Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Prehospital plasma is associated with survival principally in patients transferred from the scene of injury: A secondary analysis of the PAMPer trial
BACKGROUND We sought to characterize if prehospital transfer origin from the scene of injury (SCENE) or from a referral emergency department (REF) alters the survival benefit attributable to prehospital plasma resuscitation in patients at risk of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of data from a recently completed prehospital plasma clinical trial. All of the enrolled patients from either the SCENE or REF groups were included. The demographics, injury characteristics, shock severity and resuscitation needs were compared. The primary outcome was a 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox-hazard regression were used to characterize the independent survival benefits of prehospital plasma for transport origin groups. RESULTS Of the 501 enrolled patients, the REF group patients (n = 111) accounted for 22% with the remaining (n = 390) originating from the scene. The SCENE group patients had higher injury severity and were more likely intubated prehospital. The REF group patients had longer prehospital times and received greater prehospital crystalloid and blood products. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant 30-day survival benefit associated with prehospital plasma in the SCENE group (P < .01) with no difference found in the REF group patients (P = .36). The Cox-regression verified after controlling for relevant confounders that prehospital plasma was independently associated with a 30-day survival in the SCENE group patients (hazard ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.89; P = .01) with no significant relationship found in the REF group patients (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.4-3.0). CONCLUSION Important differences across the SCENE and REF cohorts exist that are essential to understand when planning prehospital studies. Prehospital plasma is associated with a survival benefit primarily in SCENE group patients. The results are exploratory but suggest transfer origin may be an important determinant of prehospital plasma benefit.
Robotically applied hemostatic clamping for care-under-fire: harnessing bomb robots for hemorrhage control
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 2022;65(2):E242-e249
BACKGROUND Early hemorrhage control after interpersonal violence is the most urgent requirement to preserve life and is now recognized as a responsibility of law enforcement. Although earlier entry of first responders is advocated, many shooting scenes remain unsafe for humans, necessitating first responses conducted by robots. Thus, robotic hemorrhage control warrants study as a care-under-fire treatment option. METHODS Two bomb disposal robots (Wolverine and Dragon Runner) were retrofitted with hemostatic wound clamps. The robots' ability to apply a wound clamp to a simulated extremity exsanguination while controlled by 4 experienced operators was tested. The operators were randomly assigned to perform 10 trials using 1 robot each. A third surveillance robot (Stair Climber) provided further visualization for the operators. We assessed the success rate of the application of the wound clamp to the simulated wound, the time to application of the wound clamp and the amount of fluid loss. We also assessed the operators' efforts to apply the wound clamp after an initial attempt was unsuccessful or after the wound clamp was dropped. RESULTS Remote robotic application of a wound clamp was demonstrated to be feasible, with complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications. This finding was consistent across all operators and both robots. There was no difference in the success rates with the 2 robots (p = 1.00). However, there were differences in fluid loss (p = 0.004) and application time (p < 0.001), with the larger (Wolverine) robot being faster and losing less fluid. CONCLUSION Law enforcement tactical robots were consistently able to provide partial to complete hemorrhage control in a simulated extremity exsanguination. Consideration should be given to using this approach in care-under-fire and care-behind-the-barricade scenarios as well as further developing the technology and doctrine for robotic hemorrhage control.
Public safety bomb technicians (n= 4).
Application of wound clamps with the heavy-duty bomb disposal Wolverine robot (n= 2).
Application of wound clamps with the lightweight bomb disposal Dragon Runner robot (n= 2).
There was complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications consistently across all technicians and both robots. There was no difference in success rates with the two robots. However, there were differences in fluid loss and application time, with the Wolverine robot being faster and losing less fluid.
A randomized controlled pilot trial of video-modelling versus telementoring for improved hemorrhage control wound packing
American journal of surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Exsanguination is the most preventable cause of death. Paradigms such as STOP THE BLEED recognize increased responsibility among the less experienced with Wound Packing (WP) being a critical skill. As even trained providers may perform poorly, we compared Video-modelling (VM), a form of behavioural modelling involving video demonstration prior to intervention against remote telementoring (RTM) involving remote real-time expert-guidance. METHODS Search and Rescue (SAR-Techs), trained in WP were asked to pack a wound on a standardized simulator randomized to RMT, VM, or control. RESULTS 24 SAR-Techs (median age 37, median 16.5 years experience) participated. Controls were consistently faster than RTM (p = 0.005) and VM (p = 0.000), with no difference between RTM and VM. However, 50% (n = 4) Controls failed to pack properly, compared to 100% success in both VM and RTM, despite all SAR-Techs feeling the task was "easy". DISCUSSION Performance of a life-saving technique was improved through either VM or RTM, suggesting that both techniques are beneficial and complementary to each other. Further work should be extended to law enforcement/lay public to examine logistical challenges.
A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
A Novel Risk Prediction Model for Severe Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Fluid Resuscitation
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2022;9:840611
BACKGROUND To develop a risk prediction model for the occurrence of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving fluid resuscitation. METHODS We conducted a secondary analysis of the Crystalloid vs. Hydroxyethyl Starch Trial (CHEST) trial, a blinded randomized controlled trial that enrolled ICU patients who received intravenous fluid resuscitation. The primary outcome was the first event in a composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine and/or treatment with renal replacement treatment (RRT) within 28 days of randomization. The final model developed using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination was validated internally and then translated into a predictive equation. RESULTS Six thousand seven hundred twenty-seven ICU participants were studied, among whom 745 developed the study outcome. The final model having six variables, including admission diagnosis of sepsis, illness severity score, mechanical ventilation, tachycardia, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and emergency admission. The model had good discrimination (c-statistic = 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.697-0.736) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, χ(2) = 14.4, p = 0.07) for the composite outcome, with a c-statistic after internal bootstrapping validation of 0.72, which revealed a low degree of over-fitting. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 58.8 and 89.1%, respectively. The decision curve analysis indicates a net benefit in prediction of severe AKI using the model across a range of threshold probabilities between 5 and 35%. CONCLUSIONS Our model, using readily available clinical variables to identify ICU patients at high risk of severe AKI achieved good predictive performance in a clinically relevant population.
Prehospital synergy: Tranexamic acid and blood transfusion in patients at risk for hemorrhage
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Growing evidence supports improved survival with prehospital blood products. Recent trials show a benefit of prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in select subgroups. Our objective was to determine if receiving prehospital packed red blood cells (pRBC) in addition to TXA improved survival in injured patients at risk of hemorrhage. METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of all scene patients from the STAAMP trial. Patients were randomized to prehospital TXA or placebo. Some participating EMS services utilized pRBC. Four resuscitation groups resulted: TXA, pRBC, pRBC+TXA, and neither. Our primary outcome was 30-day mortality and secondary outcome was 24-hour mortality. Cox regression tested the association between resuscitation group and mortality while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS A total of 763 patients were included. Patients receiving prehospital blood had higher injury severity scores in the pRBC (22 [10, 34]) and pRBC+TXA (22 [17, 36]) groups than the TXA (12 [5, 21]) and neither (10 [4, 20]) groups (p < 0.01). Mortality at 30 days was greatest in the pRBC+TXA and pRBC groups at 18.2% and 28.6% compared to the TXA only and neither groups at 6.6% and 7.4% respectively. Resuscitation with pRBC+TXA was associated with a 35% reduction in relative hazards of 30-day mortality compared to neither (HR 0.65; 95%CI 0.45-0.94, p = 0.02). No survival benefit was observed in 24-hour mortality for pRBC+TXA, but pRBC alone was associated with a 61% reduction in relative hazards of 24 h mortality compared to neither (HR 0.39; 95%CI 0.17-0.88, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS For injured patients at risk of hemorrhage, prehospital pRBC+TXA is associated with reduced 30-day mortality. Use of pRBC transfusion alone was associated with a reduction in early mortality. Potential synergy appeared only in longer term mortality and further work to investigate mechanisms of this therapeutic benefit is needed to optimize the prehospital resuscitation of trauma patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, Level III.
Adding non-contrast and delayed phases increases the diagnostic performance of arterial CTA for suspected active lower gastrointestinal bleeding
European radiology. 2022
OBJECTIVES When assessing for lower gastrointestinal bleed (LGIB) using CTA, many advocate for acquiring non-contrast and delayed phases in addition to an arterial phase to improve diagnostic performance though the potential benefit of this approach has not been fully characterized. We evaluate diagnostic accuracy among radiologists when using single-phase, biphasic, and triphasic CTA in active LGIB detection. METHOD AND MATERIALS A random experimental block design was used where 3 blinded radiologists specialty trained in interventional radiology retrospectively interpreted 96 CTA examinations completed between Oct 2012 and Oct 2017 using (1) arterial only, (2) arterial/non-contrast, and (3) arterial/non-contrast/delayed phase configurations. Confirmed positive and negative LGIB studies were matched, balanced, and randomly ordered. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive and negative predictive values, and time to identify the presence/absence of active bleeding were examined using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with sandwich estimation assuming a binary distribution to estimate relative benefit of diagnostic performance between phase configurations. RESULTS Specificity increased with additional contrast phases (arterial 72.2; arterial/non-contrast 86.1; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 95.1; p < 0.001) without changes in sensitivity (arterial 77.1; arterial/non-contrast 70.2; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 73.1; p = 0.11) or mean time required to identify bleeding per study (s, arterial 34.8; arterial/non-contrast 33.1; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 36.0; p = 0.99). Overall agreement among readers (Kappa) similarly increased (arterial 0.47; arterial/non-contrast 0.65; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 0.79). CONCLUSION The addition of non-contrast and delayed phases to arterial phase CTA increased specificity and inter-reader agreement for the detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding without increasing reading times. KEY POINTS • A triphasic CTA including non-contrast, arterial, and delayed phase has higher specificity for the detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding than arterial-phase-only protocols. • Inter-reader agreement increases with additional contrast phases relative to single-phase CTA. • Increasing the number of contrast phases did not increase reading times.
Clinical effect of combination of octreotide and omeprazole in children with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the levels of serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen
Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2022;35(1(Special)):343-347
Pediatric upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to an acute massive hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract and biliary tract, which is a common clinical emergency in pediatrics. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of octreotide combined with omeprazole in pediatric upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Totally 84 cases of pediatric upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital from November 2019 to April 2021 were divided into groups according to the admission order. The control group received omeprazole treatment and the observation group received octreotide plus. The total clinical effective rate of children in the observation group was higher than that of the control group. The observation group was superior to the control group with respect to the average hemostasis time, hemostasis rate, rebleeding rate and length of stay after treatment. The observation group witnessed a significantly better quality of life than the control group. For children with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the combination of omeprazole and octreotide yields a promising effect in the adjustment of blood creatinine and serum urea nitrogen levels and hemostasis, which is worthy of clinical application.
Randomized controlled trial comparing pit crew resuscitation model against standard advanced life support training
Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open. 2022;3(3):e12721
OBJECTIVES Pit crew models are designed to improve teamwork in critical medical situations, like advanced life support (ALS). We investigated if a pit crew model training improves performance assessment and ALS skills retention when compared to standard ALS education. METHODS This was a prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled, parallel-group trial. We recruited students to 4-person resuscitation teams. We video recorded simulated ALS-situations after the ALS education and after 6-month follow-up. We analyzed technical skills (TS) and non-technical skills (NTS) demonstrated in them with an instrument measuring TS and NTS, and used a linear mixed model to model the difference between the groups in the TS and NTS. Another linear model was used to explore the difference between the groups in hands-on ratio and hands-free time. The difference in the total assessment score was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The primary outcome was the difference in the total assessment score between the groups at follow-up. ALS skills were considered to be a secondary outcome. RESULTS Twenty-six teams underwent randomization. Twenty-two teams received the allocated education. Fifteen teams were evaluated at 6-month follow-up: 7 in the intervention group and 8 in the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the median (Q(1)-Q(3)) total assessment score for the control group was 6.5 (6-8) and 7 (6.25-8) for the intervention group but the difference was not significant (U = 133, P = 0.373). The intervention group performed better in terms of chest compression quality (interaction term, β3 = 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.50; P = 0.043) at follow-up. CONCLUSION We found no difference in overall performance between the study arms. However, trends indicate that the pit crew model may help to retain ALS skills in different areas like chest compression quality.