronary artery disease by the off-pump technique. They were randomly assigned to the wax or no-wax group. RESULTS There was no significant difference in intraoperative blood loss between the wax (550 ml) and no-wax group (750 ml; p = 0.0711). In multivariate analysis the absence (non-use) of bone wax (odds ratio = 3.9 (1.12-13.51), p = 0.027) and preoperative creatinin level (odds ratio = 1.1 (0.99-1.03), p = 0.03) were identified as independent predictors of blood loss ≥ 750 ml. The number of red blood cell units during hospital stay was similar in both groups (p = 0.42). Wound healing complications were not observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS The use of bone wax does not lead to a higher risk of sternal wound infection. It may reduce the risk of high intraoperative blood loss, thus avoiding the need of a cell saver during off-pump coronary surgery. However, this influence remains questionable.
Hemostatic spray (TC-325) vs. standard endoscopic therapy for non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Endoscopy international open. 2023;11(3):E288-e295
Background and study aims Hemospray (TC-325) is a mineral powder with adsorptive properties designed for use in various gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) scenarios. We conducted a systematic review & meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TC-325 to standard endoscopic therapy (SET) for non-variceal GIB (NVGIB). Methods Multiple databases were searched through October 2022. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to determine pooled relative risk (RR) and proportions with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for primary hemostasis, hemostasis failure, 30-day rebleeding, length of stay (LOS), and need for rescue interventions. Heterogeneity was assessed using I (2) %. Results Five RCTs with 362 patients (TC-325 178, SET 184) - 123 females and 239 males with a mean age 65 ± 16 years). The most common etiologies were peptic ulcer disease (48 %), malignancies (35 %), and others (17 %). Bleeding was characterized as Forrest IA (7 %), IB (73 %), IIA (3 %), and IIB (1 %). SET included epinephrine injection, electrocautery, hemoclips, or a combination. No statistical difference in primary hemostasis between TC-325 compared to SET, RR 1.09 (CI 0.95-1.25; I (2) 43), P = 0.2, including patients with oozing/spurting hemorrhage, RR 1.13 (CI 0.98-1.3; I (2) 35), P = 0.08. Failure to achieve hemostasis was higher in SET compared to TC-325, RR 0.30 (CI 0.12-0.77, I (2) 0), P = 0.01, including patients with oozing/spurting hemorrhage, RR 0.24 (CI 0.09 - 0.63, I (2) 0), P = 0.004. We found no difference between the two interventions in terms of rebleeding, RR 1.13 (CI 0.62-2.07, I (2) 26), P = 0.8 and LOS, standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.27 (CI, -0.20-0.74; I (2) 62), P = 0.3. Finally, pooled rate of rescue interventions (angiography) was statistically higher in SET compared to TC-325, RR 0.68 (CI 0.5-0.94; I (2) 0), P = 0.02. Conclusions Our analysis shows that for acute NV GIB, including oozing/spurting hemorrhage, TC-325 does not result in higher rates of primary hemostasis compared to SET. However, lower rates of failures were seen with TC-325 than SET. In addition, there was no difference in the two modalities when comparing rates of rebleeding and LOS.
The effects of tourniquet use on blood loss and perioperative complications in total knee arthroplasty
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):847
BACKGROUND There has been ongoing debate about the use of tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty, and their application is widely studied. A comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of tourniquet use during the procedure is crucial for optimizing surgical outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of tourniquet application, with a particular focus on blood loss and perioperative complications, providing valuable insights for clinical practice. METHODS Fifty patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized into tourniquet (n = 25) and nontourniquet (n = 25) groups. The same surgeon performed all surgical procedures. The follow-up time was 14 days after surgery. Primary outcomes were hemoglobin level changes, blood loss, operation time, and perioperative plasma D-dimer levels. Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications, including thrombotic and nonthrombotic events. RESULTS No significant differences were found in drainage, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin levels, or blood transfusion between the two groups (P > 0.05). No differences in D-dimer levels were observed on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 14 between the two groups, except on postoperative Day 7, when the D-dimer level in the tourniquet group was lower than that in the nontourniquet group (P = 0.03). The incidence of local complications (thigh bruising, blisters, pain, fat liquefaction, and superficial infections) in the tourniquet group was significantly higher than that in the nontourniquet group (P = 0.03), but no significant differences were found in thromboembolic and nonthromboembolic events or overall complications (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION We conclude that tourniquet use does not reduce the length of surgery or blood loss but does increase local complications in total knee arthroplasty.
Silicone ring tourniquet could be a substitute for a conventional tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty with a longer surgical field: a prospective comparative study in simultaneous total knee arthroplasty
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):363
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of silicon ring tourniquets and conventional pneumatic tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study compared the operation time, total bleeding amount, length from the tourniquet distal end to the patella superior pole (L_TP), and complications related to the two tourniquet application methods and attempted to determine whether the silicon ring tourniquet has advantages over conventional pneumatic tourniquets. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective comparative study included 30 patients who underwent bilateral simultaneous TKA for degenerative osteoarthritis in August to December 2021. All patients underwent TKA on one side with a conventional pneumatic tourniquet, while TKA on the other side with a silicon ring tourniquet. The primary outcomes were the L_TP, operation time, tourniquet time, total bleeding amount, total drainage amount, and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score of the tourniquet applied site at 6, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. The secondary outcome was tourniquet-related complications in both groups. RESULTS L_TP was significantly longer in the silicon ring tourniquet group compared with that in the pneumatic tourniquet group (20.22 ± 2.74 cm versus 15.12 ± 2.40, p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in other results. The tourniquet applied site pain was less in the silicon ring tourniquet group (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS Silicon ring tourniquet application resulted in better clinical outcomes than conventional pneumatic tourniquets in TKA. Because we can obtain a wider surgical field using silicon ring tourniquets without complications, silicon ring tourniquets could be a substitute for conventional pneumatic tourniquets in total knee arthroplasty or distal femoral surgeries.
Tourniquets can further reduce perioperative blood loss in patients on dexamethasone and tranexamic acid during cemented total knee arthritis: a single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial
Journal of orthopaedics and traumatology : official journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 2023;24(1):17
BACKGROUND Multiple doses of dexamethasone and tranexamic acid can inhibit postoperative inflammation and reduce fibrinolysis and perioperative blood loss in total knee arthroplasty. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, the aim was to investigate whether applying a tourniquet to patients on dexamethasone and tranexamic acid could further reduce perioperative blood loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients who underwent cemented total knee arthroplasty at our hospital were randomized to receive a tourniquet (n = 71) or not (n = 70) during the procedure. All patients received multiple doses of dexamethasone and tranexamic acid perioperatively. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss, while secondary outcomes were surgery duration, postoperative laboratory indices of inflammation and fibrinolysis, range of knee motion, VAS pain score, knee circumference, knee swelling rate, homologous transfusion, albumin use, and complications. RESULTS Using a tourniquet was associated with significantly lower intraoperative blood loss (P < 0.001) and total blood loss (P = 0.007) as well as significantly shorter surgery duration (P < 0.001). In contrast, the tourniquet did not significantly affect hidden blood loss, postoperative inflammation or fibrinolysis, range of knee motion, VAS pain score, knee circumference, knee swelling rate, homologous transfusion, albumin use, or complications. CONCLUSIONS The results of this randomized clinical trial demonstrate that applying a tourniquet during cemented total knee arthroplasty to patients receiving multiple doses of dexamethasone and tranexamic acid can further reduce perioperative blood loss without increasing the risk of inflammation, fibrinolysis, or other complications. Thus, it is advised to use tourniquets combined with dexamethasone and tranexamic acid to reduce perioperative blood loss and avoid tourniquet-related adverse events. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic Level I. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trail Registry, ChiCTR2200060567. Registered 5 June 2022-retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=171291.
Small-Diameter Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt versus Endoscopic Variceal Ligation Plus Propranolol for Variceal Rebleeding in Advanced Cirrhosis
Background Some studies have shown that transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement within 72 hours of admission improves survival in patients at high risk who present with acute variceal bleeding. However, the role of small-diameter covered TIPS in the secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding is still debatable. Purpose To compare the efficacy of 8-mm TIPS and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) plus propranolol in the prevention of variceal rebleeding among participants with advanced cirrhosis. Materials and Methods Between June 2015 and December 2018, participants admitted to the hospital for variceal bleeding were considered for enrollment in this randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov). Participants with Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis were randomly assigned to receive an 8-mm covered TIPS or EVL and propranolol. The primary end point was recurrent variceal bleeding assessed using Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. Secondary end points included survival and overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) assessed using Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. Results A total of 100 participants were enrolled, with 50 randomly assigned to the EVL plus propranolol group (median age, 54 years; IQR, 45-60 years; 29 male, 21 female) and 50 randomly assigned to the TIPS group (median age, 49 years; IQR, 43-56 years; 32 male, 18 female). The median follow-up period was 43.4 months. In the TIPS group, variceal rebleeding risk was reduced compared with variceal rebleeding risk in the EVL plus propranolol group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.69; P = .008), but the incidence of overt HE was higher in the TIPS group (30.0% vs 16.0%, P = .03). No differences in survival were observed between the two groups (1-year survival: TIPS, 98.0%; EVL plus propranolol, 92.0%; 3-year survival: TIPS, 94.0%; EVL plus propranolol, 85.7%; HR, 0.52; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.42; P = .22). Conclusion When compared with EVL plus propranolol, 8-mm TIPS led to reduced variceal rebleeding but did not impact overall survival in participants with Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis. Clinical trial registration no. NCT02477384 © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Barth in this issue.
Clinical application of 3DSlicer and Sina in minimally invasive puncture drainage of elderly patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage under local anesthesia
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 2023;32(8):107192
BACKGROUND Decreased organ function and poor physical compensatory capacity in elderly patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can make surgical treatment procedures challenging and risky. Minimally invasive puncture drainage (MIPD) combined with urokinase infusion therapy is a safe and feasible method of treating ICH. This study aimed to compare the treatment efficacy of MIPD conducted under local anesthesia using either 3DSlicer + Sina application or computer tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic localization of hematomas in elderly patients diagnosed with ICH. METHODS The study sample included 78 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) diagnosed with ICH for the first time. All patients exhibited stable vital signs and underwent surgical treatment. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either receiving 3DSlicer+Sina or CT-guided stereotactic assistance. The preoperative preparation time; hematoma localization accuracy rate; satisfactory hematoma puncture rate; hematoma clearance rate; postoperative rebleeding rate; Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score after 7 days; and modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups. RESULTS No significant differences in gender, age, preoperative GCS score, preoperative hematoma volume (HV), and surgical duration were observed between the two groups (all p-values > 0.05). However, the preoperative preparation time was shorter in the group receiving 3DSlicer + Sina assistance compared to that receiving CT-guided stereotactic assistance (p-value < 0.001). Both groups exhibited significant improvement in GCS scores and reduction in HV after surgery (all p-values < 0.001). The accuracy of hematoma localization and puncture was 100% in both groups. There were no significant differences in surgical duration, postoperative hematoma clearance rate, rebleeding rate, postoperative GCS and mRS scores between the two groups (all p-values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS A combination of 3DSlicer and Sina is effective in accurately identifying hematomas in elderly patients with ICH exhibiting stable vital signs, thus simplifying MIPD surgeries conducted under local anesthesia. This procedure may also be preferred over CT-guided stereotactic localization in clinical practice due to its ease of use and accuracy in hematoma localization.
Tourniquet use benefits to reduce intraoperative blood loss in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: An updated meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong). 2023;31(2):10225536231191607
PURPOSE The efficacy and safety of tourniquets use during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis remain debated. This updated systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to further evaluate the role of tourniquets use in patients undergoing TKA for knee osteoarthritis by introducing trial sequential analysis. METHODS PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool for quality assessment. Statistical heterogeneity across studies was evaluated using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata/SE 14.0, and trail sequential analysis was performed using TSA software version 0.9.5.10 Beta. In addition, qualitative summary was also used to describe results. RESULTS 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1202 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that tourniquet use during TKA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD)= -123.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): -163.37 to -84.32, p < .001)and shortened operation time (MD = -4.71, 95% CI: -7.6 to -1.82, p = .001), but there were no significant differences in postoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, transfusion rate (p = .939), and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) rate between the tourniquet and no-tourniquet groups. TSA confirmed that the result of operation time was false positive, but the results of other outcomes were conclusive. The results of qualitative summary showed conflicting findings in terms of pain, range of motion (RoM) and swelling ratio between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Tourniquet use in patients receiving TKA for osteoarthritis benefits to reduce intraoperative blood loss but has no effect on postoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, operation time, transfusion rate, and DVT rate. In addition, it remains unclear the difference between the tourniquet and non-tourniquet groups in terms of pain, RoM and swelling ratio.
Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for osteoarthritis (15 randomised controlled trials, n= 1,202).
Non-use of tourniquet.
The pooled results showed that tourniquet use during TKA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD)= -123.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) [-163.37, -84.32]) and shortened operation time (MD= -4.71; 95% CI [-7.6 to, -1.82]), but there were no significant differences in postoperative blood loss, calculated blood loss, total blood loss, transfusion rate, and deep venous thrombosis rate between the tourniquet and no-tourniquet groups. Trial sequential analyses confirmed that the result of operation time was false positive, but the results of other outcomes were conclusive. The results of qualitative summary showed conflicting findings in terms of pain, range of motion and swelling ratio between the two groups.
Fibrin Glue Sac Filling for Preventing Type II Endoleak, Short-Term Outcomes of a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists. 2023;:15266028231159245
OBJECTIVE Type II endoleak (T2EL) worsens the long-term results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). How to prevent T2ELs remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue sac filling (FGSF) to prevent T2ELs after EVAR. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomly divided into group A (standard EVAR + FGSF) and group B (standard EVAR). The follow-up plans included outpatient or telephone consultation at 1 and 3 months and computed tomography (CT) angiography at 6 months, 1 year, and once a year after EVAR. RESULTS A total of 64 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients were randomized to the 2 groups. All patients were followed up for more than 6 months. The 2 groups showed similar baseline characteristics. The rate of T2ELs on immediate angiography in group A (9.6%) was significantly lower than that in group B (33.3%, p=0.033). Moreover, the sac area change was significantly reduced in group A at 6 months after EVAR (p=0.021). However, T2EL incidence was similar at the 6-month (p=0.055) and 1-year (p=0.057) follow-ups, and AAA diameter change was also similar at 1 year. There were similar operation times, radiation doses, severe adverse events (SAEs), and reinterventions between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION Fibrin glue sac filling could prevent short-term type II endoleaks and promote AAA shrinkage after 6 months. The FGSF procedure is swift and straightforward; however, patients are at risk of bowel ischemia, especially after previous bowel resections or concomitant superior mesenteric artery (SMA) disease. CLINICAL IMPACT Standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) couldn't prevent type II endoleak (T2EL). In this study, we found fibrin glue sac filling (FGSF) could prevent T2EL and promote AAA shrinkage in a short term. And the FGSF procedure is easy, it will be a useful supplement to standard EVAR for clinicians. And FGSF might have potential usefulness on ruptured aneurysms, although without direct evidence.Fibrin glue is often used to hemostasis and tissue adhesion in surgical patients and burn patients, we firstly carry out a randomized controlled study and prove that fibrin glue sac filling could prevent T2EL and promote sac remodeling.
Effects of Shared Decision Making with Patient Decision Aid for Post-Angiography Hemostasis Method Selection: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR. 2023
PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of shared decision-making (SDM) with patient decision aid (PtDA) on hemostasis device selection and reduction of decisional conflicts in patients undergoing transfemoral angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients undergoing angiography were randomized to receive either a standard explanation or the process aid of PtDA for choosing hemostasis devices. The decisional conflict was assessed using the 4-item SURE (Sure of myself; Understand information; Risk-benefit ratio; Encouragement) scale. Differences in demographic variables, clinical variables, and final choice of hemostasis devices were compared through univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS In total, 158 patients were included-80 in the PtDA group and 78 in the standard group. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of patient demographic and clinical variables. The PtDA group scored better on all questions of the SURE scale both individually and collaboratively (P < .001). PtDA intervention (P = .031) and the reason for angiography (P = .0006) were the main variables that influenced patient hemostasis device choice in the univariable logistic regression analysis. Reason for angiography remained the only deciding factor that affected patient choice in multivariable logistic regression analysis (P = .015). CONCLUSIONS Step-by-step guidance and pictorial explanation with the assistance of PtDA led to improvements in patient knowledge but show no significant impact in multivariate analysis for the influence on the choice of hemostasis device. Implementation of PtDA-aided SDM is recommended for improving patient-centered care.