Case report: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy: a report of a favorable outcome and systematic meta-analysis of outcomes with different immunosuppressive therapies
Frontiers in neurology. 2023;14:1239746
Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy (ANE) is a condition characterized by symmetric, bilateral lesions affecting the thalamus and potentially other areas of the brain following an acute febrile illness. It manifests clinically as abrupt development of encephalopathy, or alteration in mental status that often includes development of seizures and progression to coma. Treatment strategies combine immunosuppressive therapies and supportive care with varying levels of recovery, however there are no universally accepted, data-driven, treatment algorithms for ANE. We first report a case of a previously healthy 10-year-old female with acute onset diplopia, visual hallucinations, lethargy, and seizures in the setting of subacute non-specific viral symptoms and found to have bilateral thalamic and brainstem lesions on MRI consistent with ANE. She was treated with a combination of immunomodulatory therapies and ultimately had a good outcome. Next, we present a meta-analysis of 10 articles with a total of 158 patients meeting clinical and radiographic criteria for ANE. Each article reported immunosuppressive treatments received, and associated morbidity or mortality outcome for each individual patient. Through our analysis, we confirm the effectiveness of high-dose, intravenous, methylprednisolone (HD-IV-MP) therapy implemented early in the disease course (initiation within 24 h of neurologic symptom onset). There was no significant difference between patients treated with and without intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There was no benefit of combining IVIG with early HD-IV-MP. There is weak evidence suggesting a benefit of IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab, especially when used in combination with early HD-IV-MP, though this analysis was limited by sample size. Finally, plasma exchange (PLEX) improved survival. We hope this meta-analysis will be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions for patients with this potentially devastating condition.
Effectiveness and tolerability of different therapies in preventive treatment of MOG-IgG-associated disorder: A network meta-analysis
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:953993
BACKGROUND Immunotherapy has been shown to reduce relapses in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorder (MOG-AD); however, the superiority of specific treatments remains unclear. AIM: To identify the efficacy and tolerability of different treatments for MOG-AD. METHODS Systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 1, 2021, were performed. Published articles including patients with MOG-AD and reporting the efficacy or tolerability of two or more types of treatment in preventing relapses were included. Reported outcomes including incidence of relapse, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and side effects were extracted. Network meta-analysis with a random-effect model within a Bayesian framework was conducted. Between group comparisons were estimated using Odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS Twelve studies that compared the efficacy of 10 different treatments in preventing MOG-AD relapse, including 735 patients, were analyzed. In terms of incidence of relapse, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), oral corticosteroids (OC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), and rituximab (RTX) were all significantly more effective than no treatment (ORs ranged from 0.075 to 0.34). On the contrary, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) (OR=1.3, 95% CrI: 0.31 to 5.0) and tacrolimus (TAC) (OR=5.9, 95% CrI: 0.19 to 310) would increase the incidence of relapse. Compared with DMT, IVIG significantly reduced the ARR (MD=-0.85, 95% CrI: -1.7 to -0.098). AZA, MMF, OC and RTX showed a trend to decrease ARR, but those results did not reach significant differences. The combined results for relapse rate and adverse events, as well as ARR and adverse events showed that IVIG and OC were the most effective and tolerable therapies. CONCLUSIONS Whilst DMT should be avoided, IVIG and OC may be suited as first-line therapies for patients with MOG-AD. RTX, MMF, and AZA present suitable alternatives.
Intravenous immunoglobulin as a treatment for intractable epilepsy secondary to focal cortical dysplasia: a meta-analysis
Pediatric Neurology. 2017;76:79-81
BACKGROUND The observation of a dramatic response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) by a child from our center with intractable epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia prompted us to perform a meta-analysis on the efficiency of IVIG in this condition. Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of intractable epilepsy. Microglial activation and upregulation of neuroinflammatory pathways have been documented in brain specimen from surgically treated patients with intractable epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia. IVIG has been used for decades to treat patients with intractable epilepsy; however, there is little evidence regarding its efficacy, possibly because of the pathophysiological heterogeneity of patients included in most of the published studies. METHODS A search for studies in patients from 0 to 18 years was performed in databases. We found four observational studies-prospective or retrospective-including patients with focal cortical dysplasia with intractable epilepsy treated with IVIG. The primary outcome was a reduction of seizure frequency by more than 50%. RESULTS A total of eight patients were included in this meta-analysis. The intravenous immunoglobulin doses ranged from 0.2 to 1 g/kg/day, repeated three to six times over one to 14 months (median: five months). Intravenous immunoglobulin was associated with reduced seizure frequency in six out of eight patients (P < 0.05). Among these six patients, the reduction of seizure frequency lasted for nine months to nine years (median: 3.7 years). There were either no or mild adverse effects of IVIG infusion including postinfusion paresthesia (n = 1) and a transient increase in temperature (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Despite obvious limitations, mainly because of the small number of patients, and the selection biases, this study suggests that, based on the available data, IVIG might be effective in the treatment of intractable epilepsy secondary to focal cortical dysplasia. Further therapeutic trials are mandatory to further clarify the efficacy of IVIG in this condition.