Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Clinical Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2022;10(1):23259671211061535
BACKGROUND Many studies have documented the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) alongside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in the management of ACL injury, but evidence on the benefits of PRP in improving the clinical outcomes of ACLR is inconsistent. PURPOSE To help in our understanding, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of PRP on patient-reported functional scores, the clinical assessments of knee function and structure, and complications. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS We searched 9 online databases for RCTs published in English or Chinese that examined the effects of PRP on ACLR. The primary outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. The secondary outcomes included KT-1000 arthrometer, pivot-shift test, Lysholm and Tegner scores, tunnel widening, graft characterization, and complications. Subgroup analyses were performed according to time of assessments. Fixed- and random-effects models were selected for data analysis. RESULTS A total of 14 studies were included. When PRP was injected to graft tunnels, the pooled VAS scores of the 2 groups were similar (P = .31), and the subgroup analysis found that VAS and IKDC only improved at 3 months postoperatively (P = .0003 and P < .00001, respectively). When PRP was used at the bone-patellar tendon-bone harvest sites, VAS was decreased in the first 6 months postoperatively (P < .00001), whereas IKDC score was not remarkably different (P = .07). After PRP injection, Lysholm scores at 3 months postoperatively was different between the 2 groups (P < .00001), but the Tegner scores (P = .86), KT-1000 measurements (P = .12), the positive rate of pivot-shift test (P = .64), the enlargement of tunnels (femoral, P = .91; tibial, P = .80), and the characterization of grafts (P = .05) were not different. No difference in complications was found in either group. CONCLUSION PRP applied alongside ACLR could reduce postoperative pain and improve knee function in the short and medium terms but is ineffective in the long term. PRP does not improve knee stability and the enlargement of tunnels and does not accelerate the healing of grafts. Further studies would be required.
Sinus Lift Associated with Leucocyte-Platelet-Rich Fibrin (Second Generation) for Bone Gain: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze sinus lifting procedures and to compare the efficiency of this treatment associated with the second generation of platelet-rich fibrin related to its effects on bone gain and to clarify the regenerative efficacy in sinus lift procedure, whether alone or as a coadjutant to other bone graft materials. The PICOT question was, "In clinical studies with patients needing a maxillary sinus lift (P), does the use of PRF either alone (I) or in conjunction with other biomaterials (C) improve the clinical outcome associated with bone gain and density (O), with at least three months of follow-up (T)?" An electronic search was conducted in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, and Scopus databases through a search strategy. A total of 443 articles were obtained from the electronic database search. Sixteen articles met all criteria and were included in this review. Within the limitation of this study and interpreting the results carefully, it was suggested that a higher risk for implant failure after a sinus elevation might be seen in patients with residual bone ≤4 mm, and PRF application was effective, suggesting reducing the time needed for new bone formation.
Efficacy of intralesional injections of platelet-rich plasma in patients with oral lichen planus: A pilot randomized clinical trial
Clinical and experimental dental research. 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections compared to intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injections in the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty patients with EOLP were assigned randomly to either PRP or TA group. Patients received weekly intralesional injections for 4 weeks, and then followed up for 3 months on regular visits every 2 weeks. Pain scores using numerical pain score and clinical score were recorded by a blinded assessor each visit for all patients and remission score at the end of the trial was recorded. RESULTS Both groups showed significant improvement in the clinical parameters (pain and clinical score) "p = .001." Regarding remission of the lesions, 80% of patients in the PRP group showed complete remission compared to 70% in the TA group. However, there is no statistical significance when comparing the two groups in pain score, clinical score, or remission. CONCLUSIONS PRP injections could be considered as an effective alternative single treatment modality for EOLP. The protocol for this study registered in Clinicaltrials.gov registry under the identifier number: NCT03293368.
Immediate implant placement with platelet rich fibrin as space filling material versus deproteinized bovine bone in maxillary premolars: A randomized clinical trial
Clinical implant dentistry and related research. 2022
BACKGROUND Several biomaterials have been suggested to augment the jumping gap during immediate implant placement. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the effect of xenograft or platelet derived growth factor (PRF) to graft the jumping gap in immediate implant placement in the maxillary premolar region. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty patients underwent atraumatic extraction followed by immediate placement. The patients were equally divided into two groups. The first group received xenograft as a jumping gap filling material. The second group received PRF to graft the jumping gap. All patients received preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6 months postoperative cone beam CT scan (CBCT). Implant stability quotient ISQ values were taken for the installed implants immediate postoperative and at 6 months. RESULTS Implants receiving PRF as a jumping gap graft material demonstrated a significantly greater amount of crestal bone loss 1.85 ± 0.89 mm as compared to xenograft group 0.77 ± 0.32 mm (t = 3.52, p = 0.005). PRF group showed significantly greater reduction in buccopalatal direction 1.63 mm as compared to xenograft group 0.59 mm (t = 4014, p <0.001). ISQ values were similar immediately postoperative (t = 0.070, p = 0.945) while the ISQ values were significantly lower in PRF group as compared to xenograft graft at the six-month interval (t = 0.248, p = 0.023). CONCLUSION The use of xenograft material as a jumping gap filling material resulted in superior results compared to PRF with regards to crestal bone loss, buccolingual socket reduction, and ISQ values.
Prospective Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction by Hamstring Graft Alone and Platelet-Rich Plasma Added to the Hamstring Graft
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To measure the additional effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on functional outcome of anterior cruciate ligament tear managed by augmenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with PRP. METHODS The present study was conducted on patients with ACL tear admitted in the department of orthopaedics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow wherein a total of 70 subjects were assigned into two groups of 35 patients each randomly, viz Group 1 in which the patients were treated by quadruple hamstring graft alone and Group 2 in which the patients were treated with augmented hamstring graft with PRP. The standardized anterior drawer test, Lachman's test, Lysholm knee score were quantified both preoperatively and postoperatively at different follow-ups and also tibial tunnel widening was measured postoperatively at different follow-ups. RESULT The present study had 70 patients with ACL tears. The mean age of patients in non-PRP groups was 29.71 ±2.99 years while that in the PRP group was 28.34±4.32 years. On comparing the improvement in grades at pre-op, immediate postop, 6 weeks, and 3 months follow-ups, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The tibial tunnel widening also showed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION In our study, it was found that both the groups showed improvements in grades of anterior drawer test and Lachman's test postoperatively but the difference between both the groups was not significant. Similarly, while comparing the improvements in Lysholm knee score and tibial tunnel widening among both the groups, the difference was not significant. Follow up of 3 months was a limiting factor in our study. This technique needs further clinical evaluation to assess the long-term results.
Comparative evaluation of implant stability with and without autologous platelet-rich fibrin prior to prosthetic loading - A split-mouth randomized clinical trial
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2022;26(2):137-142
CONTEXT Status of bone-implant interface or osseointegration can be assessed by using resonance frequency analysis (RFA), which measures implant stability. A modified implant surface can significantly enhance osseointegration and reduce healing period. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) consists of fibrin mesh with entrapped platelets and leukocytes that release a huge number of growth factors which contribute to wound healing and tissue regeneration. AIMS The present study aims to evaluate the effect of PRF on osseointegration in terms of implant stability. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This was a split-mouth randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty surgical sites were divided randomly into two groups. In Group 1 (thirty sites), PRF was placed in osteotomy sites before implant placement whereas no PRF was placed in Group 2 (thirty sites). Stability was measured using RFA in terms of implant stability quotient (ISQ) at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Intergroup comparison was done using Mann-Whitney U-test. Intragroup comparison was done using Friedman's test followed by pairwise comparison using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS On intergroup comparison, Group 1 showed higher values for ISQ which were statistically significant (P < 0.05) at 1 week and 1 month. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found at baseline and 3 months. Intragroup comparison and further pairwise comparison revealed a highly significant difference for values between all pairs of time intervals (P < 0.01) with higher values at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS PRF has a significant effect on osseointegration of dental implants during the early healing period prior to loading.
Platelet-Rich Plasma and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Association with Arthroscopic Microfracture of Knee Articular Cartilage Defects: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Advances in orthopedics. 2022;2022:6048477
BACKGROUND This study aims to compare the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) alone or in combination with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in patients affected by cartilage defects, undergoing knee arthroscopic microfracture. METHODS Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with a knee monocompartmental cartilage defect (Outerbridge grade IV) on the MRI, underwent an arthroscopic procedure. After the confirmation of the lesion, they all received the same bone marrow stimulation technique (microfracture) and were randomized into two groups: the first one had additional PRP injection (group A), while the second received PRP and AD-MSC injection (group B). Knee assessment and pain score were documented with Knee Injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Short-Form (SF) 12, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before the treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up postoperatively. An additional arthroscopic procedure, performed in four patients for a subsequent meniscal lesion, let us evaluate cartilage evolution by performing a macro/microscopical assessment on cartilage biopsy specimens. RESULTS At the 12-month follow-up, both groups showed a comparable functional improvement. The scores on the IKDC form, KOOS, pain VAS, and SF-12 significantly improved from baseline (p < 0.05) to 12 months postoperatively in both treatment groups. The four second-look arthroscopies showed a complete repair of the articular defects by smooth solid cartilage layer, with a good chondrocytic population, in both groups. A thick smooth hyaline-like cartilage with a predominantly viable cell population and normal mineralization (a form closely resembling native tissue) was observed in group B. CONCLUSIONS Modern regenerative medicine techniques, such as PRP and AD-MSC, associated with traditional arthroscopic bone marrow stimulating techniques, seem to enhance cartilage restoration ability. The preliminary results of this pilot study encourage the synergic use of these regenerative modulating systems to improve the quality of the regenerated cartilage.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Lowers Retear Rates and Improves Short-Term Postoperative Functional Outcome Scores: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Arthroscopy, sports medicine, and rehabilitation. 2022;4(2):e823-e833
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears. We will (1) conduct a systematic review of the current meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma available in the literature, (2) evaluate the quality of these meta-analyses using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) methodology, (3) identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears, and develop guidance to improve future studies in this area. METHODS We carried out a systematic review of previous meta-analyses published on the clinical outcomes of PRP used in the treatment of rotator cuff tears. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases, using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "rotator cuff" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human meta-analysis studies involving the repair of the rotator cuff tendon surgically in the English language. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcomes. Following this, a meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS Thirteen meta-analyses met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All were considered of similar quality with Oxman-Guyatt index of 9 and PRISMA score of more than 24. A total of 1,800 patients with an average follow up of 12 to 36 months. The use of PRP for arthroscopic rotator cuff tear, when compared with controls, leads to a lower number of retears, improved short-term postoperative scores, and functional outcome. The following postoperative scores were reported: Constant: 12, Simple Shoulder Test: 10, ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons): 9, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) 11, SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation) 1, VAS (visual analog scale): 6, and Retears: 13. Subgroup analysis showed that leukocyte content and gel application make no difference in the effectiveness of PRP. VAS score subgroup analysis showed short-term pain relief. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PRP is effective in reducing retears after rotator cuff repair and improving functional outcome scores and reducing short-term pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level III, systematic review of Level I-III studies.
A pilot randomized clinical trial of cryopreserved versus liquid-stored platelet transfusion for bleeding in cardiac surgery: The cryopreserved versus liquid platelet-New Zealand pilot trial
Vox sanguinis. 2022;117(3):337-345
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Platelets for transfusion have a shelf-life of 7 days, limiting availability and leading to wastage. Cryopreservation at -80°C extends shelf-life to at least 1 year, but safety and effectiveness are uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS This single centre blinded pilot trial enrolled adult cardiac surgery patients who were at high risk of platelet transfusion. If treating clinicians determined platelet transfusion was required, up to three units of either cryopreserved or liquid-stored platelets intraoperatively or during intensive care unit admission were administered. The primary outcome was protocol safety and feasibility. RESULTS Over 13 months, 89 patients were randomized, 23 (25.8%) of whom received a platelet transfusion. There were no differences in median blood loss up to 48 h between study groups, or in the quantities of study platelets or other blood components transfused. The median platelet concentration on the day after surgery was lower in the cryopreserved platelet group (122 × 10(3) /μl vs. 157 × 10(3) /μl, median difference 39.5 ×10(3) /μl, p = 0.03). There were no differences in any of the recorded safety outcomes, and no adverse events were reported on any patient. Multivariable adjustment for imbalances in baseline patient characteristics did not find study group to be a predictor of 24-h blood loss, red cell transfusion or a composite bleeding outcome. CONCLUSION This pilot randomized controlled trial demonstrated the feasibility of the protocol and adds to accumulating data supporting the safety of this intervention. Given the clear advantage of prolonged shelf-life, particularly for regional hospitals in New Zealand, a definitive non-inferiority phase III trial is warranted.
Value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates in patients with intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;271:63-70
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates among patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. METHODS Four different databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ISI web of science) were searched for the available studies from inception to November 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich concentrates in the intervention group versus no injection of platelet-rich concentrates in the control group among women with intrauterine adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Revman software was utilized for performing our meta-analysis. Our primary outcomes were the adhesion score and incidence of recurrence of severe intrauterine adhesions postoperatively. Our secondary outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate, menstrual flow duration in days, and menstrual flow amount (number of pads). RESULTS Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria with a total number of 329 patients. We found that platelet-rich concentrates were linked to a significant reduction in the postoperative adhesion score (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.68, -0.32], p = 0.004). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of severe IUAs recurrence among the platelet-rich concentrates group (7.6%) compared to the control group (23.4%) after hysteroscopy (p = 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly increased among the platelet-rich concentrates group (37.1%) in comparison with the control group (20.7%) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis (p = 0.008). There were significant improvements in the menstrual flow duration and amount among the platelet-rich concentrates group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Intrauterine placement of platelet-rich concentrates is an effective method for the treatment of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy.