Liberal blood transfusion strategies and associated infection in orthopedic patients: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.
Effects of stored autotransfusion on electrolytes and postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(6):7200-7206
OBJECTIVE To ivestigate the effect of stored autotransfusion on the electrolytes and postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. METHODS A total of 76 cases of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery were randomly divided into an observation group (38 cases, taking stored autotransfusion) and a control group (38 cases, taking allogeneic blood transfusion) according to a random number table method. The intraoperative-related indexes (intraoperative blood loss, autologous or allogeneic blood transfusion volume, urine volume, and length of hospital stay), electrolyte levels before and 48 hours after the operation, routine blood and coagulation function were compared between the two groups, and the postoperative complications related to blood transfusion were recorded. RESULTS The length of hospital stay of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The concentrations of K(+) and Na(+) in the control group 48 h after the operation were higher than those before the operation and than those in the observation group, while the concentration of Ca(2+) was lower than that before the operation and that in the observation group (all P<0.05). The levels of Hb, RBC, and HCT in the control group 48 h after the operation were lower than those before the operation and those in the observation group (all P<0.05). The levels of WBC in the two groups 48 h after the operation were significantly higher, but those in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (all P<0.05). There were no significant changes in Pt, APTT, D-D, and FIB levels between the two groups. There were no significant changes in Pt, APTT, D-D, and FIB levels 48 hours after the operation compared with those before the operation (P>0.05). The incidence of postoperative complications caused by blood transfusion in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Storage autotransfusion can effectively balance the electrolyte level and reduce the incidence of complications in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. This is worthy of clinical application.
Impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Surgical oncology. 2021;38:101592
This study aimed at systematically analyzing and evaluating the impact of perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) on oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. This systematic review follows the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions and was conducted in line with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR II criteria. A comprehensive database search was performed based on the PICO criteria. Two independent reviewers performed all screening steps and quality assessment. Risk of bias and certainty in evidence were assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomized trials and the GRADE approach. Of 1123 identified studies 20 were eligible for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitative analysis reporting on 21,915 patients. Receiving a PBT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29 [1.18, 1.40]; p < 0.001), cancer-specific mortality (HR [CI]: 1.27 [1.15; 1.41]; p < 0.001) and disease recurrence (HR [CI]: 1.22 [1.12; 1.34]; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of transfusion timing revealed a significantly increased risk of mortality with intraoperative or combined intra- and postoperative transfusions compared to postoperative transfusion only for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). Leukocyte-depletion was associated with increased all-cause mortality, but not cancer-specific mortality. The administration of PBT negatively impacts oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Therefore, careful treatment indication and strict adherence to transfusion guidelines is encouraged in order to avoid adverse effects during the perioperative course.
Blood product transfusion and lung transplant outcomes: A systematic review
Clinical transplantation. 2021
The perioperative transfusion of blood products has long been linked to development of acute lung injury and associated with mortality across both medical and surgical patient populations. The need for blood product transfusion during and after lung transplantation is common and, in many instances, unavoidable. However, this practice may potentially be modifiable. In this systematic review, we explore and summarize what is known regarding the impact of blood product transfusion on outcomes following lung transplantation, highlighting the most recent work in this area. Overall, the majority of the literature consists of single center retrospective analyses or the work of multicenter working groups referencing the same database. In the end, there are a number of remaining questions regarding blood product transfusion and their downstream effects on graft function and survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Total hip arthroplasty in sickle cell disease: a systematic review
EFORT Open Rev. 2020;5(3):180-188
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can be a challenging procedure.This systematic review evaluated the revision rate, functional outcomes and complications of THA in sicklers.A systematic search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, using four search engines from inception to May 2019.Fifteen studies with 971 THAs were included. There were 437 cemented and 520 uncemented THAs.There were 164 revision THAs (16.8%); 52 uncemented and 105 cemented THAs.Forty-two infections were recorded; 16 infections for cemented and 23 for uncemented THAs.Fifty-seven cups, 26 stems, eight cup/stem with aseptic loosening that were more frequently cemented were reported. The 28 unspecified aseptic loosening cases were more frequently uncemented THAs.All studies demonstrated the functional improvement of patients.There were 109 medical complications (14.3%). Sickle cell crises (SCC) and transfusion reactions were most usually recorded.Forty-six intraoperative complications (4.7%) were reported; 18 femoral fractures, four acetabular and 18 femoral perforations. Seventeen femoral fractures occurred during uncemented THA.THA in SCD is still related to a high risk of complications. The outcomes in properly selected sicklers have been improved. Perioperative adequate hydration, warming, oxygen supply and transfusion protocols are mandated to prevent SCC and transfusion reactions. The surgeon must be prepared to deal with a high rate of intraoperative fractures and have different implant options readily available. No definite conclusion can be made regarding the best fixation mode. Cemented implants demonstrated a higher revision rate and uncemented implants a higher risk for intraoperative complications. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:180-188. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190038.
Association between blood transfusions and complications in head and neck reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2020
PURPOSE The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the correlation between blood transfusions and the medical/surgical complications after head and neck reconstructive surgery. METHODS The PRISMA protocol was used and the literature search was performed on Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science up to March 13, 2020. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed through the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS A total of 1219 records were screened after the electronic search, 22 of which were included in the qualitative analysis. Of there 22 scores, 18 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The OR for medical and surgical complications of transfused patients was 1,64 (95% CI 1.23-2.21); while, the OR for hospital readmission was 1.53 (95% CI 1.29-1.81). CONCLUSIONS The results of this meta-analysis suggested that blood transfusions are associated with both an increased risk of surgical and medical complications of head and neck flaps and with the hospital readmission.
Prognostic impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncological outcomes of patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy: A systematic review
Arab journal of urology. 2020;19(1):24-30
Objective: To conduct a systematic review of whether blood transfusions may be associated with worse outcomes for patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy (RC), as there has been a recent increase in studies addressing this clinically relevant topic. Methods: PubMed, Ovid Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with pre-specified search terms for studies published between January 2010 and May 2020. The systemic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 17 studies with 19 627 patients were included after 183 records were screened for eligibility. In all, 10 studies proposed perioperative blood transfusion to be associated with impaired prognosis regarding overall survival, nine studies regarding cancer-specific and four studies regarding recurrence-free survival. The timing of blood transfusion might affect patient outcomes. Notably, several studies did not find a significant correlation between blood transfusions and prognosis. As all studies to date are of retrospective design, the grade of evidence is still limited. Conclusions: Despite the lack of prospective trials, perioperative blood transfusion may lead to worse oncological outcomes. These results, as well as known non-oncological side-effects and associated costs, are important arguments to carefully consider the indication for blood transfusion. Abbreviations BCa: bladder cancer; CSS: cancer-specific survival; HR: hazard ratio; (N)MIBC: (non-) muscle-invasive BCa; OS: overall survival; PBT, perioperative blood transfusion; PRISMA, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; RC: radical cystectomy; RFS: recurrence-free survival.
Association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative venous thromboembolism: Review meta-analysis
Annals of vascular surgery. 2020
OBJECTIVES Several studies have shown that preoperative blood transfusion is associated with postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE. METHODS Published articles were identified through a comprehensive review of PUBMED and EMBASE. Data from studies reporting relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios comparing the risk of postoperative VTE among participants who had preoperative blood transfusion versus those without preoperative blood transfusion were analyzed. A random-effect model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confident intervals (CI). RESULTS Eight studies, which included 3,504,778 participants, aligned with our inclusion criteria, and were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed an association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE, with an odds ratio of 2.95 (95%CI, 1.65, 5.30; I(2) = 89.1%). In subgroup analyses, the positive association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE were still exist in studies with confounders adjustment. Sensitivity analysis by one-study removed analysis confirmed the robustness of our results. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated that preoperative blood transfusion was associated with higher odds of postoperative VTE. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE.
Patients undergoing surgery (8 studies, n= 3,504,778).
Preoperative blood transfusion.
Without preoperative blood transfusion.
Pooled analysis showed an association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). In subgroup analyses, the positive association between preoperative blood transfusion and postoperative VTE still existed in studies with confounders adjustment.
Can furosemide prevent transfusion-associated circulatory overload? Results of a pilot, double-blind, randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a leading cause of transfusion-attributable morbidity. It is unclear whether diuretics are safe and effective in preventing this reaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a pilot controlled feasibility trial, inpatients 65 years or older ordered a single unit of red blood cells were randomized to pre-transfusion furosemide 20 mg or placebo intravenously. Primary outcome was the ability to enroll 80 patients within a 2-month time period. Secondary feasibility outcomes included proportion of RBC transfusions meeting eligibility criteria, proportion of eligible patients enrolled, and compliance to study protocol. Clinical outcomes included the incidence of TACO and associated complications. RESULTS Nine months of enrollment were required for 80 patients to complete the study, due primarily to fewer transfusions than expected meeting eligibility criteria and lower than anticipated consent rates. Protocol compliance was below target due to missing chart documentation of patient fluid balance, and transfusion infusion time. Blinding was maintained throughout the study and treatment arms were well-balanced. A single case of TACO occurred in each arm, for an overall incidence of 2.5%. No differences in peri-transfusion vital signs, B-natriuretic peptide, or signs of furosemide toxicity were observed. CONCLUSION The study protocol was not feasible as designed, primarily due to challenges in patient enrollment. Modifications to trial design to improve feasibility in future studies have been identified.
Transfusion-related immunomodulation: gamma irradiation alters the effects of leukoreduction on alloimmunization
BACKGROUND Adverse events following blood transfusion include allosensitization and generalized immunosuppression, collectively referred to as transfusion-related immune modulation. We evaluated the immunological effects of red blood cell (RBC) and platelet transfusions on alloantibody responses and on immunoregulatory cells in nonimmunosuppressed patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Patients were randomized to receive standard unmodified (STD), leukoreduced (LR), or leukoreduced and gamma-irradiated (LRgamma) RBCs. Patients received only apheresis platelets that were in-process LR and were gamma-irradiated for the third arm. Nontransfused patients served as controls for the effects of surgery itself on immunologic changes. Antibodies to HLA were assessed with use of solid-phase assays. The effects of transfusion on adaptive and innate immunity were evaluated by assessing T regulatory cells (Tregs) and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. RESULTS LR of blood products reduced the development of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alloantibodies, but only in patients without preexisting HLA antibodies. However, if LR blood products were gamma-irradiated, HLA antibody production was not reduced. Compared to nontransfused patients, recipients of STD or LR transfusions showed a significant increase in CD4+CD25(hi) T cells expressing FoxP3 or CTLA4 and also of iNKT cells producing interleukin-4. In contrast, recipients of LRgamma blood products showed markedly lower increases in all three cellular assays. CONCLUSION LR decreased HLA alloantibody production in naive recipients, but did not reduce the immunosuppressive effects of transfusion. LRgamma reduced immunosuppression and was not associated with decreased HLA alloantibody production.