Preoperative fibrinogen level and blood transfusions in liver transplantation: A systematic review
Transplantation reviews (Orlando, Fla.). 2023;37(4):100797
BACKGROUND Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a major surgery often associated with significant bleeding. We conducted a systematic review to explore the association between preoperative fibrinogen level and intraoperative blood products transfusion, blood loss and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing OLT. METHODS We included observational studies conducted in patients undergoing an OLT mostly for end-stage liver disease that reported an association between the preoperative fibrinogen level and our outcomes of interest. Our primary outcome was the intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements. Our secondary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative transfusion of any blood product, postoperative RBC transfusion, postoperative thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications, and mortality. We used a standardized search strategy. We reported our results mostly descriptively but conducted meta-analyses using random-effect models when judged feasible. RESULTS We selected 24 cohort studies reporting at least one of our outcomes. We found that a high preoperative fibrinogen level was associated with fewer intraoperative RBC and other blood products transfusions, and lower blood loss. We also found a lower overall survival in patients with a higher fibrinogen level (pooled hazard ratio [95% CI] of 1.50 [1.23 to 1.84]; 5 studies, n = 1012, I(2) = 48%). Only one study formally explored a fibrinogen level threshold effect. Overall, reporting was heterogeneous, and risk of bias was variable mostly because of uncontrolled confounding. CONCLUSION A higher preoperative fibrinogen level was associated with fewer intraoperative RBC and other blood products transfusions, lower blood loss, and higher mortality. Further studies may help clarify observed associations and inform guidelines.
Cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses patients and association with peri-operative outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Current problems in cardiology. 2023;:101789
BACKGROUND Strategies for blood conservation, coupled with a careful preoperative assessment, may be applied to Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) patients who are candidates for cardiac surgery interventions. There is a need to assess clinical outcomes and safety of bloodless surgery in JW patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing JW patients with controls undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary endpoint was short-term mortality (in-hospital or 30-day mortality). Peri-procedural myocardial infarction, re-exploration for bleeding, pre-and post-operative Hb levels and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were also analyzed. RESULTS A total of 10 studies including 2,302 patients were included. The pooled analysis showed no substantial differences in terms of short-term mortality among the two groups (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.74-1.73, I(2)=0%). There were no differences in peri-operative outcomes among JW patients and controls (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.39-2.41, I(2)=18% for myocardial infarction; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.51-1.25, I(2)=0% for re-exploration for bleeding). JW patients had a higher level of pre-operative Hb (Standardized Mean Difference [SMD] 0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.57) and a trend toward a higher level of post-operative Hb (SMD 0.44, 95% CI -0.01-0.90). A slightly lower CPB time emerged in JWs compared with controls (SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.30-0.07). CONCLUSIONS JW patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with avoidance of blood transfusions, did not have substantially different peri-operative outcomes compared with controls, with specific reference to mortality, myocardial infarction, and re-exploration for bleeding. Our results support the safety and feasibility of bloodless cardiac surgery, applying patient blood management strategies.
Systematic review highlights high risk of bias of clinical prediction models for blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective surgery
Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2023
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion can be a lifesaving intervention after perioperative blood loss. Many prediction models have been developed to identify patients most likely to require blood transfusion during elective surgery, but it is unclear whether any are suitable for clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Transfusion Evidence Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for studies reporting the development or validation of a blood transfusion prediction model in elective surgery patients between 01/01/2000 to 30/06/2021. We extracted study characteristics, discrimination performance (c-statistics) of final models and data which we used to perform risk of bias assessment using the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). RESULTS We reviewed 66 studies (72 developed and 48 externally validated models). Pooled c-statistics of externally validated models ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Most developed and validated models were at high risk of bias due to handling of predictors, validation methods, and too small sample sizes. CONCLUSION Most blood transfusion prediction models are at high risk of bias and suffer from poor reporting and methodological quality, which must be addressed before they can be safely used in clinical practice.
Patients undergoing elective surgery (66 studies).
Blood transfusion prediction models used perioperatively.
This systematic review appraised 120 prediction models developed or validated for predicting blood transfusion in elective surgery (72 developed and 48 externally validated models). Pooled c-statistics of externally validated models ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Most developed and validated models were at high risk of bias due to handling of predictors, validation methods, and too small sample sizes.
Optimizing Safety and Success: The Advantages of Bloodless Cardiac Surgery. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Outcomes in Jehovah's Witnesses
Current problems in cardiology. 2023;:102078
OBJECTIVE Transfusions are extremely frequent after cardiac surgery, and they have a considerable economic burden and impact on outcomes. Optimal patient blood management (PBM) could play a fundamental role in reducing the rate of transfusion and Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) represent the ideal surrogate study population. This meta-analysis compares outcomes of JWs and non-JWs' patients undergoing cardiac surgery, assessing the safety of a bloodless cardiac surgery. METHODS A scoping review was conducted using a search strategy for studies assessing outcomes of JW undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was perioperative mortality, and a random-effects meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS Ten studies were included in our meta-analysis, involving 780 JW patients refusing any type of transfusion ("JW") and 1182 patients accepting transfusion if needed ("non-JW"). 86% of non-JW patients received at least 1 transfusion. There was no significant difference in terms of perioperative mortality (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.55 - 1.52; p = 0.72). The volume blood loss was significantly less in the JW (p = 0.001), while the rate of reoperation for bleeding was also lower, but not statistically significative, in the JW (p = 0.16). Both pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in the JW. CONCLUSIONS Bloodless cardiac surgery is safe and early outcomes are similar between JW and non-JW patients: optimal patient blood management is fundamental in guarantying these results. Further studies are needed to assess if a limitation of transfusion could have a positive long-term impact on outcomes.
Rotational ThromboElastometry-guided blood component administration versus standard of care in patients with Cirrhosis and coagulopathy undergoing Invasive ProcEdures (RECIPE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Patients with cirrhosis often undergo invasive procedures both for management of complications of their advanced liver disease, including treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as underlying comorbidities. Despite a current understanding that most patients with cirrhosis are in a rebalanced haemostatic state (despite abnormalities in conventional coagulation tests, namely INR and platelet count), patients with cirrhosis are still often given prophylactic blood components based on these conventional parameters, in an effort to reduce procedure-related bleeding. Viscoelastic tests such as Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) provide a global measurement of haemostasis and have been shown to predict bleeding risk more accurately than conventional coagulation tests, and better guide blood product transfusion in a number of surgical and trauma-related settings. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of a ROTEM-based algorithm to guide prophylactic blood component delivery in patients with cirrhosis undergoing invasive procedures. We hypothesise that ROTEM-based decision-making will lead to a reduction in pre-procedural blood component usage, particularly fresh frozen plasma (FFP), compared with standard of care, whilst maintaining optimal clinical outcomes. METHODS This is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing ROTEM-guided prophylactic blood component administration to standard of care in patients with cirrhosis and coagulopathy undergoing invasive procedures. The primary efficacy outcome of the trial is the proportion of procedures requiring prophylactic transfusion, with the primary safety outcome being procedure-related bleeding complications. Secondary outcomes include the amount of blood products (FFP, platelets, cryoprecipitate) transfused, transfusion-related side effects, procedure-related complications other than bleeding, hospital length of stay and survival. DISCUSSION We anticipate that this project will lead to improved prognostication of patients with cirrhosis, in terms of their peri-procedural bleeding risk. We hope to show that a significant proportion of cirrhotic patients, deemed coagulopathic on the basis of standard coagulation tests such as INR and platelet count, are actually in a haemostatic balance and thus do not require prophylactic blood product, leading to decreased and more efficient blood component use. TRIAL REGISTRATION RECIPE has been prospectively registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 30th April 2019 ( ACTRN12619000644167 ).
Optimisation and Effect Analysis of the Blood Collection Method in Pre-Deposit Autotransfusion Patients Undergoing Thoracotomy Surgery
Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare. 2023;16:2793-2798
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To explore the feasibility of the modified blood collection method in pre-deposit autotransfusion in patients undergoing thoracotomy surgery. METHODS This double-blinded randomised controlled trial enrolled 92 patients from the cardiothoracic surgery department from February 2019 to October 2020. RESULTS Compared with the conventional blood collection method, the modified blood collection method avoided blood overflow from the oblique plane of the needle (χ(2) = 61.986, P < 0.01) and reduced the diameter of the bruising area after 24 hours (χ(2) = 24.611, P < 0.01). Furthermore, due to optimising the blood collection method, diastolic blood pressure reduced slightly before and after blood collection (t = 2.036, P < 0.05), and patients in the test group had less pain (based on the numerical rating score) (t = 5.556, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the time required to collect 400 mL of blood was shortened (t = 17.744, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION An improved blood collection method can enhance the blood donation experience, avoid blood spillage, lessen pain and reduce adverse reactions. This may be of great significance in ensuring blood quality and the safety of subsequent transfusions. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05539846.
Management of severe peri-operative bleeding: Guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care: Second update 2022
European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2023;40(4):226-304
BACKGROUND Management of peri-operative bleeding is complex and involves multiple assessment tools and strategies to ensure optimal patient care with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality. These updated guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC) aim to provide an evidence-based set of recommendations for healthcare professionals to help ensure improved clinical management. DESIGN A systematic literature search from 2015 to 2021 of several electronic databases was performed without language restrictions. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies and to formulate recommendations. A Delphi methodology was used to prepare a clinical practice guideline. RESULTS These searches identified 137 999 articles. All articles were assessed, and the existing 2017 guidelines were revised to incorporate new evidence. Sixteen recommendations derived from the systematic literature search, and four clinical guidances retained from previous ESAIC guidelines were formulated. Using the Delphi process on 253 sentences of guidance, strong consensus (>90% agreement) was achieved in 97% and consensus (75 to 90% agreement) in 3%. DISCUSSION Peri-operative bleeding management encompasses the patient's journey from the pre-operative state through the postoperative period. Along this journey, many features of the patient's pre-operative coagulation status, underlying comorbidities, general health and the procedures that they are undergoing need to be taken into account. Due to the many important aspects in peri-operative nontrauma bleeding management, guidance as to how best approach and treat each individual patient are key. Understanding which therapeutic approaches are most valuable at each timepoint can only enhance patient care, ensuring the best outcomes by reducing blood loss and, therefore, overall morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION All healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients at risk for surgical bleeding should be aware of the current therapeutic options and approaches that are available to them. These guidelines aim to provide specific guidance for bleeding management in a variety of clinical situations.
What is the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after liver transplantation regarding prevention of bleeding, hepatic artery or portal vein thrombosis? A systematic review of the literature and expert panel recommendations
Clinical transplantation. 2022;:e14629
BACKGROUND A key tenet of clinical management of patients post liver transplantation (LT) is the prevention of thrombotic and bleeding complications. This systematic review investigated the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after LT regarding portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and prevention of bleeding. METHODS Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines and recommendations using the GRADE approach derived from an international expert panel. Seven databases were used to conduct extensive literature searches focusing on the use of anticoagulation in LT and its impact on the following outcomes: PVT, HAT, and bleeding. (CRD42021244288) RESULTS Of the 2,478 articles/abstracts screened, 16 studies were included in the final review. All articles were critically appraised by a panel of independent reviewers. There was wide variation regarding the anticoagulation protocols used. Thromboprophylaxis with therapeutic doses of heparin/Vitamin K antagonist combination did not decrease the risk of de novo or the recurrence of PVT but was associated with an increased risk of bleeding in some studies. Only the use of aspirin resulted in a small but significant decrease in the incidence of HAT post-LT, yet it did not increase the risk of bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Based on existing data and expert opinion, thromboprophylaxis at therapeutic or prophylactic dose is not recommended for prevention of de novo PVT following LT in patients not at high risk. Aspirin should be considered as the standard of care following LT to prevent HAT. Thromboprophylaxis should be strongly considered in recipients at risk of HAT and PVT following LT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical Outcomes of Negative Balloon-Assisted Enteroscopy for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:772954
BACKGROUND For patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), finding the bleeding site is challenging. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) has become the preferred diagnostic modality for OGIB. The long-term outcome of patients with negative BAE remains undefined. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with negative BAE results for OGIB and to clarify the effect of further investigations at the time of rebleeding with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cohort studies. METHODS Studies were searched through the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. The following indexes were analyzed: rebleeding rate after negative BAE, rebleeding rate after different follow-up periods, the proportion of patients who underwent further evaluation after rebleeding, the percentage of patients with identified rebleeding sources, and the percentage of patients with rebleeding sources in the small intestine. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. RESULTS Twelve studies that involved a total of 407 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled rebleeding rate after negative BAE for OGIB was 29.1% (95% CI: 17.2-42.6%). Heterogeneity was significant among the studies (I(2) = 88%; p < 0.0001). The Chi-squared test did not show a difference in rebleeding rates between the short and long follow-up period groups (p = 0.142). The pooled proportion of patients who underwent further evaluation after rebleeding was 86.1%. Among the patients who underwent further evaluation, rebleeding sources were identified in 73.6% of patients, and 68.8% of the identified rebleeding lesions were in the small intestine. CONCLUSION A negative result of BAE in patients with OGIB indicates a subsequently low risk of rebleeding. Further evaluation should be considered after rebleeding.
Does the intramedullary femoral canal plug reduce blood loss during total knee arthroplasty?
Knee surgery & related research. 2022;34(1):31
INTRODUCTION The benefit of the femoral canal bone plug during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in reducing blood loss has never been proven. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether the femoral canal bone plug significantly reduces blood loss in primary TKA. METHOD All studies published before December 2021 were searched. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing blood loss between TKA with plugged and unplugged femoral intramedullary canal, respectively. The primary outcome was postoperative hemoglobin reduction. RESULTS Five studies with a total of 717 patients (361 in the plugged group, 356 in the unplugged group) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in hemoglobin level between the two groups was 0.92 g/dL, with significantly less hemoglobin reduction in the plugged group (95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.64 to - 0.21, p = 0.01). The patients in the plugged group also had a significantly lower risk of receiving a blood transfusion (risk ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.73, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrates that using a femoral canal bone plug can significantly reduce blood loss and lower the risk ratio of blood transfusion in patients undergoing TKA.