Albumin and Cardioprotection in On-Pump Cardiac Surgery-A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Trial
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2023
OBJECTIVES To study the quantitative potency of plasma albumin on cardioprotection in terms of creatinine kinase-myocardial band mass (CK-MBm) in on-pump cardiac surgery. DESIGN Post hoc analysis of a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. SETTING Single-center study in the Helsinki University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1,386 adult on-pump cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION Administration of 4% albumin (n = 693) or Ringers acetate (n = 693) for cardiopulmonary bypass priming and volume replacement intraoperatively and postoperatively during the first 24 hours. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Albumin concentration was measured preoperatively and intraoperatively (after protamine administration), and CK-MBm on the first postoperative morning. Multivariate linear regression analyses were measured in the whole cohort and the Ringer group. Plasma albumin concentration did not differ between the groups preoperatively (Ringer v albumin: 38.3 ± 5.0 g/L v 38.6 ± 4.5 g/L; p = 0.171) but differed intraoperatively (29.5 ± 5.2 g/L v 41.5 ± 6.0 g/L; p < 0.001). Creatinine kinase-myocardial band mass was higher in the Ringer (32.0 ± 34.8 μg/L) than in the albumin group (24.3 ± 33.0 μg/L) (p < 0.001). Aortic cross-clamping time associated with CK-MBm in the whole cohort (standardized β = 0.376 [95% CI 0.315-0.437], p < 0.001) and the Ringer group (β = 0.363 [0.273-0.452]; p < 0.001). Albumin administration in the whole cohort (β = -0.156 [-0.201 to -0.111]; p < 0.001) and high intraoperative albumin concentration in the Ringer group (β = -0.07 [-0.140 to -0.003]; p = 0.04) associated with reduced CK-MBm. Compared with ischemia-induced increase in CK-MBm, albumin's potency to reduce CK-MBm was 41% in the whole cohort (β-value ratio of -0.156/0.376) and 19% in the Ringer group (β-value ratio of -0.07/0.363). CONCLUSION Both endogenous and exogenous albumin appear to be cardioprotective regarding CK-MBm release in on-pump cardiac surgery.
Goal-directed Perioperative Albumin Substitution Versus Standard of Care to Reduce Postoperative Complications - A Randomized Clinical Trial (SuperAdd Trial)
Annals of surgery. 2023
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether goal-directed albumin substitution during surgery and postanesthesia care to maintain a serum albumin concentration >30 g/L can reduce postoperative complications. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Hypoalbuminemia is associated with numerous postoperative complications. Since albumin has important physiological functions, substitution of patients with hypoalbuminemia is worth considering. METHODS We conducted a single center, randomized, controlled, outcome-assessor blinded clinical trial in adult patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification 3-4 or undergoing high-risk surgery. Patients, whose serum albumin concentration dropped below 30 g/L were randomly assigned to goal-directed albumin substitution maintaining serum concentration >30 g/L or to standard care until discharge from the postanesthesia intermediate care unit. Standard of care allowed albumin substitution in hemodynamic instable patients with serum concentration <20 g/L, only. Primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative complications ≥2 according to the Clavien-Dindo Classification (CDC) in at least one of nine domains (pulmonary, infectious, cardiovascular, neurological, renal, gastrointestinal, wound, pain and hematological) until postoperative day 15. RESULTS Of 2509 included patients 600 (23.9%) developed serum albumin concentrations <30 g/L. Human albumin 60g (40-80g) was substituted to 299 (99.7%) patients in the intervention group and to 54 (18.0%) in the standard care group. At least one postoperative complication classified as CDC≥2 occurred in 254 of 300 patients (84.7%) in the intervention group and in 262 of 300 (87.3%) in the standard treatment group (risk difference -2.7%, 95%CI, -8.3% to 2.9%). CONCLUSION Maintaining serum albumin concentration of >30 g/L perioperatively cannot generally be recommended in high-risk noncardiac surgery patients.
Therapeutic Profile of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum and Autologous Serum Therapies in Treatment of Ocular Surface Disorders: A Pilot Study
Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2023
Purpose: Umbilical cord blood serum (UCBS) is an effective adjunctive treatment along with conventional therapy in ocular surface disorders (OSDs). It aids in rapid ocular surface restoration thereby achieving epithelial integrity, in addition to improvement in subjective and objective parameters. The study aims to compare the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood serum and autologous serum (AS) in treatment of OSD. Methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted on 101 eyes diagnosed with OSD resulting from dry eye disease (DED; n = 40), acute chemical burn (ACB; n = 21), and ocular allergy (OA; n = 40). Randomization was done in Group I, administered with AS, and Group II with UCBS. Outcomes evaluated were visual acuity (VA), eye sensation score (ESS), ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's value, Corneal Fluorescein Score, epithelial defect, limbal ischemia, corneal clarity (CC), and improvement in grade of severity. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Wilcoxon rank sum, Chi-square, and Z-test with a significance level (P ≤ 0.05). Results: In DED, Group II showed significant improvement in VA, ESS, and OSDI by the 7th day, whereas the mean Schirmer, TBUT, and corneal fluorescein staining score improved by 3 months. In ACB, Group II showed improvement in VA, reepithelialization, reduction in limbal ischemia, and CC by 3 months. In OA, Group II showed improvement in ESS by day 7. Conclusion: Human umbilical cord blood serum is more effective than AS in restoring ocular surface.
Albumin Infusion and Blood Loss after Cardiac Surgery
The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2023
BACKGROUND In the recent ALBICS trial (ALBumin In Cardiac Surgery), 4% albumin used for cardiopulmonary bypass priming and volume replacement increased perioperative bleeding, compared to Ringer's acetate. In the present exploratory study, albumin-related bleeding was further characterized. METHODS Ringer's acetate and 4% albumin were compared in a randomized, double-blinded fashion in 1386 on-pump adult cardiac surgical patients. The study endpoints for bleeding were the Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB) class and its components. RESULTS The UDPB bleeding grades were higher in the albumin than the Ringer group: "insignificant" (albumin vs. Ringer: 47.5% vs. 62.9%), "mild" (12.7% vs. 8.9%), "moderate" (28.7% vs. 24.4%), "severe" (10.2% vs. 3.2%), "massive" (0.9% vs. 0.6%), p<0.001. Patients in the albumin group received red blood cells (45.2% vs. 31.5%, p<0.001, odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-2.24), platelets (33.3% vs.21.8%, p<0.001, OR 1.79, CI 1.41-2.28), and fibrinogen (5.6% vs. 2.6%, p<0.05, OR 2.24: CI 1.27-3.95), and underwent resternotomy (5.3% vs. 1.9%, p<0.001, OR 2.95, CI 1.55-5.60) more often than patients in the Ringer group. The strongest predictors of bleeding were albumin group allocation (OR 2.18, CI 1.74-2.74) and complex- (OR 2.61, CI 2.02-3.37) and urgent surgery (OR 1.63, CI 1.26-2.13). In interaction analysis, the effect of albumin on the risk of bleeding was stronger in patients on preoperative acetylsalicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS Perioperative administration of albumin, compared to Ringer´s acetate, resulted in increased blood loss and higher UDBP class. The magnitude of this effect was similar to the complexity and urgency of the surgery.
Blood component requirements in liver transplantation: effect of 2 thromboelastometry-guided strategies for bolus fibrinogen infusion-the TROMBOFIB randomized trial
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis : Jth. 2023;21(1):37-46
BACKGROUND A low plasma fibrinogen level influences blood component transfusion. Thromboelastometry provides clinical guidance for fibrinogen replacement in liver transplantation (LT). OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that infusions of fibrinogen concentrate to reach an A10(FibTem) value of 11 mm during LT could reduce red blood cell (RBC) and other component and fluid requirements in comparison to standard care. METHODS This randomized, blinded, multicenter trial in 3 hospitals enrolled 189 LT-scheduled patients allocated to an intervention target (A10(FibTem), 11 mm) or a standard target (A10(FibTem), 8 mm); 176 patients underwent LT with fibrinogen replacement. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat (intervention group, 91; control group, 85). Blood was extracted, and fibrinogen kits were prepared to bring each patient's fibrinogen level to the assigned target at the start of LT, after portal vein clamping, and after graft reperfusion. The main outcome was the proportion of patients requiring RBC transfusion during LT or within 24 hours. RESULTS The proportion of patients requiring RBCs did not differ between the groups: intervention, 74.7% (95% CI, 65.5%-83.3%); control, 72.9% (95% CI, 62.2%-82.0%); absolute difference, 1.8% (95% CI, -11.1% to 14.78%) (P = .922). Thrombotic events occurred in 4% of the patients in both groups; reoperation and retransplantation rates and mortality did not differ. Nearly 70% of the patients in both groups required fibrinogen concentrate to reach the target. Using an 11-mm A10(FibTem) target increased the maximum clot firmness without affecting safety. However, this change provided no clinical benefits. CONCLUSION The similar low plasma fibrinogen concentrations could explain the lack of significant between-group outcomes.
Effects of 20% albumin infusion therapy during liver transplantation on plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level: a randomized controlled trial
Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. 2023
The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after liver transplantation was lower in patients with serum albumin levels≥3.0 mg/dL during surgery. We tested whether intraoperative infusion of 20% albumin affects neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) level, a reliable indicator of AKI. We randomly assigned 134 patients undergoing liver transplantation into albumin group (n=70, 20% albumin 200 mL) and the control group (n=66, crystalloid solution 200 mL). The two study fluids were infused at 100 mL/hour from the start of the anhepatic phase. The primary outcome was plasma NGAL level at 1 hour after graft reperfusion. Albumin level at the start of graft reperfusion was significantly greater in albumin group than in the control group (2.9 [2.4-3.3] g/dL vs. 2.3 [2.0-2.7] g/dL, P<0.001). NGAL level at 1 hour after graft reperfusion was not significantly different between the two groups (100.2 [66.7-138.8] ng/mL vs. 92.9 [70.8-120.6] ng/mL, P=0.46), and AKI risk was not either (63.9% vs. 67.8%, adjusted P=0.73). There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding hospital readmission within 30 days/90 days after transplantation (32.6% vs. 41.5%, adjusted P=0.19 and 55% vs. 55.7%, adjusted P=0.87). Graft survival probability at 30 days/90 days/1 year after transplantation was 90.0%/84.3%/78.6% in albumin group and 97.0%/90.9%/89.4% in the control group (HR=1.6 [0.6-4.0], adjusted P=0.31). In conclusion, intraoperative infusion of 20% albumin 200 mL increased albumin level but failed to maintain serum albumin≥3.0 mg/dL during surgery. The hypertonic albumin therapy did not significantly affect plasma NGAL level and clinical outcomes including AKI.
Effect of targeted coagulopathy management and 5% albumin as volume replacement therapy during lung transplantation on allograft function: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial
BMC pulmonary medicine. 2023;23(1):80
BACKGROUND Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation (LuTx) contributes substantially to early postoperative morbidity. Both intraoperative transfusion of a large amount of blood products during the surgery and ischemia-reperfusion injury after allograft implantation play an important role in subsequent PGD development. METHODS We have previously reported a randomized clinical trial of 67 patients where point of care (POC) targeted coagulopathy management and intraoperative administration of 5% albumin led to significant reduction of blood loss and blood product consumption during the lung transplantation surgery. A secondary analysis of the randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of targeted coagulopathy management and intraoperative administration of 5% albumin on early lung allograft function after LuTx and 1-year survival was performed. RESULTS Compared to the patients in the control (non-POC) group, those in study (POC) group showed significantly superior graft function, represented by the Horowitz index (at 72 h after transplantation 402.87 vs 308.03 with p < 0.001, difference between means: 94.84, 95% CI: 60.18-129.51). Furthermore, the maximum doses of norepinephrine administered during first 24 h were significantly lower in the POC group (0.193 vs 0.379 with p < 0.001, difference between the means: 0.186, 95% CI: 0.105-0.267). After dichotomization of PGD (0-1 vs 2-3), significant difference between the non-POC and POC group occurred only at time point 72, when PGD grade 2-3 developed in 25% (n = 9) and 3.2% (n = 1), respectively (p = 0.003). The difference in 1-year survival was not statistically significant (10 patients died in non-POC group vs. 4 patients died in POC group; p = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS Utilization of a POC targeted coagulopathy management combined with Albumin 5% as primary resuscitative fluid may improve early lung allograft function, provide better circulatory stability during the early post-operative period, and have potential to decrease the incidence of PGD without negative effect on 1-year survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION This clinical trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03598907).
Effect of low-level laser therapy on post-extraction hemostasis in patients with hemophilia - A prospective cohort study
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2023
Dental extraction in hemophiliacs can be complicated by perilous bleeding. Although developments in local hemostatics and factor replacement have made outpatient extraction feasible, there is no standard protocol for preventing hemorrhagic exigency. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has firmly established role in hemostasis due to its ability to seal vessels, but this function has not been conclusively established in hemophiliac patients. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of LLLT as compared with the standard protocol alone in achieving post-extraction hemostasis. A prospective interventional cohort study was designed and consisted of 60 patients with hemophilia A or B, who reported to the Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi between October 2021 and March 2022. These were divided equally into test and control groups, both following the standard protocol. In the test group, extraction sockets were exposed to LLLT. The study assessed time required, instance of rebleeding, and additional methods employed for hemostasis in each group. The results showed a 22.42% reduction in average time taken to achieve hemostasis in the test group as compared with the control group. The tranexamic acid pack was replaced in two cases in both groups after 60 min of procedure. Three cases in the control group required suturing, and one case required cauterization. Rebleeding occurred in four cases in the test group and in 13 cases among the controls. Postoperative factor was infused in three and 12 cases in the test and control groups, respectively. The authors believe that perioperative use of LLLT should be encouraged because it demonstrated a significantly reduced time for hemostasis among hemophilia patients.
Cost-effectiveness of Fibrinogen Concentrate vs Cryoprecipitate for Treating Acquired Hypofibrinogenemia in Bleeding Adult Cardiac Surgical Patients
JAMA surgery. 2023
IMPORTANCE Excessive bleeding requiring fibrinogen replacement is a serious complication of cardiac surgery. However, the relative cost-effectiveness of the 2 available therapies-fibrinogen concentrate and cryoprecipitate-is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine cost-effectiveness of fibrinogen concentrate vs cryoprecipitate for managing active bleeding in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A within-trial economic evaluation of the Fibrinogen Replenishment in Surgery (FIBERS) randomized clinical trial (February 2017 to November 2018) that took place at 4 hospitals based in Ontario, Canada, hospitals examined all in-hospital resource utilization costs and allogeneic blood product (ABP) transfusion costs incurred within 28 days of surgery. Participants included a subset of 495 adult patients from the FIBERS trial who underwent cardiac surgery and developed active bleeding and acquired hypofibrinogenemia requiring fibrinogen replacement. INTERVENTIONS Fibrinogen concentrate (4 g per dose) or cryoprecipitate (10 units per dose) randomized (1:1) up to 24 hours postcardiopulmonary bypass. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Effectiveness outcomes included number of ABPs administered within 24 hours and 7 days of cardiopulmonary bypass. ABP transfusion (7-day) and in-hospital resource utilization (28-day) costs were evaluated and a multivariable net benefit regression model built for the full sample and predefined subgroups. RESULTS Patient level costs for 495 patients were evaluated (mean [SD] age 59.2 [15.4] years and 69.3% male.) Consistent with FIBERS, ABP transfusions and adverse events were similar in both treatment groups. Median (IQR) total 7-day ABP cost was CAD $2280 (US dollars [USD] $1697) (CAD $930 [USD $692]-CAD $4970 [USD $3701]) in the fibrinogen concentrate group and CAD $2770 (USD $1690) (IQR, CAD $1140 [USD $849]-CAD $5000 [USD $3723]) in the cryoprecipitate group. Median (interquartile range) total 28-day cost was CAD $38 180 (USD $28 431) $(IQR, CAD $26 350 [USD $19 622]-CAD $65 080 [USD $48 463]) in the fibrinogen concentrate group and CAD $38 790 (USD $28 886) (IQR, CAD $26 180 [USD $19 495]-CAD $70 380 [USD $52 409]) in the cryoprecipitate group. After exclusion of patients who were critically ill before surgery (11%) due to substantial variability in costs, the incremental net benefit of fibrinogen concentrate vs cryoprecipitate was positive (probability of being cost-effective 86% and 97% at $0 and CAD $2000 (USD $1489) willingness-to-pay, respectively). Net benefit was highly uncertain for nonelective and patients with critical illness. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Fibrinogen concentrate is cost-effective when compared with cryoprecipitate in most bleeding adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery with acquired hypofibrinogenemia requiring fibrinogen replacement. The generalizability of these findings outside the Canadian health system needs to be verified.
A subset of patients enrolled in the FIBERS trial who underwent cardiac surgery and experienced bleeding resulting in acquired hyperfibrinogenemia (n= 495).
Fibrinogen concentrate (n= 251).
Cryoprecipitate (n= 244).
Patient level costs were evaluated. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) total 7-day allogeneic blood product (ABP) cost was CAD $2,280 (US dollars [USD] $1,697) (CAD $930 [USD $692]-CAD $4,970 [USD $3,701]) in the fibrinogen concentrate group and CAD $2,770 (USD $1,690) (IQR, CAD $1,140 [USD $849]-CAD $5,000 [USD $3,723]) in the cryoprecipitate group. Median (IQR) total 28-day cost was CAD $38,180 (USD $28 431) (IQR, CAD $26,350 [USD $19,622]-CAD $65,080 [USD $48,463]) in the fibrinogen concentrate group and CAD $38,790 (USD $28,886) (IQR, CAD $26,180 [USD $19,495]-CAD $70,380 [USD $52,409]) in the cryoprecipitate group. After exclusion of patients who were critically ill before surgery (11%) due to substantial variability in costs, the incremental net benefit of fibrinogen concentrate vs. cryoprecipitate was positive (probability of being cost-effective 86% and 97% at $0 and CAD $2,000 (USD $1,489) willingness-to-pay, respectively). Net benefit was highly uncertain for nonelective and patients with critical illness.
Prophylactic cryoprecipitate transfusion in patients undergoing scoliosis surgery: A randomised-controlled trial
Journal of perioperative practice. 2022;:17504589221132393
BACKGROUND Scoliosis surgeries in adults often have a high risk of massive blood loss and significant transfusion of blood products during and after surgery. It is not known whether early cryoprecipitate therapy is useful in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements. The objective of this randomised, prospective placebo control study was to evaluate whether prophylactic administration of cryoprecipitate would reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements during scoliosis surgery. METHODS Eighty adult patients scheduled to undergo elective scoliosis correction were randomly assigned to receive either ten units of cryoprecipitate before incision (cryo group) or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline (placebo group). Blood loss, transfusion requirements, coagulation parameters and complications were assessed. RESULTS No significant differences were found in the volume of transfused blood products, intraoperative estimated blood loss between the intervention and placebo groups. Postoperative blood loss was significantly lower in the cry group when compared to the other group. During adult surgical correction of scoliosis, prophylactic administration of cryoprecipitate did not diminish the amount of transfused blood products or decrease intraoperative blood loss. CONCLUSION It could be concluded that the prophylactic administration of cryoprecipitate shows no differences in intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements during scoliosis surgery.