Albumin-Impregnated Allograft Filling of Surgical Extraction Sockets Achieves Better Bone Remodeling Than Filling with Either Blood Clot or Bovine Xenograft
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants. 2020;35(2):297-304
PURPOSE The goal of this study was to compare bone graft materials in mandibular third molar extraction sockets and to monitor bone remodeling and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with bilateral, impacted mandibular third molars were involved. Twenty-four patients were planned to be randomly assigned to three possible treatments: (1) the control sockets were left empty; (2) the socket was filled with bovine xenograft (Bio-Oss); or (3) the socket was filled with albumin-impregnated bone allograft (BoneAlbumin). Postoperative pain during the first week was determined with the visual analog scale. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were taken at 6 and 12 weeks and 1 year postoperatively for micromorphologic analysis and measurement of pocket depth at the second molar. Patients and image analyses were blinded toward the treatment group (randomized double-blind split-mouth design). RESULTS Postoperative pain was lowest in the allograft group (control: 5.06 +/- 0.53; xenograft: 5.85 +/- 0.42; allograft: 3.94 +/- 0.52; P < .05). At weeks 6 and 12, early signs of remodeling were observed in the allograft group and the controls, while bone xenograft was still demarcated from the host bone. The 1-year CBCT images showed complete remodeling and integration of allograft with natural trabecular structure, while the xenograft particles were still visible. Support for the second molar was significantly better, as evidenced by less deep and prevalent pockets in the allograft-filled group compared with the controls (P = .017). CONCLUSION Filling an extraction socket with albumin-integrated allografts provides superior bone regeneration compared to either native bone buildup or xenograft application or socket regeneration without bone grafting.
Efficiency of Concentrated Growth Factor in the Surgical Treatment of Multiple Adjacent Papillary Losses: A Randomized, Controlled, Examiner-Blinded Clinical Trial Using CAD/CAM
The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry. 2020;40(2):e73-e83
This study aimed to create papilla with concentrated growth factor (CGF) in cases in which the interdental papilla was not able to fill the interproximal space (IPS) due to physiologic factors. A three-dimensional digital model of this space with the digital impression obtained from direct intraoral scanning of IPS was created. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CGF in the regeneration of multiple adjacent papillary losses (MAPL), with the change in the IPS area calculated on intraorally scanned images obtained with digital impressions. This study included 160 teeth from 40 patients with 120 papillary losses. Patients were randomly allocated to the test group (TG) (n = 20), with 60 MAPL (three adjacent, lost interdental papillae per patient) receiving minimally invasive surgery with CGF, or the control group (CG) (n = 20), with 60 MAPL without surgery. A total of 480 images were uploaded to a software. The patients' age, gender, Plaque Index, bleeding on probing, and mean probing pocket depth values were evaluated. Papillary area (PA) were calculated between the two central, lateral-central, and lateral-canine teeth at baseline and posttreatment periods of 3, 6, and 12 months in both groups. Papillary filling percentage, keratinized-gingiva width, papillary thickness, thrombocyte, count and mean platelet volume were recorded in TG. Considering the variables in TG and CG, there was no difference in terms of age, gender, and periodontal parameters (P > .05). PA at 3, 6, and 12 months showed statistically significant differences from baseline values in TG (P < .001) but not in CG (P > .05). In TG, a moderate positive correlation was found between the midline papillary thickness and the 3-, 6-, and 12-month filling percentages (r: 0.506, P = .023; r: 0.509, P = .022; and r: 0.515, P = .02, respectively), and a high positive correlation was determined between thrombocyte count and the 6- and 12-month filling percentages (r: 0.733, P < .001; and r: 0.744, P < .001, respectively). CGF provided papillary regeneration in the treatment of MAPL and supported three-dimensional structure of the regenerated interdental papilla throughout 1 year.
Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Three Local Hemostatic Agents for Dental Extractions in Patients under Chronic Anticoagulant Therapy - A Comparative Study
Annals of maxillofacial surgery. 2020;10(2):292-296
INTRODUCTION Oral anticoagulants are widely used worldwide for many systemic diseases. Recent oral surgical protocols suggest that therapeutic levels of the anticoagulant drug should be maintained for simple dental extractions because bleeding complications could be managed with proper local hemostasis. The aim of the present study was to compare bleeding complication of three different local hemostatic agents for dental extractions without interrupting drug administration in patients undergoing oral Vitamin K antagonist chronic anticoagulant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Randomized control trial of three hemostatic agents for dental extractions, in patients under oral anticoagulant therapy without drug interruption. The present study included 240 patients with international normalized ratio between 1.5 and 3.5. Patients took their anticoagulation drug normally. A single surgeon performed calibrated simple dental extractions and applied a plug of bismuth subgallate (BS), fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA) or microfibrillar collagen (MC), assigned randomly. Statistical analysis of bleeding between the groups was performed using the Chi-square test. RESULTS There was no hemorrhagic complication in the BS group, and only one in the FTA group. However, in the MC group, 10 patients (12.5%) suffered postoperative bleeding. Data analysis showed statistical differences between the MC group and the other two groups (P < 0.05). DISCUSSION BS and FTA showed similar clinical effectiveness and were more effective than MC for the control of postoperative bleeding in oral anticoagulated patients.
Soft Tissue Healing and Bony Regeneration of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Sockets, Following Postoperative Incorporation of Platelet-rich Fibrin
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018;8((1)):10-18.
Introduction: Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars is one of the most commonly performed dentoalveolar surgeries by dental surgeons around the globe. It is known to be associated with clinically significant postoperative morbidity including swelling, pain, trismus, fever, and infection. In addition, the residual bony defect takes 7 months to 1 year to gradually fill with bone and to reossify. Aims and Objective: (1) To carry out a prospective study to evaluate differences in soft tissue healing and bony regeneration of impacted mandibular third molar extraction sites, with and without the incorporation of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) within the surgical wounds. (2) To also compare the incidence of short- and long-term posttreatment complications in both cases. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly inducted into two groups, consisting of 30 patients each. The first group, which served as the study group, consisted of patients in whom fresh autologous PRF were placed within the extraction site immediately following the surgical removal of the impacted mandibular third molar, before suturing of the mucoperiosteal flap. The second group, which served as the control froup, included those patients in whom the mucoperiosteal flaps were closed without incorporation of PRF within site. Both groups were evaluated and compared for postoperative pain, swelling, trismus, soft tissue healing, as well as bone fill of the extraction socket. Results: It was found that the study group in which autologous PRF had been incorporated into the operative site exhibited quick and complication-free soft tissue healing as well as a much quicker reossification and bone fill of the extraction socket, as compared to the control group in which no PRF was used. Conclusion: Incorporation of PRF within extraction sockets of impacted third molars proved to be beneficial for patients, yielding a quicker postoperative recovery with fewer complications such as postoperative swelling and edema, pain, and trismus; better overall postoperative results in terms of faster soft tissue healing as well as an earlier bony regeneration.
Platelet rich fibrin combined with 1.2% atorvastatin for treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial
Journal of Periodontology. 2016;:1-12.
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second-generation platelet concentrate and Atorvastatin (ATV), a potent member of statin group are known to promote tissue regeneration. Current study was designed to evaluate the combined efficacy of PRF and 1.2% ATV gel with open flap debridement (OFD) in treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis (CP) individuals. METHODS Ninety six individuals with single defects were categorized into three groups: OFD with PRF, OFD with PRF+1.2% ATV and OFD alone. Clinical parameters; site specific plaque index (PI), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), probing depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL) and gingival marginal level (GML) were recorded at baseline before surgery and 9 months post-operatively. Percentage radiographic intra-bony defect depth reduction was evaluated at baseline and 9 months. RESULTS PRF+1.2% ATV and PRF alone showed significantly greater PD reduction and RAL gain as compared to OFD alone at 9 months. Furthermore, PRF+1.2% ATV group sites showed similar percentage radiographic defect depth reduction (50.96+/-4.88%) as compared to PRF alone (47.91+/-4.79%) and greater reduction when compared to OFD alone (5.54+/-1.71%) at 9 months. CONCLUSION PRF+1.2% ATV showed similar improvements in clinical parameters with greater percentage radiographic defect depth reduction as compared to PRF alone in treatment of intrabony defects in CP individuals. Thus 1.2% ATV failed to augment the regenerative potential of PRF alone in periodontal intrabony defects.
A prospective randomized study comparing fibrin sealant versus suture for conjunctival wound closure in orbital wall fracture surgery
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2016;45((11):):1418-1423
The purpose of this randomized prospective study was to compare the clinical outcomes of orbital wall fracture surgery involving transconjunctival wound closure with fibrin sealant to the outcomes achieved with a conventional suture method. All surgeries were performed using the same technique, except that the conjunctival closure was achieved using either a buried 6-0 Vicryl suture (n=10) or fibrin sealant (n=10). The time to conjunctival closure and time required for complete wound healing were investigated. Postoperative discomfort in the two groups was compared at day 1, day 3, week 1, and week 4. Postoperative subconjunctival haemorrhage and peri-orbital ecchymosis were observed. The mean conjunctival closure time was significantly shorter in the fibrin group than in the suture group. All conjunctival wounds healed by the end of the first week. On postoperative days 1 and 3, the discomfort scores were significantly lower in the fibrin group. Subconjunctival haemorrhage and peri-orbital ecchymosis were less frequent in the fibrin group. Fibrin sealant proved to be as effective as sutures for conjunctival wound closure. Fibrin sealant allows a more comfortable early postoperative course and may be an excellent alternative for conjunctival wound closure in orbital wall fracture surgery.
Evaluation of fibrin sealant as a wound closure agent in mandibular third molar surgery-a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. 2015;44((7)):871-5.
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of fibrin sealants in achieving haemostasis and wound closure following mandibular third molar extraction, in comparison with conventional suturing. Thirty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar impactions were recruited for the study. Using a split-mouth study design, wound closure following extraction was done using fibrin sealant on the study side and suturing on the control side. Sample allocation was done by simple randomization. The primary outcome measures were (1) the time taken to achieve wound closure and haemostasis and (2) postoperative mouth opening, pain, and swelling. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and paired t-tests (P<0.05). IBM SPSS software (v.20.0) was used for the data analysis. The study group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in duration to achieve haemostasis (1.2 vs. 251.9s; P<0.001) and wound closure (152.8 vs. 328.8s; P<0.001) in comparison with the control group. The study group also exhibited significantly reduced pain scores (2.0 vs. 3.5; P<0.001) and increased post-surgical mouth opening (P<0.001). No adverse effects of fibrin sealant were observed. In conclusion, fibrin sealant is a superior intraoral wound closure and haemostatic agent and a worthy alternative to suturing. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect on interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 levels following use of fibrin sealant for periodontal surgery
Australian Dental Journal. 2014;59((2):):156-64.
BACKGROUND Fibrin sealant (FS) is a biologically derived tissue adhesive for securing flaps. The aim of the present randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare early wound healing by assessing interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels from gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after using FS and suture for periodontal flap closure. METHODS Thirty selected quadrants in 15 periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to either a test (fibrining) or control group (suturing) for flap closure. IL-1beta and IL-8 were assessed in GCF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and eight days after surgery. Patients were recalled at 7, 14, 21 days and 3 months after surgery for clinical assessment. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease in IL-1beta (84.82 + 77.18, 29.2 + 21.97 pg/mul) and IL-8 (57.94 + 55.47, 21.82 + 21.93 pg/mul) levels in the test side after fibrining while there was an increase in the control side (IL-1beta 31.40 + 16.82, 128.8 + 45.14; IL-8 31.40 + 16.82, 128.83 + 45.14 pg/mul) (p < 0.05). The change in concentration of IL-1beta and IL-8 following intervention correlated significantly in both the sites. Clinical parameters differed significantly only on the seventh day with less plaque and bleeding on the test sites. CONCLUSIONS Fibrin sealant enhances early wound healing by reducing inflammation after periodontal flap surgery. 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Effect of aerosolized fibrin sealant on hemostasis and wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery: A prospective randomized study
American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy. 2014;28((4):):335-40.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerosolized fibrin sealant (FS) compared with that of polyvinyl acetal sponge packing on hemostasis and wound healing after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). METHODS We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of the use of aerosolized FS in 41 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral FESS between February 2011 and March 2012. The patients were randomized to receive FS applied via an aerosol spray in one nasal cavity and polyvinyl acetal sponge packing in the opposite cavity. The patients were followed up at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Crusting, adhesion, bleeding, granulation tissue formation, infection, and frontal sinus ostium stenosis after endoscopic surgery were assessed using a grading scale. Subjective symptoms related to nasal packing were evaluated using questionnaires quantified by visual analog scales. RESULTS The degree of granulation and crusting was significantly reduced in the side treated with FS compared with the polyvinyl acetal sponge side, as were bleeding and pain during nasal packing removal (p < 0.05). In addition, general satisfaction and willingness to reuse the material were significantly higher for the FS-treated side than for the polyvinyl acetal sponge-packed side (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Compared with polyvinyl acetal sponge, aerosolized FS shows beneficial effects on hemostasis and wound healing after FESS. The application of FS resulted in a high degree of patient satisfaction without additional morbidity.
Bone regeneration in extraction sockets with autologous platelet rich fibrin gel
Journal of Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery. 2013;12((1):):11-6.
AIM: To evaluate the effects of autologous platelet rich fibrin gel (PRF gel) on bone regeneration following extraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study design was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. Study sample consisting of a total of 22 patients requiring bilateral transalveolar third molar extractions were included after written informed consent. One side was randomly chosen as case and the other side was the control. Autologous PRF gel was prepared from fresh blood obtained from the patient. The PRF gel was placed in the extraction site and primary closure was obtained. The patient was called for a follow up on the first post op day, 1st week, one month, three month and six months post op. Regeneration of bone was measured using serial radiographs (RVG) at immediate post op, one, three and six months. This was then compared with the bone regeneration seen in the control group, with the radiographs taken at same intervals, to estimate the difference in bone regeneration if any. RVGs were assessed for amount of radiologic bone filling by the method described by Matteo Chiapasco et al. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Higher mean pixels was recorded in cases compared to controls at all the time intervals viz., immediate post op, 1 month post op, 3 months post op and 6 months post op. However, the difference in the mean pixels recorded between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). For complete analysis, further follow up of the present patients and a larger sample size is required to obtain a conclusive result of the Bone Regeneration in extraction sockets with PRF gel.