Weekly epistaxis duration as an indicator of epistaxis severity in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-Preliminary results from a randomized controlled trial
Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology. 2021;6(3):370-375
OBJECTIVES There is great interest in developing and studying novel therapies for epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) given its associated morbidity and impact on patients' quality of life. Several recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been negative, likely attributed to poorly characterized outcome measures. This study reported on and evaluated an epistaxis outcome measure, weekly epistaxis duration (WED) in an ongoing RCT, with the aim of better characterizing the measurement of epistaxis for clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were recruited to an ongoing phase II, double-blind, cross-over RCTs of oral doxycycline for HHT-associated epistaxis. Patients were included for the epistaxis measures analysis if they had already completed the initial 3-month run-in period, and had received treatment of either study drug doxycycline or placebo for a minimum of 6 months. The primary measure of interest was patient-reported outcome (PRO)-WED, captured from prospective daily diaries. Epistaxis severity score (ESS) was collected as a secondary outcome. RESULTS Seven patients were included for analysis, with 98% completion of the daily diary. The average PRO-WED across all patients was 85.0 minutes, SD 93.2 at baseline, and 65.6 minutes, SD 59.5 during treatment/placebo. Coefficient of variance for PRO-WED at baseline and during treatment/placebo was 0.49, SD 0.1 and 0.58, SD 0.2, respectively. Statistically significant changes in the mean PRO-WED from baseline to treatment/placebo was noted in six patients (86%). Only two patients (29%) had a significant change in ESS, with both reporting decreased (improved) scores after treatment/placebo as compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS PRO-WED was a feasible clinical trials measure, was reasonably stable during baseline measurement, and appeared to be variable with treatment state, suggesting it may provide a sensitive clinical trials PRO in HHT.
Orthopedic surgery in hemophilic patients with musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2021;22(3):995
Hemophilia is a hereditary coagulopathy caused by factor VIII (hemophilia type A) or by coagulation factor IX (hemophilia type B) dysfunction, characterized by an increased bleeding predisposition, which is either spontaneous or secondary to minimal trauma. Currently, hemophilia may also be considered an 'orthopedic' condition, due to the fact that it affects the musculoskeletal system of most hemophilic patients. In recent years, constant prophylaxis using coagulation factors has led to a significant improvement in the hemophilic patient's quality of life, by reducing both life-threatening hemorrhagic phenomena, as well as the occurrence of chronic complications. Nevertheless, progressive joint bleeding remains unavoidable in this category of patients, and the onset of chronic arthropathy with secondary motor deficiency remains the main complication with an invalidating character. In such cases, orthopedic management is imperative; osteoarticular complications being managed most often with the help of conservative or surgical techniques. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of modern orthopedic practices which are useful in the management of hemophilic patients suffering from osteoarticular disorders.
Impact of the preparation method of red cell concentrates on transfusion indices in thalassemia patients: A randomized crossover clinical trial
BACKGROUND The average hemoglobin content of red cell concentrates (RCC) varies depending on the method of preparation. Surprisingly less data are available concerning the clinical impact of those differences. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The effects of two types of RCC (RCC-A, RCC-B) on transfusion regime were compared in a non-blinded, prospective, randomized, two-period, and crossover clinical trial. RCC-A was obtained by whole blood leukoreduction and subsequent plasma removal, RCC-B removing plasma and buffy coat first, followed by leukoreduction. Eligible patients were adult, with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). RESULTS RCC-A contained 63.9 (60.3-67.8) grams of hemoglobin per unit (median with 1(st) and 3(rd) quartile), RCC-B 54.5 (51.0-58.2) g/unit. Fifty-one patients completed the study. With RCC-B, the average pre-transfusion hemoglobin concentration was 9.3 ± 0.5 g/dl (mean ± SD), the average transfusion interval 14.2 (13.7-16.3) days, the number of RCC units transfused per year 39.3 (35.4-47.3), and the transfusion power index (a composite index) 258 ± 49. With RCC-A, the average pre-transfusion hemoglobin concentration was 9.6 ± 0.5 g/dl (+2.7%, effect size 0.792), the average transfusion interval 14.8 (14.0-18.5) days (+4.1%, effect size 0.800), the number of RCC units transfused per year 34.8 (32.1-42.5) (-11.4%, effect size -1.609), and the transfusion power index 272 ± 61 (+14.1%, effect size 0.997). All differences were statistically highly significant (p < .00001). The frequency of transfusion reactions was 0.59% with RCC-A and 0.56% with RCC-B (p = 1.000). CONCLUSION To reduce the number of RCC units consumed per year and the number of transfusion episodes, TDT patients should receive RCC with the highest average hemoglobin content.
Adult patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (n= 51).
Red cell concentrates obtained by whole blood leukoreduction and subsequent plasma removal (RCC-A).
Red cell concentrates obtained by removing plasma and buffy coat first, followed by leukoreduction (RCC-B).
With RCC-B, the average pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration was 9.3 ± 0.5 g/dl (mean ± SD), the average transfusion interval 14.2 (13.7-16.3) days, the number of RCC units transfused per year 39.3 (35.4-47.3), and the transfusion power index (a composite index) 258 ± 49. With RCC-A, the average pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration was 9.6 ± 0.5 g/dl (+2.7%, effect size 0.792), the average transfusion interval 14.8 (14.0-18.5) days (+4.1%, effect size 0.800), the number of RCC units transfused per year 34.8 (32.1-42.5) (-11.4%, effect size -1.609), and the transfusion power index 272 ± 61 (+14.1%, effect size 0.997). All differences were statistically highly significant. The frequency of transfusion reactions was 0.59% with RCC-A and 0.56% with RCC-B.
Voxelotor in adolescents and adults with sickle cell disease (HOPE): long-term follow-up results of an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021
BACKGROUND For decades, patients with sickle cell disease have had only a limited number of therapies available. In 2019, voxelotor (1500 mg), an oral once-daily sickle haemoglobin polymerisation inhibitor, was approved in the USA for the treatment of sickle cell disease in patients aged 12 years and older on the basis of HOPE trial data. To further describe the applicability of voxelotor as a treatment for this chronic illness, we report the long-term efficacy and safety of this drug at 72 weeks of treatment; the conclusion of the placebo-controlled HOPE trial. METHODS HOPE is an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 60 clinical sites in Canada, Egypt, France, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lebanon, Netherlands, Oman, Turkey, the USA, and the UK. Patients (aged 12-65 years) with confirmed sickle cell disease, a haemoglobin concentration of 5·5-10·5 g/dL at enrolment, and who had between one and ten vaso-occlusive crisis events in the previous 12 months were enrolled. Patients receiving regularly scheduled transfusion therapy, who had received a transfusion in the previous 60 days, or who had been admitted to hospital for a vaso-occlusive crisis in the previous 14 days were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either once-daily oral voxelotor 1500 mg, voxelotor 900 mg, or placebo for 72 weeks. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by baseline hydroxyurea use (yes vs no), age group (adolescents [12 to <18 years] vs adults [18 to 65 years]), and geographic region (North America vs Europe vs other). The primary endpoint (already reported) was the proportion of patients who achieved a haemoglobin response at week 24. In this final analysis, we report prespecified long-term efficacy assessments by intention to treat, including changes in haemoglobin concentrations from baseline to week 72, changes in the concentration of haemolysis markers (absolute and percentage reticulocytes, indirect bilirubin concentrations, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations) from baseline to week 72, the annualised incidence of vaso-occlusive crises, and patient functioning, as assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C) scale. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of treatment (modified intention-to-treat population). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036813. FINDINGS Between Dec 5, 2016, and May 3, 2018, 449 patients were screened, of whom 274 were randomly assigned to the voxelotor 1500 mg group (n=90), the voxelotor 900 mg group (n=92), or the placebo group (n=92). At week 72, the adjusted mean change in haemoglobin concentration from baseline was 1·0 g/dL (95% CI 0·7 to -1·3) in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, 0·5 g/dL (0·3 to -0·8) in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and 0·0 g/dL (-0·3 to 0·3) in the placebo group, with a significant difference observed between the voxelotor 1500 mg group and the placebo group (p<0·0001), and between the voxelotor 900 mg group and the placebo group (p=0·014). Significant improvements in markers of haemolysis, as assessed by the difference in adjusted mean percentage change from baseline at week 72 versus placebo, were observed in the voxelotor 1500 mg group in indirect bilirubin concentrations (-26·6% [95% CI -40·2 to -12·9]) and percentage of reticulocytes (-18·6% [-33·9 to -3·3]). The proportion of patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group who were rated as "moderately improved" or "very much improved" at week 72 with the CGI-C was significantly greater than in the placebo group (39 [74%] of 53 vs 24 [47%] of 51; p=0·0057). Serious adverse events unrelated to sickle cell disease were reported in 25 (28%) of 88 patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, 20 (22%) of 92 patients in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and 23 (25%) of 91 patients in the placebo group. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were infrequent (ie, occurred in <10% of patients); anaemia occurred in five or more patients (two [2%] patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, seven [8%] patients in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and three [3%] patients in the placebo group). Of all 274 patients, six (2%) deaths occurred during the study (two deaths in each treatment group), all of which were judged as unrelated to treatment. INTERPRETATION Voxelotor 1500 mg resulted in rapid and durable improvements in haemoglobin concentrations maintained over 72 weeks and has potential to address the substantial morbidity associated with haemolytic anaemia in sickle cell disease. FUNDING Global Blood Therapeutics.
The European Medicines Agency Review of Crizanlizumab for the Prevention of Recurrent Vaso-Occlusive Crises in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease
Crizanlizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to P-selectin. On October 28, 2020, a conditional marketing authorization valid through the European Union (EU) was issued for crizanlizumab for the prevention of recurrent vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) in patients with sickle cell disease aged 16 years or older. Crizanlizumab was evaluated in a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized multicenter trial comparing high-dose (5 mg/kg) crizanlizumab, low-dose (2.5 mg/kg) crizanlizumab and placebo in patients with a history of 2-10 VOCs in the previous year. Patients who were receiving concomitant hydroxycarbamide (HC) as well as those not receiving HC were included in the study. The primary endpoint of the trial was the annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises as adjudicated by a central review committee. High-dose crizanlizumab led to a 45.3% lower median annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises compared to placebo (P = 0.010), with no statistically significant difference for the low dose. Treatment with high-dose crizanlizumab led to similar incidences of adverse events (AEs), grade 3 AEs, and serious AEs compared to placebo. Most frequently observed AEs that occurred more often in the crizanlizumab arm compared to placebo were infusion related reactions (34.8% versus 21%), arthralgia (18.2% versus 8.1%), diarrhea (10.6% versus 3.2%), and nausea (18.2% versus 11.3%). The aim of this article is to summarize the scientific review of the application leading to regulatory approval in the EU.
Transfusion management of severe anaemia in African children: a consensus algorithm
British journal of haematology. 2021
The phase III Transfusion and Treatment of severe anaemia in African Children Trial (TRACT) found that conservative management of uncomplicated severe anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) 40-60 g/l] was safe, and that transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia (Hb <60 g/l) had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status (>37·5°C). In 2020 a stakeholder meeting of paediatric and blood transfusion groups from Africa reviewed the results and additional analyses. Among all 3196 children receiving an initial transfusion there was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring. The proposed algorithm should help clinicians safely implement findings from TRACT. Further research should assess its implementation in routine clinical practice.
Children presenting to hospital with both uncomplicated and complicated severe anaemia enrolled in the TRACT trial (n= 3,196).
Large volume of whole blood transfusion: 30 ml/kg, (n= 1,598).
Recommended blood volume transfusion by current WHO guidelines: 20 ml/kg (n= 1,598).
Transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status. There was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring.
Long-Term Effectiveness of Oral Ferric Maltol vs Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose for the Treatment of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial
Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2021
BACKGROUND Iron-deficiency anemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease, requiring oral or intravenous iron replacement therapy. Treatment with standard oral irons is limited by poor absorption and gastrointestinal toxicity. Ferric maltol is an oral iron designed for improved absorption and tolerability. METHODS In this open-label, phase 3b trial (EudraCT 2015-002496-26 and NCT02680756), adults with nonseverely active inflammatory bowel disease and iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin, 8.0-11.0/12.0 g/dL [women/men]; ferritin, <30 ng/mL/<100 ng/mL with transferrin saturation <20%) were randomized to oral ferric maltol 30 mg twice daily or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose given according to each center's standard practice. The primary endpoint was a hemoglobin responder rate (≥2 g/dL increase or normalization) at week 12, with a 20% noninferiority limit in the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations. RESULTS For the intent-to-treat (ferric maltol, n = 125/ferric carboxymaltose, n = 125) and per-protocol (n = 78/88) analyses, week 12 responder rates were 67% and 68%, respectively, for ferric maltol vs 84% and 85%, respectively, for ferric carboxymaltose. As the confidence intervals crossed the noninferiority margin, the primary endpoint was not met. Mean hemoglobin increases at weeks 12, 24, and 52 were 2.5 vs 3.0 g/dL, 2.9 vs 2.8 g/dL, and 2.7 vs 2.8 g/dL with ferric maltol vs ferric carboxymaltose. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 59% and 36% of patients, respectively, and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 10% and 3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ferric maltol achieved clinically relevant increases in hemoglobin but did not show noninferiority vs ferric carboxymaltose at week 12. Both treatments had comparable long-term effectiveness for hemoglobin and ferritin over 52 weeks and were well tolerated.
Eltrombopag for Post-Transplantation Thrombocytopenia: Results of Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Transplantation and cellular therapy. 2021;27(5):430.e1-430.e7
Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.
A multicenter, randomized phase III trial of hetrombopag: a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2021;14(1):37
BACKGROUND Hetrombopag, a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been found in phase I studies to increase platelet counts and reduce bleeding risks in adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hetrombopag in ITP patients. METHODS Patients who had not responded to or had relapsed after previous treatment were treated with an initial dosage of once-daily 2.5 or 5 mg hetrombopag (defined as the HETROM-2.5 or HETROM-5 group) or with matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week treatment period. Patients who received placebo and completed 10 weeks of treatment switched to receive eltrombopag, and patients treated with hetrombopag in the double-blind period continued hetrombopag during the following open-label 14-week treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of responders (defined as those achieving a platelet count of ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L) after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary endpoint was achieved by significantly more patients in the HETROM-2.5 (58.9%; odds ratio [OR] 25.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.83-68.63; p < 0.0001) and HETROM-5 (64.3%; OR 32.81, 95% CI 12.39-86.87; p < 0.0001) group than in the Placebo group (5.9%). Hetrombopag was also superior to placebo in achieving a platelet response and in reducing the bleeding risk and use of rescue therapy throughout 8 weeks of treatment. The durable platelet response to hetrombopag was maintained throughout 24 weeks. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (42.2%), urinary tract infection (17.1%), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (17.1%) and hematuria (15%) with 24-week hetrombopag treatment. CONCLUSIONS In ITP patients, hetrombopag is efficacious and well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT03222843 , registered July 19, 2017, retrospectively registered.
Treatment of Chronic Aplastic Anemia with Chinese Patent Medicine Pai-Neng-Da Capsule () for Replacing Androgen Partially: A Clinical Multi-Center Study
Chinese journal of integrative medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pai-Neng-Da Capsule (, panaxadiol saponins component, PNDC) in combination with the cyclosporine and androgen for patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA). METHODS A total of 79 CAA patients was randomly divided into 2 groups by a random number table, including PCA group [43 cases, orally PNDC 320 mg/d plus cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 80 mg/d] and CA group [36 cases, orally cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 160 mg/d]. All patients were treated and followed-up for 6 treatment courses over 24 weeks. The complete blood counts, score of Chinese medical (CM) symptoms were assessed and urine routine, electrocardiogram, hepatic and renal function were observed for safety evaluation. Female masculinization rating scale was established according to the actual clinical manifestations to evaluate the accurate degree of masculinization in female CAA patients treated by andriol. RESULTS The effective rates were 88.1% (37/42) in the PCA group and 77.8% (28/36) in the CA group based on the standard for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of hematopathy. There was no significant difference in the white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood between two groups after 6 months treatment. The masculinization score of female patient in the PCA group was significantly lower than the CA group (P<0.05). The mild abdominal distention was observed in 1 cases in the PCA group. In CA group, the abnormalities in the hepatic function developed in 2 cases and the renal disfunction was found in 1 case. CONCLUSION The PNDC possesses certain curative effects in the treatment of CAA without obvious side-effects and can partially replace andriol thereby to reduce the degree of masculinization [Registried at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChicTR1900028153)].