Minimal tactical impact and maximal donor safety after a buddy transfusion: A study on elite soldier performances in both laboratory and field environments
Transfusion. 2021;61 Suppl 1:S32-s42
BACKGROUND The major causes of death of combat casualties in austere environments are related to hemorrhage and occur early after injury. The implementation of a walking blood bank may overcome the logistical issues raised using blood component therapy. Nonetheless, it is important to ensure that this buddy transfusion is not going to compromise the mission success by altering the donor's performance. The results available so far cannot rule out this issue with certainty. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the immediate effect of a 450-ml blood donation on the performances of elite soldiers in laboratory and field environments. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This double-blind, randomized controlled study included two experiments. For both experiments, subjects were randomly assigned either to a control group (n(1) = n(2) = 7) or to a 450-ml-blood-bag donation group (n(1) = 7 and n(2) = 8). All participants underwent before and after a potential blood donation a multifactorial assessment including adapted physical tasks, hematological variables, vigilance parameters, and subjective assessments. RESULTS No significant results were evidenced in this study. There was no impact of blood donation on the participants' performances in both the hospital and the combat-like environments. CONCLUSION From a donor's point of view, a 450-ml blood donation has no impact on the required abilities of our elite soldiers to fulfill a demanding tactical mission. Thus, the results of this study support the fact that buddy transfusions could be part of the operational clinical armamentarium in austere environments for elite soldiers when no blood components are available.
Trauma, time, and transfusions: a longitudinal analysis of coagulation markers in severely injured trauma patients receiving modified whole blood or component blood products
OBJECTIVE The current study leveraged data from the Early Whole Blood (EWB) trial to explore the effects of modified whole blood (mWB) versus component (COMP) transfusions on coagulation parameters over time using longitudinal statistical methods. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The EWB study was a single-center randomized controlled trial, approved by the local IRB. Adult patients at highest-level trauma activations were randomized into mWB or COMP groups. Coagulation status was evaluated (at times 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h postadmission) using thrombelastography, platelet aggregometry, and calibrated automated thrombograms. Longitudinal statistical analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to evaluate the effects of group, time, transfusion types, and their respective interactions on changes in measured coagulation markers. RESULTS A total of 59 patients were enrolled and adhered to protocol in the EWB trial, 25 in the mWB group, and 34 in the COMP group. Patients in both the mWB and COMP groups demonstrated a significant decline in their thrombelastography parameters during the first 3-6 h, specifically K-time, alpha-angle, maximum amplitude, G, and LY30. Patients receiving mWB exhibited improved thrombin potential than those receiving COMP. Platelet count and function declined over time in both mWB and COMP groups; however, platelet aggregation in response to ristocetin in the mWB group was significantly improved at 12 h compared with the COMP group. The longitudinal GEE model revealed significant group-time interactive effects on the changes in coagulation markers and significant effect of platelet transfusions on improvements in coagulation profile. CONCLUSIONS We observed significant interactive group-time effects, indicating that the types of transfusion as well as the time of transfusion significantly affect the patient's coagulation status. Our pilot data suggest that there is an improvement in platelet function with mWB, but further studies are needed. Regardless, platelet transfusions were associated with improvements in coagulation over time in both the groups.
A randomized controlled pilot trial of modified whole blood versus component therapy in severely injured patients requiring large volume transfusions
Annals of Surgery. 2013;258((4):):527-33.
OBJECTIVES To determine whether resuscitation of severely injured patients with modified whole blood (mWB) resulted in fewer overall transfusions compared with component (COMP) therapy. BACKGROUND For decades, whole blood (WB) was the primary product for resuscitating patients in hemorrhagic shock. After dramatic advances in blood banking in the 1970s, blood donor centers began supplying hospitals with individual components [red blood cell (RBC), plasma, platelets] and removed WB as an available product. However, no studies of efficacy or hemostatic potential in trauma patients were performed before doing so. METHODS Single-center, randomized trial of severely injured patients predicted to large transfusion volume. Pregnant patients, prisoners, those younger than 18 years or with more than 20% total body surface area burns (TBSA) burns were excluded. Patients were randomized to mWB (1 U mWB) or COMP therapy (1 U RBC+ 1 U plasma) immediately on arrival. Each group also received 1 U platelets (apheresis or prepooled random donor) for every 6 U of mWB or 6 U of RBC + 6 U plasma. The study was performed under the Exception From Informed Consent (Food and Drug Administration 21 code of federal regulations [CFR] 50.24). Primary outcome was 24-hour transfusion volumes. RESULTS A total of 107 patients were randomized (55 mWB, 52 COMP therapy) over 14 months. There were no differences in demographics, arrival vitals or laboratory values, injury severity, or mechanism. Transfusions were similar between groups (intent-to-treat analysis). However, when excluding patients with severe brain injury (sensitivity analysis), WB group received less 24-hour RBC (median 3 vs 6, P = 0.02), plasma (4 vs 6, P = 0.02), platelets (0 vs 3, P = 0.09), and total products (11 vs 16, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Compared with COMP therapy, WB did not reduce transfusion volumes in severely injured patients predicted to receive massive transfusion. However, in the sensitivity analysis (patients without severe brain injuries), use of mWB significantly reduced transfusion volumes, achieving the prespecified endpoint of this initial pilot study.