Single dose of tranexamic acid effectively reduces blood loss and transfusion rates in elderly patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial
The bone & joint journal. 2021;103-b(3):442-448
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce blood loss and transfusion rates in elderly patients undergoing surgery for a subcapital or intertrochanteric (IT) fracture of the hip. METHODS In this single-centre, randomized controlled trial, elderly patients undergoing surgery for a hip fracture, either hemiarthroplasty for a subcapital fracture or intramedullary nailing for an IT fracture, were screened for inclusion. Patients were randomly allocated to a study group using a sealed envelope. The TXA group consisted of 77 patients, (35 with a subcapital fracture and 42 with an IT fracture), and the control group consisted of 88 patients (29 with a subcapital fracture and 59 with an IT fracture). One dose of 15 mg/kg of intravenous (IV) TXA diluted in 100 ml normal saline (NS,) or one dose of IV placebo 100 ml NS were administered before the incision was made. The haemoglobin (Hb) concentration was measured before surgery and daily until the fourth postoperative day. The primary outcomes were the total blood loss and the rate of transfusion from the time of surgery to the fourth postoperative day. RESULTS Homogeneity with respect to baseline characteristics was ensured between groups. The mean total blood loss was significantly lower in patients who received TXA (902.4 ml (-279.9 to 2,156.9) vs 1,226.3 ml (-269.7 to 3,429.7); p = 0.003), while the likelihood of requiring a transfusion of at least one unit of red blood cells was reduced by 22%. Subgroup analysis showed that these differences were larger in patients who had an IT fracture compared with those who had a subcapital fracture. CONCLUSION Elderly patients who undergo intramedullary nailing for an IT fracture can benefit from a single dose of 15 mg/kg TXA before the onset of surgery. A similar tendency was identified in patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty for a subcapital fracture but not to a statistically significant level. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):442-448.
Application of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(7):23259671211016847
BACKGROUND It is unclear how and which factors affect the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PURPOSE To evaluate the clinical efficacy of PRP for arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tear and investigate the factors that affect its clinical efficacy. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS We searched Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and OVID to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients who received PRP treatment and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (PRP group) versus controls (no-PRP group). The primary outcomes included retear rate, Constant-Murley score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, short-term American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, and adverse events. RESULTS A total of 14 RCTs were included in this systematic review. Significant improvement in Constant-Murley, UCLA, and VAS pain scores were found in the PRP group during short-term, midterm, and long-term follow-up. The PRP group had a significantly decreased retear rate (risk ratio [RR], 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.78]; P = .0003), especially for long-term follow-up (RR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.17 to 0.83]; P = .02), large to massive tears (RR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.80]; P = .0008), use of leukocyte-poor PRP (RR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.76]; P = .001), and intraoperative application of PRP (RR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.79]; P = .0007). No significant difference between the 2 groups was found in the incidence of adverse events (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.83 to 2.15]; P = .23) or in ASES scores at short-term follow-up (weighted mean difference, 1.04 [95% CI, -3.10 to 5.19]; P = .62). CONCLUSION The results of this review indicated that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with PRP significantly reduced the long-term retear rate and shoulder pain and provided improved long-term shoulder function in patients. Intraoperative application of PRP, use of leukocyte-poor plasma, and large to massive tear size contributed to a significantly decreased retear rate for rotator cuff repair combined with PRP.
Effect of preoperative finasteride on perioperative blood loss during transurethral resection of the prostate and on microvessel density in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: An open label randomized controlled trial
Urology annals. 2021;13(3):199-204
OBJECTIVE Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a common procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Previous studies on the effect of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on perioperative blood loss in TURP and microvessel density (MVD) in the prostate are equivocal. We evaluated whether pretreatment with finasteride for 2 weeks before surgery can reduce perioperative blood loss in TURP and MVD in the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-eight patients of BPH planned for TURP were randomized into two groups. The study group comprising 34 patients was treated with finasteride (5 mg/day) for 2 weeks and the placebo group comprising 34 patients received placebo for 2 weeks, before TURP. Blood loss was measured in terms of a reduction in the blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) levels between preoperative values and 24 h after surgery. MVD was measured in the resected prostate tissue stained with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS The reduction of Hb and HCT in the finasteride group was significantly lower than the reduction in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The artery (P = 0.005), vein (P = 0.05), and gland (P = 0.008) densities were significantly less in the finasteride group than in the placebo group. There was no significant correlation between blood loss and MVD. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests a clear advantage of the preoperative use of finasteride for 2 weeks by reducing the perioperative blood loss in TURP in patients with BPH. While there is a significant reduction in MVD in the prostate on treatment with finasteride, it is not clear that this is the mechanism of reduction in blood loss in TURP.
Transfusion Guidelines in Adult Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review and Critical Summary of Currently Available Evidence
The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2021
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Red blood cell transfusion can be associated with complications in medical and surgical patients. Acute anemia in ambulatory patients undergoing surgery can also impede wound healing and independent self-care. Current transfusion threshold guidelines are still based on evidence derived from critically-ill intensive care unit medical patients and may not apply to spine surgery candidates. PURPOSE We aimed to provide the reader with a synthesis of the best available evidence to recommend transfusion trigger thresholds and guidelines in adult patients undergoing spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING This is a systematic review. OUTCOME MEASURES Physiological measure: Blood transfusion thresholds and associated posttransfusion complications (morbidity, mortality, length of stay, infections, etc…) of the published articles. PATIENT SAMPLE Adult spine surgery patients. METHODS A systematic review of the literature using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science electronic databases was made according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Focus was set on papers discussing thresholds for blood transfusion in adult surgical spine patients, as well as complications associated with transfusion after acute surgical blood loss in the operating room or postoperative period. Publications discussing pediatric cases, blood type analyses, blood loss prevention strategies and protocols, systematic reviews and letters to the editor were excluded. RESULTS A total of 22 articles fitting our search criteria were reviewed. Patients who received blood transfusion in these studies were older, of female gender, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds from these studies showed that a pre-operative hemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds (Level B Class III). Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Blood transfusion thresholds in surgical patients may be specialty-specific and different than those used for critically-ill medical patients. For adult spine surgery patients, red blood cell transfusion should be avoided if Hb numbers remain > 9 and 8 g/dL in the intraoperative and direct post-operative periods, respectively.
Adult spine surgery patients (22 studies).
Systematic review of studies on recommended thresholds for blood transfusion, and its associated complications.
Patients who received blood transfusion in the studies reviewed were older, female, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds showed that a pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds. Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality.
A Modified Pressure Dressing to Avoid Severe Bleeding After Circumcision With a Disposable Circumcision Suture Device and a Discussion on the Mechanism of Bleeding With the Disposable Circumcision Suture Device
Sexual medicine. 2021;9(2):100288
INTRODUCTION A novel type of a disposable circumcision suture device (DCSD) has been proved to be effective and safe; however, a few cases of severe bleeding took place after circumcisions. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a modified double-layer pressure dressing to avoid severe bleeding after circumcision with the DCSD, in our department in a prospective randomized controlled study, and discuss the mechanism of bleeding with DCSD. METHODS Patients with redundant foreskin or phimosis were included between September 2018 and November 2019 and divided into 2 groups: In group A, the conventional pressure dressing was performed; in group B, an modified double-layer pressure dressing was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The main outcomes and complications (surgical time, incidence of glans ischemia, severe bleeding rate, infection rate, pain level, total cost, and overall satisfaction) were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 624 patients were recruited for this study. There was no difference in the average age and body mass index between 2 groups. No patient suffered obvious glans ischemia. In group B, lower pain level, lower incidences of severe bleeding, and better satisfaction were recorded. CONCLUSION The mechanism of bleeding with the DCSD was discussed in this study, and the modified pressure dressing was proved effective, safe, and easy to perform. W Jiang, J-li Fu, W-l Guo, et al. A Modified Pressure Dressing to Avoid Severe Bleeding After Circumcision With a Disposable Circumcision Suture Device and a Discussion on the Mechanism of Bleeding With the Disposable Circumcision Suture Device. Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.
Clinical and Radiographic Analysis of Novabone Putty with Platelet-Rich Fibrin in the Treatment of Periodontal Intrabony Defects: A Randomized Control Trial
Contemporary clinical dentistry. 2021;12(2):150-156
BACKGROUND Periodontal regeneration remains one of the crucial issues in the field of periodontology. Periodontal intrabony defects could be treated by surgical intervention through various alloplastic bone graft substitutes. The Food and Drug Administration approved, Novabone putty is one of the recently marketed bone graft substitutes, which has been used in the present study. This study also incorporates the placement of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in combination with Novabone putty. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty patients were included in the study and were allocated to either Group A or Group B through randomization. Group A included the placement of Novabone putty in the periodontal intrabony defects, whereas Group B included the placement of Novabone putty along with PRF. Statistical analysis of plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, relative attachment level, and intraoral periapical radiographs was performed. RESULTS Statistical more significant difference (P < 0.05) in probing pocket depth, and relative attachment level was observed in Group B (Novabone putty and PRF) in comparison to Group A (Novabone putty). CONCLUSION Evaluation of efficacy of Novabone putty along with PRF produced more favorable results in relative attachment level gain and more reduction in probing pocket depth when compared to Novabone putty alone.
Three-dimensional evaluation of the effects of injectable platelet rich fibrin (i-PRF) on alveolar bone and root length during orthodontic treatment: a randomized split mouth trial
BMC oral health. 2021;21(1):92
BACKGROUND The role of injectable platelet rich fibrin (i-PRF) in orthodontic treatment has not been investigated with focus on its effect on dental and bony periodontal elements. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of i-PRF in bone preservation and prevention of root resorption. METHODS A randomized split-mouth controlled trial included 21 patients aged 16-28 years (20.85 ± 3.85), who were treated for Class II malocclusion with the extraction of the maxillary first premolars. Right and left sides were randomly allocated to either experimental treated with i-PRF or control sides. After the leveling and alignment phase, the canines were retracted with 150gm forces. The i-PRF was prepared from the blood of each patient following a precise protocol, then injected immediately before canine retraction on the buccal and palatal aspects of the extraction sites. Localized maxillary cone beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after canine retraction to measure alveolar bone height and thickness and canine root length (indicative of root resorption), and the presence of dehiscence and fenestration. Paired sample t-tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the changes between groups. RESULTS No statistically significant differences in bone height, bone thickness were found between sides and between pre- and post-retraction period. However, root length was reduced post retraction but did not differ between sides. In both groups, postoperative dehiscence was observed buccally and palatally and fenestrations were recorded on only the buccal aspect. CONCLUSIONS I-PRF did not affect bone quality during canine retraction or prevent canine root resorption. I-PRF did not reduce the prevalence of dehiscence and fenestration. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier number: NCT03399760. 16/01/2018).
Comparison of fibrin sealants in peripheral vascular surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2021;61:161-168
BACKGROUND Evidence comparing fibrin sealants (FSs) in surgery are limited. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of FSs, and manual compression in peripheral vascular surgery. METHODS A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases within the last 15 years. Data were available to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) in peripheral vascular surgery. Fibrin sealant treatment arms were further broken-down and assessed by clotting time (i.e., 2-min [2C] or 1-min [1C]). The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients achieving hemostasis by 4 min (T4). Treatment-related serious and non-serious adverse events (AEs) were qualitatively assessed. RESULTS Five studies (n = 693), were included in the NMA. Results predicted VISTASEAL 2C, followed by EVICEL 1C, had the highest probability of achieving T4. Compared with manual compression, significant improvements in T4 were found with VISTASEAL 2C (relative risk [RR] = 2.67, 95% CrI: 2.13-3.34), EVICEL 1C (RR = 2.58, 95% CrI: 2.04-3.23), VISTASEAL 1C (RR = 2.00, 95% CrI: 1.45-2.65), and TISSEEL 2C (RR = 1.99, 95% CrI: 1.48-2.60). TISSEEL 1C was not significantly different than manual compression (RR = 1.40, 95% CrI: 0.70-2.33). Among FSs, VISTASEAL 2C was associated with a significant improvements in T4 compared with VISTASEAL 1C (RR = 1.33, 95% CrI: 1.02-1.82), TISSEEL 2C (RR = 1.34, 95% CrI: 1.05-1.77), and TISSEEL 1C (RR = 1.90, 95% CrI: 1.18-3.74). Treatment-related serious and non-serious AE rates were typically lower than 2%. CONCLUSIONS In peripheral vascular surgeries, VISTASEAL 2C and EVICEL 1C were shown to have the highest probabilities for achieving rapid hemostasis among the treatments compared. Future studies should expand networks across surgery types as data become available.
Effect of tranexamic acid in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong). 2021;29(2):23094990211017352
PURPOSE Perioperative blood loss remains a major challenge to surgeons in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery, despite of the introduction of minimally invasive approach. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is believed to reduce blood loss, which may minimise the complication of postoperative haemarthrosis with insufficient evidence on its effectiveness in ACLR. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of TXA on postoperative blood loss and other secondary outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR surgery. METHOD PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL database were systematically searched from its inception until November 2020. All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing TXA (intravenous or intra-articular) versus placebo in the arthroscopic ACLR surgery were included. Case series, case report and editorials were excluded. RESULTS Five RCTs comprising of a total of 580 patients (291 in TXA group, 289 in control group) were included for qualitative and quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to placebo, TXA group was significantly associated with lower postoperative blood loss (mean difference (MD): -81.93 ml; 95% CI -141.80 to -22.05) and lower incidence of needing knee aspiration (odd ratio (OR): 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.44). Patients who randomised to TXA were also reported to have better range of movement (MD: 2.86; 95% CI 0.54 to 5.18), lower VAS Pain Score (MD: -1.39; 95% CI -2.54 to -0.25) and higher Lysholm Score (MD: 7.38; 95% CI 2.75 to 12.01). CONCLUSION In this meta-analysis, TXA reduced postoperative blood loss with lesser incidence of needing knee aspiration along with better range of knee movement and Lysholm score in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR surgery.
The combined use of endometrial ablation or resection and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in women with heavy menstrual bleeding: A systematic review
Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. 2021
INTRODUCTION Despite the fact that endometrial ablation/resection is a very successful treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding, re-intervention with additional surgery is needed in 12-25% of the cases. Introducing a levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) immediately after ablation could preserve the integrity of the uterine cavity and suppress the regenerated or non-ablated endometrial tissue. Therefore, this combined treatment can perhaps lower the re-intervention rate. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the impact of the combined treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library were systematically searched. No language restrictions were applied. All types of studies were included reporting on the results of endometrial ablation or resection combined with immediate insertion of LNG-IUS for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. The primary outcome was the number of hysterectomies after the ablation procedure. Secondary outcomes included re-intervention rates, removals of LNG-IUS, bleeding pattern, patient satisfaction, side-effects and complications. Our protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic reviews under registration number CRD42020151384. RESULTS Six studies with a retrospective design and one case series with a follow up duration varying from 6 to 55 months were included. In total, 427 women were treated with the combined treatment. The studies described a lower hysterectomy and re-intervention rate after combined treatment compared to treatment with endometrial ablation/resection alone. Hysterectomy rate varied from 0-11% after combined treatment versus 9.4-24% after endometrial ablation/resection alone. Bleeding patterns and patient satisfaction appeared to be in favour of the combined treatment group. No intra or post operation complications or complications in the removal of LNG-IUS were described. Most described side effects after combined treatment were weight gain, mood changes and head-aches. An additional eleven studies with only an abstract available substantiated these findings. All the included studies had poor methodologic quality. CONCLUSIONS Based on the available literature inserting an LNG-IUS immediately after endometrial ablation/resection seems to lower the hysterectomy and re-intervention rates compared to ablation/resection alone. However, since only limited observational studies of low methodological quality are available, high quality research is necessary to confirm the findings of this systematic review.