The comparison of albumin and 6% hydroxyethyl starches (130/0.4) in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials
BMC surgery. 2021;21(1):342
BACKGROUND Fluid administration is a key tool in the maintenance of normovolemia in patients with cardiac surgery. The trials that evaluated the safety of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 in cardiac surgical patients were inconsistent. It is necessary to compare the efficacy and safety of albumin and 6% HES (130/0.4). METHOD We searched for the randomized controlled clinical trials that compared human albumin with 6% HES (130/0.4) in cardiac surgery in PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase. RESULTS Ten studies involved a total of 1567 patients were included in our meta-analysis. For the efficiency, there was no difference in total volume of infusion between compared groups [P = 0.64, Fixed Effect Model (FEM): standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) (- 0.12, 0.20)]. As for safety, the albumin show more risk than hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in blood loss [P = 0.02, FEM: SMD: 0.22, 95% CI (0.03, 0.41)]. There was no difference in the frequency of transfusions (P = 0.20, RR = 1.11; 95% CI (0.95, 1.27)) between the two groups. No difference was observed for the days in intensive care unit [P = 0.05, FEM: SMD = - 0.18, 95% CI (- 0.36, 0.00)], and the days in hospital [P = 0.32, FEM: SMD = - 0.11, 95% CI (- 0.32, 0.10)]. Furthermore, both the incidence of AKI, RRT, and mortality were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION This study provided evidence that the 6% HES (130/0.4) might be the substitute for HA, which reduced the economic burden for patients with cardiac surgery. However, the effect of 6% HES (130/0.4) and HA on AKI still needs to be further studied.
Albumin in adult cardiac surgery: a narrative review
Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 2021
PURPOSE Intravascular fluids are a necessary and universal component of cardiac surgical patient care. Both crystalloids and colloids are used to maintain or restore circulating plasma volume and ensure adequate organ perfusion. In Canada, human albumin solution (5% or 25% concentration) is a colloid commonly used for this purpose. In this narrative review, we discuss albumin supply in Canada, explore the perceived advantages of albumin, and describe the clinical literature supporting and refuting albumin use over other fluids in the adult cardiac surgical population. SOURCE We conducted a targeted search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Search terms included albumin, colloid, cardiac surgery, bleeding, hemorrhage, transfusion, and cardiopulmonary bypass. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Albumin is produced from fractionated human plasma and imported into Canada from international suppliers at a cost of approximately $21 million CAD per annum. While it is widely used in cardiac surgical patients across the country, it is approximately 30-times more expensive than equivalent doses of balanced crystalloid solutions, with wide inter-institutional variability in use and no clear association with improved outcomes. There is a general lack of high-quality evidence for the superiority of albumin over crystalloids in this patient population, and conflicting evidence regarding safety. CONCLUSIONS In cardiac surgical patients, albumin is widely utilized despite a lack of high- quality evidence supporting its efficacy or safety. A well-designed randomized controlled trial is needed to clarify the role of albumin in cardiac surgical patients.
Safety and efficacy of human serum albumin treatment in patients with cirrhotic ascites undergoing paracentesis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Annals of hepatology. 2021;26:100547
Ascites is the most common presentation of decompensated liver cirrhosis. It is treated with therapeutic paracentesis which is associated with several complications. The role of human albumin in patients with cirrhotic ascites remains elusive and has been extensively studied with conflicting results. Thus, in order to fully appraise the available data we sought to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis. Herein we included studies comparing the efficacy and safety of human albumin comparing with other volume expanders and vasoactive agents in patients undergoing paracentesis in cirrhotic ascites. Odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) were used to estimate the outcome with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Albumin use reduced the odds of paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) by 60% (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.27-0.58). While performing subgroup analysis, albumin use lowered the odds of PICD significantly (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.22-0.52) in comparison to other colloid volume expanders, but did not lower the odds of PICD in comparison to vasoconstrictor therapy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.35-2.45). Albumin was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of hyponatremia (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88). Albumin did not reduce the overall mortality, readmission rate, recurrence of ascites, mean arterial pressure, incidence of renal impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Thus, treatment with albumin in cirrhotic ascites reduced PICD and hyponatremia although there was no benefit in terms of mortality, readmission rate, recurrence of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and GI bleeding.
Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Pre-Procedural Serum Albumin on Mortality in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
International heart journal. 2020
Pre-procedural serum albumin's impact on prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been studied. Literature on the prognostic role of serum albumin in the survival of patients undergoing TAVR shows conflicting results. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of pre-procedural serum albumin on outcomes after TAVR. A comprehensive literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library was undertaken through July 2019. The primary end points were 30-day and one-year all-cause mortality after TAVR. Risk ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effect model. Ten eligible studies with 8,236 patients were analyzed. Of the 8,236 patients undergoing TAVR, with a mean age of 83 years, 48.8% were men and were categorized into two groups according to low and normal serum albumin (cut-off value: 3.5 or 4 g/dL). Overall, low albumin was significantly associated with an approximately two-fold increase in 30-day all-cause mortality (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.53-2.86) and a 61% increase risk for one-year mortality (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.31-1.98) in patients after TAVR. Sensitivity analyses showed the results to be robust. The association of low albumin level with an increase in one-year mortality risk was not modified by study design, albumin cut-off value, Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS-PROM), and study quality. In conclusion, low albumin levels were associated with poor prognosis in patients after TAVR. Pre-procedural albumin can be used as a simple tool related to prognosis after TAVR.
The impact of hydroxyethyl starches in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis
Critical Care (London, England). 2014;18(6):656
INTRODUCTION Recent studies in septic patients showed that adverse effects of hydroxyethyl starches (HESs) possibly outweigh their benefits in severely impaired physiological haemostasis. It remains unclear whether this also applies to patient populations that are less vulnerable. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the impact of various HES generations on safety and efficacy endpoints in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the English or German language comparing the use of HES to any other colloid or crystalloid during open heart surgery. RESULTS Blood loss and transfusion requirements were higher for older starches with mean molecular weights more than 200 kDa compared to other volume substitutes. In contrast, this effect was not observed with latest-generation tetrastarches (130/0.4), which performed even better when compared to albumin (blood loss of tetrastarch versus albumin: standardised mean difference (SMD), -0.34; 95% CI, -0.63, -0.05; P = 0.02; versus gelatin: SMD, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.20, 0.08; P = 0.39; versus crystalloids: SMD, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.20, 0.10; P = 0.54). Similar results were found for transfusion needs. Lengths of stay in the intensive care unit or hospital were significantly shorter with tetrastarches compared to gelatin (intensive care unit: SMD, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.15, -0.05; P = 0.0002) and crystalloids (hospital: SMD, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.90, -0.14; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS In this meta-analysis of RCTs, we could not identify safety issues with tetrastarches compared with other colloid or crystalloid solutions in terms of blood loss, transfusion requirements or hospital length of stay in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The safety data on coagulation with older starches raise some issues that need to be addressed in future trials.
Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass: a meta-analysis of randomized trials
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2012;144((1):):223-30.
OBJECTIVE The effects of hydroxyethyl starch on bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass were determined. METHODS A meta-analysis was performed of postoperative blood loss in randomized clinical trials of hydroxyethyl starch versus albumin for fluid management in adult cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Impacts of hydroxyethyl starch molecular weight and molar substitution were assessed. Randomized trials directly comparing different hydroxyethyl starch solutions were also included. RESULTS Eighteen trials with 970 total patients were included. Compared with albumin, hydroxyethyl starch increased postoperative blood loss by 33.3% of a pooled SD (95% confidence interval, 18.2%-48.3%; P < .001). Risk of reoperation for bleeding was more than doubled by hydroxyethyl starch (relative risk, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-4.40; P = .020). Hydroxyethyl starch increased transfusion of red blood cells by 28.4% of a pooled SD (95% confidence interval, 12.2%-44.6%; P < .001), of fresh-frozen plasma by 30.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.0%-53.1%; P = .008), and of platelets by 29.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.4%-56.2%; P = .027). None of these effects differed significantly between hydroxyethyl starch 450/0.7 and 200/0.5. Insufficient data were available for hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 versus albumin; however, no significant differences were detected in head-to-head comparisons of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 with 200/0.5. Albumin improved hemodynamics. There were no differences in fluid balance, ventilator time, intensive care unit stay, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS Hydroxyethyl starch increased blood loss, reoperation for bleeding, and blood product transfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no evidence that these risks could be mitigated by lower molecular weight and substitution. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Albumin versus crystalloid for pump priming in cardiac surgery: meta-analysis of controlled trials
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2004;18((4):):429-37.
OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of pump priming fluid choice on platelets, fluid balance, and clinical outcomes. DESIGN Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Primary endpoints were platelet counts, colloid oncotic pressure, on-bypass fluid balance, postoperative weight gain, and colloid usage. SETTING Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. PATIENTS Adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery, including coronary artery bypass grafting, valve procedures, and correction of congenital cardiac anomalies. INTERVENTIONS Extracorporeal circuit priming with either albumin or crystalloid. MEASUREMENTS and RESULTS The meta-analysis included 21 controlled trials with 1,346 total patients. Albumin prime significantly reduced the on-bypass drop in platelet counts. The pooled weighted mean difference in platelet count drop with albumin versus crystalloid prime was -23.8 x 10(9)/L (confidence interval (CI) , -42.8 to -4.7 x 10(9)/L). The colloid oncotic pressure decline was also smaller when albumin rather than crystalloid was used for priming, with a pooled weighted mean difference of -3.6 mm Hg (CI, -4.8 to -2.3 mmHg) during bypass and -2.0 mmHg (CI, -2.9 to -1.1 mmHg) after surgery. Albumin prime correspondingly reduced on-bypass positive fluid balance (-584 mL; CI, -819 to -348 mL) and postoperative weight gain (-1.0 kg; CI, -0.6 to -1.3 kg) compared with crystalloid. Postoperative colloid usage was lower with albumin than crystalloid prime (-612 mL; CI, -983 to -241 mL). CONCLUSIONS Albumin prime better preserves platelet counts than crystalloid. Albumin also favorably influences colloid oncotic pressure, on-bypass positive fluid balance, postoperative weight gain, and colloid usage. The clinical significance of these observations merits further investigation.
Albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: a meta-analysis of postoperative bleeding
Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2001;72((2):):527-33; discussion 534.
BACKGROUND This meta-analysis tested the hypothesis that cumulative blood loss during the first 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass is lower in patients exposed to albumin than hydroxyethyl starch (HES). METHODS Randomized controlled trials comparing albumin and HES in cardiopulmonary bypass patients were identified by bibliographic database searches and other methods. RESULTS Sixteen trials involving 653 randomized patients were included. In 88% of randomized comparisons, postoperative bleeding was lower in the albumin group, and the standardized mean difference in bleeding favoring albumin across all trials (-0.24; 95% confidence interval, -0.40 to -0.08) was statistically significant. Bleeding differences between albumin and either high or medium molecular weight HES were similar. In trials of adults, the pooled mean blood loss in the albumin group was 693+/-350 mL compared with 789+/-487 mL in the HES group. The estimated proportion of adult albumin group patients with blood loss of more than 1,000 mL was 19% compared with 33% of adult HES group patients. Conclusions. Postoperative blood loss is significantly lower in cardiopulmonary bypass patients exposed to albumin than HES.