Women whose pregnancy was at risk of haemolytic disease of foetus and new born (HDFN), (19 studies).
Systematic review and meta-analysis on non-invasive prenatal analysis (NIPT) in conjunction with quantitative maternal alloantibody analysis.
NIPT was estimated highly sensitive/specific for foetal RHD genotyping beyond 11-week gestation. Amplifications from ≥2 exons were optimum to increase accuracy. NIPT permitted cost-effectiveness and was associated with low emotional stress. Knowledge of parental ethnicity was important for correct NIPT result interpretations and quantitative screening. Cut-off titre ≥8-up-to-32 was relevant for anti-D alloantibodies, while, lower titre was for anti-K. Alloimmunisation was influenced by maternal RHD status, gravida status, and history of adverse obstetrics.