Absorbable Hemostatic Pack Effect After Primary Incisor Extraction: A Pilot Study and Introduction of a Novel Scale to Assess Post-Operative Bleeding
The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. 2021;45(2):67-73
OBJECTIVES This pilot study compared hemostatic pack (HP) application with no intervention following extraction of maxillary primary incisors in healthy children for effect on bleeding time and influence of patient or tooth variables utilizing a novel scale for assessment of bleeding following extraction. STUDY DESIGN A novel scale was created to assess bleeding after extraction. This scale was utilized in a randomized, split mouth study of healthy children ages 2-7 years old requiring extraction of at least 2 primary maxillary incisors under general anesthesia. One extraction site was randomly assigned to receive HP and the other had no hemostatic measures. Post-operative bleeding was rated at 2, 10, and 15 minutes post-extraction. Other variables recorded included age, sex, periapical radiolucency, presence of fistula, swelling, discoloration, intraoral stabilization device used, and vital signs at two time intervals. Pre-operative radiographs were reviewed for root resorption and periapical radiolucency. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five patients provided 50 teeth. Hemostatic pack had a significant effect on reducing bleeding at each time point and that effect did not change over time. Age, sex, tooth pain, post-extraction heart rate, blood pressure, discoloration, amount of resorption, and presence of a periapical radiolucency had no significant effect on bleeding. The proposed bleeding scale had good intra-rater reliability and could be useful in future studies, once validated.
Effect of tranexamic acid on markers of inflammation in children undergoing craniofacial surgery
Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2020
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements during craniosynostosis surgery in small children. Possible interaction from TXA on the inflammatory system is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of TXA on a wide range of inflammatory markers in children receiving TXA in a randomized, blinded and placebo controlled study design. METHODS Thirty children undergoing craniosynostosis surgery with significant blood loss received TXA (bolus dose of 10 mg kg(-1) followed by 8 hours continuous infusion of 3 mg kg(-1) h(-1) ) or placebo in a randomized, double-blinded study design. Using a new proximity extension assays employing a panel of inflammatory biomarkers samples was used for analysis of blood samples obtained preoperatively, 4h and 24 h after operation. RESULTS Ninety-two inflammatory parameters were measured. TXA did not affect any of the measured parameters as compared with placebo. Among 34 of the 92 pro- and antiinflammatory parameters investigated changes were observed between preoperative, 4 h or 24 h respectively, reflecting immune activation during surgical stress. CONCLUSION TXA administration in a low-dose regimen including bolus followed by 8h infusion during craniosynostosis surgery did not change any of 92 inflammatory markers as compared with placebo.
Pulp Revascularization/Revitalization of Bilateral Upper Necrotic Immature Permanent Central Incisors with Blood Clot vs Platelet-rich Fibrin Scaffolds-A Split-mouth Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial
International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. 2020;13(4):337-343
OBJECTIVES Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the regeneration of bilateral necrotic upper permanent central incisors with open apex using blood clot (BC) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) scaffolds. TRIAL DESIGN Split-mouth double-blind parallel arm randomized controlled clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomization and blinding: The study started with 15 patients with bilateral necrotic upper permanent central incisors with open apex. Computer-generated tables were used to allocate treatments. The two maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to either the control (BC scaffold) or the examined (PRF scaffold) groups. Participants: Thirteen patients aged 8-14 years fulfilled the study requirements. Follow-up was performed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Standardized radiographs were collected each 3 months, and difference in measurements was calculated using Image J software. Primary outcomes measured were sinus/fistula formation, pain complaint, mobility grade, and swelling presence/absence. Radiographic: Root length elongation and increase in root thickness. Secondary outcomes were sensibility test and crown color change. Radiographic: Change in bone density and apical diameter. Radiographs that were standardized used during the follow-up time, and occurred changes were calculated using Image J software. RESULTS One patient was lost during follow-up; therefore, 24 treated teeth were analyzed, they showed 100% success rate. Platelet-rich fibrin teeth displayed a statistically significant growth in radiographic root length and width, increased periapical bone density, and a reduction in apical diameter when compared with BC. At the end of the follow-up period, all treated teeth were negative to sensibility test. Blood clot displayed greater crown discoloration in comparison to PRF group. CONCLUSION For teeth with open apex and necrotic pulp, revascularization using PRF is an appropriate substitute to BC. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE Rizk HM, Salah AL-Deen MS, Emam AA. Pulp Revascularization/Revitalization of Bilateral Upper Necrotic Immature Permanent Central Incisors with Blood Clot vs Platelet-rich Fibrin Scaffolds-A Split-mouth Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(4):337-343.
Effectiveness of topical haemocoagulase as a haemostatic agent in children undergoing extraction of primary teeth: a split-mouth, randomised, double-blind, clinical trial
European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 2019
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of topically-administered haemocoagulase (batroxobin) (HC) following dental extractions in children. DESIGN Split-mouth design, where either HC (test) or Normal Saline (control) (NS) was administered to children (5-9 years) requiring bilateral extractions of primary molars. Participants were randomised to (i) extraction sequence; (ii) test-solution administered thereafter. OUTCOME MEASURE time taken (in seconds) for complete cessation of bleeding. RESULTS Thirty participants completed the trial receiving HS (n = 30) and NS (n = 30). No adverse events were reported. Time to bleeding cessation was lower in HS group (82.5 +/- 13.99 s) than NS group (240.5 +/- 54.34 s). Difference between groups (paired t test) was statistically very highly significant (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION Topical HC produced significant reductions in time for haemostasis and was clinically effective in controlling haemorrhage from extraction wounds in children. HC may be favourably utilised by paediatric dentists, especially with pre-cooperative or special-healthcare-needs patients, improving patient care.
Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Combined with Autogenous Bone Graft in the Quality and Quantity of Maxillary Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction
Iranian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2018;30((101):):329-334.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the quality and quantity of bone formation in unilateral maxillary alveolar cleft reconstruction using cone beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 non-syndromic patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate within the age group of 9-12 years. The study population was randomly assigned into two groups of PRF and control, each of which entailed 5 cases. In the PRF group, the autogenous anterior iliac crest bone graft was used in combination with PRF gel. On the other hand, the control group was subjected to reconstruction only by bone graft. The dental cone beam CT images were obtained immediately (T0) and 3 months (T1) after the operation to assess the quality and quantity of the graft. Independent and paired sample t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to analyze and compare the data related to the height, thickness, and density of the new bone. Results: The mean thickness difference of the graft in both PRF and control groups at T0 and T1 was not significantly different (P>0.05). Furthermore, the reduction changes of bone height at the graft site from T0 to T1 were not statistically significant for both groups (P=0.78). The mean total bone loss of the regenerated bone from T0 to T1 was lower in the control group than that in the PRF group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The usage of PRF exerted no significant effect on the thickness, height, and density of maxillary alveolar graft.
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite as a haemostatic agent compared with physiologic saline on the success of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies in primary molars: an in vivo study
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry : Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 2018;19((6):):423-430.
AIM: To evaluate, via clinical and radiographic assessment; the success of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies with the application of 5% sodium hypochlorite as a haemostatic agent compared with physiologic saline in primary molars and to evaluate if there is improved efficacy of increased concentration of sodium hypochlorite application in calcium hydroxide pulpotomies. METHODS Thirty children aged between 3 and 8 years, having at least two vital primary molars (split mouth design) with deep carious lesions with probable exposure of the pulp, were selected. The 60 teeth were randomly allocated to two groups and conventional calcium hydroxide pulpotomies were performed on all selected primary molars in both the groups. A cotton pellet saturated with 5% sodium hypochlorite was applied to teeth as a haemostatic agent in group A (experimental) for 30 s while physiologic saline was used to manage haemorrhage in group B (control). Teeth were restored with preformed metal crowns (PMC) in both the groups after the procedure. Evaluation for clinical and radiological success of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies was performed at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. RESULTS Statistical analysis did not show (p > 0.05) significant differences in the clinical and radiological success rates of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies in both the groups at 12 months follow-up. CONCLUSION The increased concentration of sodium hypochlorite showed lower success rate in calcium hydroxide pulpotomies when compared to physiologic saline, although this difference was not statistically significant.
Effects of Tranexamic Acid Based on its Population Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Distraction Osteogenesis for Craniosynostosis: Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM(TM)) Analysis
International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018;15((8)):788-795.
Background: Distraction osteogenesis for craniosynostosis is associated with significant hemorrhage. Additionally, patients usually require several transfusions. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective for reducing blood loss and the need for transfusions during surgeries. However, the significance of TXA infusion has not been thoroughly described yet. Methods: Forty-eight children undergoing distraction osteogenesis for craniosynostosis were administered intraoperative TXA infusion (loading dose of 10 mg/kg for 15 min, followed by continuous infusion at 5 mg/kg/h throughout surgery; n = 23) or normal saline (control, n = 25). Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(TM)) was conducted to monitor changes in coagulation perioperatively. Results: Blood loss during surgery was significantly lower in the TXA-treated group than it was in the control group (81 vs. 116 mL/kg, P = 0.003). Furthermore, significantly fewer transfusions of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma were required in the TXA group. In the control group, clotting time during the postoperative period was longer than it was during the preoperative period. Similarly, clot strength was weaker during the postoperative period. D-dimer levels dramatically increased in the control group compared with the TXA group after surgery. The duration of mechanical ventilation and the number of postoperative respiratory-related complications were significantly greater in the control group than they were in the TXA group. Conclusions: TXA infusion based on population pharmacokinetic analysis is effective in reducing blood loss and the need for transfusions during the surgical treatment of craniosynostosis. It can also prevent the increase in D-dimer levels without affecting systemic hemostasis.
Effectiveness of tranexamic acid for reducing intraoperative bleeding in palatoplasties: a randomized clinical trial
Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery : Official Publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2017;45((5):):642-648
BACKGROUND Few data are available regarding blood loss during cleft palate surgery. This study assessed the effect of using tranexamic acid in the reduction of intraoperative bleeding. METHODS A double-blind, randomized clinical trial compared intraoperative bleeding and the incidence of oronasal fistulas after palatoplasties in a control group that was given placebo and an intervention group that was given 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/h of the same until the end of surgery. Patients who underwent primary palatoplasty with no known or suspected coagulation disorders at our institution during the study period were included in the study. RESULTS 70 patients were allocated, 66 received the intervention. Blood loss was reduced by 11.9%, without statistical significance. The incidence of fistulas in the intervention and control groups was 12.9% and 18.75%, respectively. The reduction of 5.8% (CI 95%: 12%-23.8%) was not significant. CONCLUSIONS The reduction of intraoperative blood loss was lower than expected and not statistically significant; a larger sample is needed to confirm the observed reduction. The drug did not seem to have negative effects on flap viability.
Use of platelet-rich plasma for regeneration in non-vital immature permanent teeth: clinical and cone-beam computed tomography evaluation
The Journal of International Medical Research. 2017;45((2)):583-593.
Objective This study was performed to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of a revascularization procedure in immature teeth with apical periodontitis using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The PRP protocol and conventional revascularization protocol, which used a blood clot as the scaffold, were compared. Methods Thirty non-vital immature permanent teeth were randomly categorized into two groups. After disinfecting the root canal space with triple antibiotic paste (1:1:1 ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and cefaclor), a tissue scaffold was created using either PRP or a blood clot (control) and covered with white mineral trioxide aggregate. All cases were followed up clinically and radiographically for 12 months. Differences in bone density, root length, and lesion size were calculated using preoperative and postoperative computed tomography images. The means of the differences in individual parameters in the blood clot and PRP groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results After 5 months, sensitivity tests (cold and electric pulp tests) elicited a delayed positive response in 23 sites. At 12 months, cone-beam computed tomography revealed resolution or a decrease in lesion size and an increase in bone density in all 30 (100%) teeth. Additionally, continued root development was observed in 22 (73%) teeth and early root growth was observed in the test group (mineral trioxide aggregate with PRP). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that PRP can serve as a successful scaffold for regenerative endodontic treatment. With the exception of a significant increase in root length, the results of treatment with PRP were not significantly different from those of the conventional protocol using a blood clot as the scaffold.
Effect of Erythropoietin on Transfusion Requirements for Craniosynostosis Surgery in Children
The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2017;28((5):):1315-1319
BACKGROUND Pediatric craniosynostosis surgery is associated with significant blood loss often requiring allogenic blood transfusion (ABT). This study explores the clinical effectiveness of preoperative erythropoietin (EPO) administration in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery in reducing transfusion requirements. METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed for studies published in English language between 1946 and 2015. Inclusion criteria included original studies in the pediatric population (0-8 years of age) involving preoperative use of EPO in craniofacial procedures with quantitative reporting of perioperative blood transfusion. Extracted data included demographics, hematocrit, hemoglobin, estimated blood loss, number of patients transfused, and amount of ABT. RESULTS Four studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 117 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: EPO versus control. No statistical differences were found in the demographics between the 2 groups. Mean preoperative hematocrit level was higher in the EPO group compared with control (43% vs 35%). The percentage of patients who required ABT and the volume of transfused blood were less in the EPO group (54% vs 98% and 84 vs 283 mL, respectively). Meta-analysis of 3 comparable studies showed a lower proportion of patients who needed blood transfusion in the EPO group. CONCLUSIONS The present meta-analysis demonstrated that preoperative administration of EPO in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery decreased the proportion of patients requiring ABT. In addition, the volume of transfusion was reduced in patients who received EPO. Future randomized studies are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative EPO administration in craniosynostosis surgery.