Time to Total Knee Arthroplasty after Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid or Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(14)
Intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are increasingly being prescribed for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, failure of the medical treatment may result in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We wondered if IA HA or PRP injections (intervention) may delay the time to TKA (outcome) among KOA patients (population), compared to KOA patients not receiving these injections (comparator). For this systematic literature review (SLR) and meta-analysis, we selected observational studies with at least one group of patients receiving IA HA or PRP and with TKA data available. The main outcome was time from the diagnosis of KOA to TKA. We included 25 articles in the SLR (2,824,401 patients) and four in the meta-analysis. The mean strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) score was 63%. For patients receiving versus not receiving HA injections, the delay between a declared diagnosis of KOA to TKA was increased by 9.8 months (95% CI (8.2-11.4)). As compared with standard of care, the effect size of HA injections for this outcome was 0.57 (95% CI (0.36-0.76)). Only one study described a median time from PRP injections to TKA of 4.1 years (range 0.3-14.7). IA HA injections were associated with increased time to TKA. Causality cannot be concluded because of missing confounder factors as comorbidities. Data were insufficient to conclude any effect of PRP injections on TKA delay.
Platelet-rich plasma use in meniscus repair treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2022;17(1):446
BACKGROUND There is conflicting clinical evidence whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies could translate to an increased meniscus healing rate and improved functional outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the failure rate and patient-reported functional outcomes in meniscus repair augmented with and without PRP. METHODS We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies that compared the clinical efficacy of meniscus repair performed with PRP versus without PRP. The primary outcome was the meniscus repair failure rate, while the secondary outcomes were knee-specific patient-reported outcomes, including the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee scale, visual analog scale, Tegner activity level score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying the studies according to the PRP preparation technique to investigate the potential sources of heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS Our meta-analysis included nine studies (two RCTs and seven non-RCTs) with 1164 participants. The failure rate in the PRP group was significantly lower than that in the non-PRP group [odds ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.96), P = 0.03]. Furthermore, the PRP group was associated with a statistically significant improvement in the visual analog scale for pain [Mean difference (MD): - 0.76, 95% CI (- 1.32, - 0.21), P = 0.007] and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-symptom [MD: 8.02, 95% CI (2.99, 13.05), P = 0.002] compared with the non-PRP group. However, neither the IKDC score nor the Lysholm knee scale showed any differences between the two groups. In addition, the results of subgroup analyses favored PRP over platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) regarding the IKDC score. CONCLUSIONS Although meniscus repairs augmented with PRP led to significantly lower failure rates and better postoperative pain control compared with those of the non-PRP group, there is insufficient RCT evidence to support PRP augmentation of meniscus repair improving functional outcomes. Moreover, PRP could be recommended in meniscus repair augmentation compared with PRFM. PRFM was shown to have no benefit in improving functional outcomes.
The analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in tonsillectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery. 2022
AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) among patients undergoing tonsillectomy. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Google Scholar databases were screened from inception until July 2021, and updated in December 2021. Risk of bias of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The efficacy endpoints were summarized as risk ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Seven RCTs were analyzed, comprising a total of 392 patients. Risk of bias evaluation showed an overall high risk in one RCT, low risk in four RCTs, and some concerns in two RCTs. The pooled results revealed that the mean postoperative pain score was significantly reduced in favor of the PRP group compared with the control group (SMD=-1.38, 95% CI [-1.91, -0.85], p<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed the effect estimate was statistically significant for early postoperative pain (day 0 to day 3), without substantial difference between both groups on late postoperative pain (day 5 and day 7). Moreover, the rate of postoperative hemorrhage was significantly reduced in favor of the PRP group compared with the control group (RR=0.16, 95% CI [0.05, 0.50], p=0.001). Subgroup analysis showed the effect estimate was statistically significant for the rate of primary and secondary hemorrhage. CONCLUSION PRP was associated with significant reduction in postoperative pain and hemorrhage among patients undergoing tonsillectomy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Effectiveness of platelet-rich concentrates on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of orthodontics. 2022
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet-rich concentrates (PRCs) are recently used as a local biological substance in orthodontics to accelerate the rate of tooth movement. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of PRCs on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). SEARCH METHODS Unrestricted search of five electronic databases supplemented by the manual and gray literature search were undertaken in March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PRCs on the rate of OTM with their side effect were included in this systematic review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data items were extracted by two authors using a pre-piloted extraction form. Similar outcomes within a comparable time frame were synthesized in a meta-analysis. RESULTS Fourteen studies were deemed eligible for inclusion and seven RCTs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Canine retraction rate was higher in the side of PRCs injection than the control side by 0.28 mm/month (95% CI: 0.16-0.40, I2 = 95.6 per cent, P < 0.001, 345 patients) in the first 4 months after PRCs injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the PRCs side and the control side regarding molar anchorage loss (MAL) (MD = 0.03 mm, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.24, I2 = 46.3 per cent, P = 0.78, 44 patients), canine rotation (MD = -0.19o, 95% CI: -1.95 to 1.57, I2 = 45.4 per cent, P = 0.96, 48 patients), or en-masse retraction. Likewise, there was no difference between both groups in terms of the duration of de-crowding. The mandibular canine retraction was statistically higher on the PRCs side than on the control side by 0.17 mm/month (P < 0.001, one trial). Regarding root resorption, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control sides within the follow-up time. Mild pain scores were reported by the patients in the first 24 hours after injections. CONCLUSIONS Low-level evidence indicates that the effect of PRCs on OTM is minor and clinically insignificant. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the inherent limitations in the included RCTs. REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42022300026).
Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Lowers Retear Rates and Improves Short-Term Postoperative Functional Outcome Scores: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Arthroscopy, sports medicine, and rehabilitation. 2022;4(2):e823-e833
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears. We will (1) conduct a systematic review of the current meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma available in the literature, (2) evaluate the quality of these meta-analyses using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) methodology, (3) identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears, and develop guidance to improve future studies in this area. METHODS We carried out a systematic review of previous meta-analyses published on the clinical outcomes of PRP used in the treatment of rotator cuff tears. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases, using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "rotator cuff" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human meta-analysis studies involving the repair of the rotator cuff tendon surgically in the English language. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcomes. Following this, a meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS Thirteen meta-analyses met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All were considered of similar quality with Oxman-Guyatt index of 9 and PRISMA score of more than 24. A total of 1,800 patients with an average follow up of 12 to 36 months. The use of PRP for arthroscopic rotator cuff tear, when compared with controls, leads to a lower number of retears, improved short-term postoperative scores, and functional outcome. The following postoperative scores were reported: Constant: 12, Simple Shoulder Test: 10, ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons): 9, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) 11, SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation) 1, VAS (visual analog scale): 6, and Retears: 13. Subgroup analysis showed that leukocyte content and gel application make no difference in the effectiveness of PRP. VAS score subgroup analysis showed short-term pain relief. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PRP is effective in reducing retears after rotator cuff repair and improving functional outcome scores and reducing short-term pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level III, systematic review of Level I-III studies.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma on meniscus repair surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can enhance the effect of meniscus repair, but some studies have suggested different views on the role of PRP. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether PRP can enhance the effect of meniscus repair with respect to pain reduction and improved functionality and cure rate in patients with meniscus injury. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library Databases, clinicaltrials.gov, and the CNKI Database were searched from their inception till December 1, 2020. The RCTs reporting the outcomes of the Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Lysholm score, healing rate, and adverse events were included. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane collaborative tools. The simulated results were expressed with effect size and 95% confidence interval, and sensitivity and subgroup analysis were performed. RESULTS The meta-analysis included 8 RCTs and 431 participants. Compared with the control group, use of PRP during meniscus surgery significantly improved the VAS (SMD: -0.40, P = .002, 95%CI: -0.66 to -0.15) and Lysholm score (MD: 3.06, P < .0001, 95%CI: 1.70-4.42) of meniscus injury, but the PRP showed no benefit in improving the healing rate of meniscus repair (RR: 1.22, P = .06, 95%CI: 0.99-1.51). No serious adverse events were reported in any study. CONCLUSIONS PRP is safe and effective in improving the effect of meniscus repair as augment. High quality RCTs with long follow-up and definitive results are needed in the future to confirm the use and efficacy of PRP in meniscus tears.
The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma applicated in spinal fusion surgery: A meta-analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:924753
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effect of the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in spinal fusion surgery on the fusion rate of the spine. METHODS A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct databases was conducted to identify randomized control trials (RCTs) or observational cohort studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of PRP in spinal fusion. Data on final fusion rate, changes in the visual analog scale (VAS), estimated blood loss (EBL), and operative time was collected from the eligible studies for meta-analysis. Patients were divided into PRP and non-PRP groups according to whether PRP was used during the spinal fusion procedure. RESULTS According to the selection criteria, 4 randomized controlled trials and 8 cohort studies with 833 patients and 918 levels were included. The outcomes indicated that PRP application is associated with a lower fusion rat (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: (0.43, 0.89), P = 0.009) at final follow-up (>24 months). Subgroup analysis showed a lower rate of spinal fusion in the PRP group compared to the non-PRP group (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: (0.21, 0.58), P < 0.001) when spinal fusion was assessed using only anterior-posterior radiographs. When the bone graft material was a combination of autologous bone + artificial bone, the spinal fusion rate was lower in the PRP group than in the non-PRP group (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: (0.16, 0.71), P = 0.004). The PRP and non-PRP groups showed no significant differences in VAS changes at the 24th postoperative month (WMD = 0.36, 95% CI: (-0.37, 1.09), P = 0.33); Application of PRP does not reduce the estimated blood loss (WMD = -86.03, 95% CI: (-188.23, 16.17), P = 0.10). In terms of operation time, using PRP does not prolong operation time (WMD = -3.74, 95% CI: (-20.53, 13.04), P = 0.66). CONCLUSION Compared with bone graft fusion alone, PRP cannot increase the rate of spinal fusion. Inappropriate methods of spinal fusion assessment or mixing PRP with artificial/allograft bone may have been responsible for the lower rate of spinal fusion in the PRP group. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION doi: 10.37766/inplasy2022.5.0055.
The Application of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Patients Following Total Joint Replacement: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Review
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:922637
BACKGROUND The clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of total joint replacement (TJR) remains inconclusive. In this paper, systematic review and meta-analysis was adopted to assess the efficacy of using PRP for the treatment of TJR. METHODS A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for randomized controlled trial (RCT) articles recording data of PRP for TJR was conducted from inception to February 2022. Outcomes concerned were pain, range of motion (ROM), WOMAC score, length of hospital stay (LOS), hemoglobin (Hb) drop, total blood loss, wound healing rate, and wound infection. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was evaluated by using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0 (RoB 2.0). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was utilized to assess the level of evidence for the outcomes. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to the type of TJR. RESULTS Ten RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. In the TKA subgroup, the available data demonstrated that there were significant differences in the outcomes of pain and Hb drop, while it was the opposite of ROM, WOMAC score, LOS, total blood loss, wound healing rate, and wound infection. In the THA subgroup, no significant differences could be seen between two groups in the outcomes of LOS and wound infection. However, the PRP group gained a higher wound healing rate in the THA subgroup. CONCLUSION The application of PRP did not reduce blood loss but improved the wound healing rate. However, more prospective and multicenter studies are warranted to confirm these results.
The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing Time in Patients Following Pilonidal Sinus Surgery: A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND Pilonidal disease (PD) is a debilitating condition characterised by the infection of subcutaneous tissue in the sacrococcygeal area. It is associated with a high risk of recurrence, pain, infection, and purulent discharge. The two main surgical methods of pilonidal sinus disease include excision with primary closure/flap repair or excision of the sinus with healing by secondary intent. Wounds left open to heal by secondary intent remain extremely common due to their association with reduced risk of recurrence, however, it is associated with prolonged healing times. This study aims to determine whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) reduces healing time in patients post pilonidal sinus surgery with healing by secondary intent compared to simple wound dressings. METHOD Six databases were searched from their date of origin to May 30, 2022 for randomised control trials using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only four papers were selected for review as per the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design (PICOS) criteria. Critical appraisal was carried out according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Methodology Checklist for Randomised Control Trials and was assessed for risk of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions. The pooled effect size was calculated using the fixed-effect model. A homogeneity of pooled effect size for the studies was also found (Cochrane Q test, p-value = 0.97 I-square = 0.0%). RESULT Four studies (n = 336) were included in this review. Three of the four studies reported a statistically significant reduction in time taken in healing the wound. The mean difference between the intervention (PRP group) and the control group was 13.01 days, (95% CI 12.15-13.86 days, p < 0.00001). All of the included studies also reported a statistically significant reduction in time taken to return to work/activities of daily living in the treatment group compared to the control group (MD 9.68 days, 95% CI 9.16-10.21 days, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION This study shows that PRP is effective in reducing healing time and is associated with a significantly shorter period taken to return to work/activities of daily living in patients post pilonidal sinus surgery, which was the primary and secondary outcome investigated in this systematic review, respectively. PRP should routinely be offered to patients undergoing excisional pilonidal sinus surgery for the aforementioned benefits.
The Adjunctive Use of Leucocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Endosseous and Furcation Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;15(6)
The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the adjunctive use of leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in periodontal endosseous and furcation defects, as compared without L-PRF. The endosseous defect group was subclassified into: L-PRF/open flap debridement (L-PRF/OFD) versus OFD, L-PRF/osseous graft (L-PRF/OG) versus OG, L-PRF/Emdogain (L-PRF/EMD) versus EMD, and L-PRF/guided tissue regeneration (L-PRF/GTR) versus GTR. The furcation defect group was subclassified into L-PRF/OFD versus OFD, and L-PRF/OG versus OG. Mean difference, 95% confidence intervals and forest plots were calculated for probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic defect depth (DD). Nineteen studies concerning systemically healthy non-smokers were included. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed in two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects that the adjunctive use of L-PRF to OFD or OG was significantly beneficial for PPD reduction, CAL gain and DD reduction, as compared without L-PRF. Furthermore, the data showed that for two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects, the adjunctive use of L-PRF to GTR was significantly beneficial for CAL and DD improvement, whereas adding L-PRF to EMD had no significant effect, and that for class II furcation defects, the addition of L-PRF to OFD was significantly beneficial for PPD, CAL and DD improvement, whereas the addition of L-PRF to OG was significantly clinically beneficial. In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis found that there was significant clinical and radiographic additive effectiveness of L-PRF to OFD and to OG in two- and/or three-wall periodontal endosseous defects of systemically healthy non-smokers, as compared without L-PRF.