The effect of perioperative blood transfusion on survival after renal cell carcinoma nephrectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in oncology. 2023;13:1092734
BACKGROUND The effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on postoperative survival in RCC patients who underwent partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) remains controversial. Two meta-analyses in 2018 and 2019 reported the postoperative mortality of PBT patients with RCC, but they did not investigate the effect on the survival of patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant literature to demonstrate whether PBT affected postoperative survival in RCC patients who received nephrectomy. METHODS Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched. Studies comparing RCC patients with or without PBT following either RN or PN were included in this analysis. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature, and hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS), as well as 95% confidence intervals, were considered as effect sizes. All data were processed using Stata 15.1. RESULTS Ten retrospective studies involving 19,240 patients were included in this analysis, with the publication dates ranging from 2014 to 2022. Evidence revealed that PBT was significantly associated with the decline of OS (HR, 2.62; 95%CI: 1,98-3.46), RFS (HR, 2.55; 95%CI: 1.74-3.75), and CSS (HR, 3.15; 95%CI: 2.3-4.31) values. There was high heterogeneity among the study results due to the retrospective nature and the low quality of the included studies. Subgroup analysis findings suggested that the heterogeneity of this study might be caused by different tumor stages in the included articles. Evidence implied that PBT had no significant influence on RFS and CSS with or without robotic assistance, but it was still linked to worse OS (combined HR; 2.54 95% CI: 1.18, 5.47). Furthermore, the subgroup analysis with intraoperative blood loss lower than 800 ML revealed that PBT had no substantial impact on OS and CSS of postoperative RCC patients, whereas it was correlated with poor RFS (1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.97). CONCLUSIONS RCC patients undergoing PBT after nephrectomy had poorer survival. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42022363106.
Autologous Blood Injections in Temporomandibular Hypermobility: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2023;12(17)
The injection of autologous blood (AB) is one of the methods of treatment of recurrent dislocations in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Due to the low invasiveness of this technique, it is reasonable to evaluate it in accordance with the standards of evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify primary studies on AB injection for the treatment of TMJ hypermobility and assess the therapy for effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the current "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" guidelines. Controlled randomized trials comparing dislocation episode rates, range of motion in the TMJ, or articular pain intensity were adopted as the eligibility criteria. Final searches were conducted on 11 June 2023 using Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elsevier Scopus, and the National Library of Medicine: PubMed. Trials were assessed using the "Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence" scale and "A revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials". The results of the individual studies were tabulated, syntheses were illustrated in graphs. Twenty two studies involving 982 patients were included in the qualitative analysis, of which seven studies involving 390 patients were subject to quantitative analysis. None of the included randomized controlled trials presented a high risk of bias, 75% of them raised some concerns. In a three-month observation, administration of AB was more efficient in limiting temporomandibular dislocations than hypertonic dextrose (1 study, 32 patients, relative risk = 0.33, odds ratio = 0.29) and no difference in outcomes was observed between intracavitary and pericapsular administration compared to pericapsular injection alone (2 studies, 70 patients, relative risk = 1.00, odds ratio = 1.00). Injections of AB into the temporomandibular joints are effective in preventing further TMJ dislocation episodes in 75-94% of patients. This study received no funding.
Perioperative transfusion and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis
General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2023
OBJECTIVES Cardiac surgical procedures are associated with a high incidence of periprocedural blood loss and blood transfusion. Although both may be associated with a range of postoperative complications there is disagreement on the impact of blood transfusion on long-term mortality. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the published outcomes of perioperative blood transfusion, examined as a whole and by index procedure. METHODS A systematic review of perioperative blood transfusion cardiac surgical patients was conducted. Outcomes related to blood transfusion were analysed in a meta-analysis and aggregate survival data were derived to examine long-term survival. RESULTS Thirty-nine studies with 180,074 patients were identified, the majority (61.2%) undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions were noted in 42.2% of patients and was associated with significantly higher early mortality (OR 3.87, p < 0.001). After a median of 6.4 years (range 1-15), mortality remained significantly higher for those who received a perioperative transfusion (OR 2.01, p < 0.001). Pooled hazard ratio for long-term mortality similar for patients who underwent coronary surgery compared to isolated valve surgery. Differences in long-term mortality for all comers remained true when corrected for early mortality and when only including propensity matched studies. CONCLUSIONS Perioperative red blood transfusion appears to be associated with a significant reduction in long-term survival for patients after cardiac surgery. Strategies such as preoperative optimisation, intraoperative blood conservation, judicious use of postoperative transfusions, and professional development into minimally invasive techniques should be utilised where appropriate to minimise the need for perioperative transfusions.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery (39 studies, n= 180,074).
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion.
No RBC transfusion.
The meta-analysis identified 180,074 patients with follow-up data ranging from 1 to 15 years. The majority (61.2%) of patients underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions were noted in 42.2% of patients and was associated with significantly higher early mortality (OR= 3.87). After a median of 6.4 years (range 1, 15), mortality remained significantly higher for those who received a perioperative transfusion (OR= 2.01). Pooled hazard ratio for long-term mortality was similar for patients who underwent coronary surgery compared to isolated valve surgery. Differences in long-term mortality for all comers remained true when corrected for early mortality and when only including propensity matched studies.
Is fresh, leucodepleted, whole blood transfusion superior to blood component transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgeries? A prospective, randomized study analyzing postoperative serological parameters and clinical recovery
European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2021;:1-7
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of fresh whole blood (FWB) and blood component transfusion in improving clinical outcome and serological parameters in the early postoperative period following spinal deformity surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries involving ≥ 6 levels of fusion and expected blood loss ≥ 750 ml between September 2017 and August 2018 were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups: FWBG and CG, receiving fresh whole blood and component transfusions, respectively. RESULTS A total of 65 patients with spinal deformities of different etiologies were included. The mean age was 14.0 and 14.9 years in FWB and CG, respectively. All other preoperative parameters were comparable. The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml(CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence [36.43 (FWBG) vs. 43.45 h (CG); P = 0.0256], mean arterial pH [7.442 (FWBG) vs. 7.394 (CG); p < 0.001], interleukin-6 [30.04 (FWBG) vs. 35.10 (CG); p < 0.019], mean duration of HDU stay [40.6 hours (FWBG) vs 46.51 hours (CG); p = 0.0234] and postoperative facial puffiness [7/30 in FWBG vs. 18/35 (CG) (P < 0.02)]. CONCLUSION FWB transfusion can potentially improve the immediate postoperative outcome in patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries by reducing the duration of intensive care unit stay and oxygen dependence. The other potential benefits of this practice, based on our study, include a reduced inflammatory response (reduced lactate and IL-6) and postoperative facial puffiness. However, further large-scale validation studies in future are necessary to precisely determine the role of FWB in spine surgeries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
Paediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery (n= 65).
Fresh whole blood: FWBG group (n= 30).
Component transfusions: CG group (n = 35).
The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74 minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml (CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence, mean arterial pH, interleukin-6, mean duration of high dependency unit stay and postoperative facial puffiness.
Comparative evaluation of sequential intraoperative use of whole blood followed by brilliant blue versus conventional brilliant blue staining of internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery
PURPOSE To compare the structural and functional outcome of use of autologous heparinized whole blood before staining internal limiting membrane with brilliant blue (BB) versus conventional BB-assisted macular hole surgery. METHODS Sixty eyes of 60 patients were randomly divided equally in Group A (BB staining using whole blood) and Group B (conventional BB staining). Clinical assessment and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was done at baseline and 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 16 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS Group A eyes had a significantly higher best-corrected visual acuity as compared with Group B postoperatively (P < 0.001, <0.001, 0.004, 0.04 at 3, 6, 16 weeks, and 6 months). Inner segment/outer segment junction continuity was noted in greater number of eyes in Group A compared with Group B (P = 0.02, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.03 at 3, 6, 16 weeks, and 6 months). Eyes in Group A had significantly higher outer foveal thickness at 3 weeks (P = 0.001) and 6 weeks (P < 0.001) compared with Group B. CONCLUSION Use of whole blood before staining internal limiting membrane with BB causes earlier and better visual rehabilitation postoperatively, which could be attributed to earlier photoreceptor regeneration as evidenced by inner segment/outer segment junction continuity and increase in outer foveal thickness.
Reconstituted fresh whole blood improves clinical outcomes compared with stored component blood therapy for neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2008;136((6):):1442-9.
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effects of reconstituted fresh whole blood against standard blood component therapy in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS Patients less than 1 month of age were randomized to receive either reconstituted fresh whole blood (n = 31) or standard blood component therapy (n = 33) to prime the bypass circuit and for transfusion during the 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Primary outcome was chest tube drainage; secondary outcomes included transfusion needs, inotrope score, ventilation time, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS Patients who received reconstituted fresh whole blood had significantly less postoperative chest tube volume loss per kilogram of body weight (7. 7 mL/kg vs 11. 8 mL/kg; P = . 03). Standard blood component therapy was associated with higher inotropic score (6. 6 vs 3. 3; P = . 002), longer ventilation times (164 hours vs 119 hours; P = . 04), as well as longer hospital stays (18 days vs 12 days; P = . 006) than patients receiving reconstituted fresh whole blood. Of the different factors associated with the use of reconstituted fresh whole blood, lower platelet counts at 10 minutes and at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, older age of cells used in the prime and throughout bypass, and exposures to higher number of allogeneic donors were found to be independent predictors of poor clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Reconstituted fresh whole blood used for the prime, throughout cardiopulmonary bypass, and for all transfusion requirements within the first 24 hours postoperatively results in reduced chest tube volume loss and improved clinical outcomes in neonatal patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Fresh whole blood versus reconstituted blood for pump priming in heart surgery in infants
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2004;351((16):):1635-44.
BACKGROUND In an attempt to reduce the coagulopathic and inflammatory responses seen after cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of fresh whole blood during heart operations has become the standard of care for neonates and infants at many institutions. We compared the use of fresh whole blood with the use of a combination of packed red cells and fresh-frozen plasma (reconstituted blood) for priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. METHODS We conducted a single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial involving children less than one year of age who underwent open-heart surgery. Patients were assigned to receive either fresh whole blood that had been collected not more than 48 hours previously (96 patients) or reconstituted blood (104 patients) for bypass-circuit priming. Clinical outcomes and serologic measures of systemic inflammation and myocardial injury were compared between the groups. RESULTS The group that received reconstituted blood had a shorter stay in the intensive care unit than the group that received fresh whole blood (70. 5 hours vs. 97. 0 hours, P=0. 04). The group that received reconstituted blood also had a smaller cumulative fluid balance at 48 hours (-6. 9 ml per kilogram of body weight vs. 28. 8 ml per kilogram, P=0. 003). Early postoperative chest-tube output, blood-product transfusion requirements, and levels of serum mediators of inflammation and cardiac troponin I were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The use of fresh whole blood for cardiopulmonary bypass priming has no advantage over the use of a combination of packed red cells and fresh-frozen plasma during surgery for congenital heart disease. Moreover, circuit priming with fresh whole blood is associated with an increased length of stay in the intensive care unit and increased perioperative fluid overload.
A randomized controlled study of the effect of bedside leucocyte depletion on the immunosuppressive effect of whole blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery
British Journal of Surgery. 1996;83((7):):973-7.
In a randomized study the effect of whole blood transfusion versus bedside leucocyte-depleted blood transfusion on lymphocyte proliferation, CD4+:CD8+ ratio, and levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) and interleukin (IL) 6, as well as on the development of postoperative wound infection and intra-abdominal abscess, was assessed in 60 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Transfusion with whole blood induced a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation and CD4+ :CD8+ ratio (P < 0.01) as well as a significant increase in sIL-2R and IL-6 levels (P < 0.01). Furthermore, transfusion with whole blood was accompanied by a significant increase in postoperative infectious complications (P < 0.01). In patients transfused with leucocyte-depleted blood only slight and transient changes were observed, which were not significantly different from those observed in non-transfused patients.
Irradiation of fresh whole blood for prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease does not impair platelet function and clinical hemostasis after open heart surgery
Vox Sanguinis. 1995;69((2):):104-9.
Since our previous studies suggested that the transfusion of 1 unit fresh whole blood (FWB) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) using a bubble oxygenator may provide hemostatic benefit equivalent to 8-10 units of platelet concentrates, we have routinely used FWB at the termination of CPB. Two patients who received FWB and developed transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) prompted us to investigate the effect of irradiation of FWB on platelet and clinical hemostasis. Twenty-four patients were randomized to receive either 1 unit FWB (12 patients), or 1 unit irradiated FWB (IrFWB, 1,500 cGy,12 patients) after CPB. Platelet aggregation on extracellular matrix, studied by a scanning electron microscope and graded from 1 to 4 (from poor to excellent aggregation), was similar in both groups preoperatively [3.3 +/- 0.9 (FWB) and 3.5 +/- 0.5 (Ir FWB)], and at the end of CPB [1.8 +/- 1.2 (FWB) and 1.9 +/- 0.9 (IrFWB)]. Platelet aggregation was similar after transfusion of FWB (3.0 +/- 1.0) and after IrFWB (3.2 +/- 0.8), as was the increase in platelet count. Twenty-four hours total postoperative bleeding was similar (560 +/- 420 and 523 +/- 236 ml for FWB and IrFWB, respectively). We conclude that irradiation of FWB for prevention of TA-GVHD does not impair platelet aggregating capacity, and can be used when blood is donated by the patient's next of kin.
Fresh blood units contain large potent platelets that improve hemostasis after open heart operations
Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1992;53((4):):650-4.
Twenty units of fresh whole blood were separated into fresh packed red blood cells (PC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and were transfused to 40 patients immediately after coronary bypass grafting. Patients were preoperatively randomized to receive either PRP (group A, 20 patients) or PC (group B, 20 patients). Platelet number in the PRP group was greater, but not significantly greater, than in the PC group (7.5 +/- 3 versus 5.9 +/- 2.2 x 10(10); p = not significant). However, mean platelet volume in the PC group was significantly greater (8.75 +/- 1.1 versus 6 +/- 0.7 fL). Postoperatively, group A patients bled more than group B (566 +/- 164 versus 327 +/- 41 mL; p less than 0.01) and received more red blood cell units (2.7 +/- 1.2 versus 1.6 +/- 0.7 U; p less than 0.05) and a larger number of blood products (5.9 +/- 3.7 versus 2.6 +/- 1.2 U; p less than 0.05). Transfusion of PRP to group A increased platelet count from 128 +/- 20 to 148 +/- 110 x 10(9)/L; however, platelet functions did not improve. Administration of PC to group B increased platelet count from 139 +/- 22 to 156 +/- 23 x 10(9)/L, improved platelet aggregation (with collagen from 33% +/- 20% to 53% +/- 23%, with epinephrine from 36% +/- 24% to 51% +/- 20%; p less than 0.05), and corrected the prolonged bleeding time. The results suggest that the improved hemostasis observed after fresh whole blood administration is related to the large, potent platelets that remained in the PC and were not separated to the PRP during standard platelet concentrate preparation.