Efficacy and Safety of Pathogen-Reduced Platelets Compared with Standard Apheresis Platelets: A Systematic Review of RCTs
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;11(6)
In this systematic review, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of blood components treated with pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs). We searched the Medline, Embase, Scopus, Ovid, and Cochrane Library to identify RCTs evaluating PRTs. Risk of bias assessment and the Mantel-Haenszel method for data synthesis were used. We included in this review 19 RCTs evaluating 4332 patients (mostly oncohematological patients) receiving blood components treated with three different PRTs. Compared with standard platelets (St-PLTs), the treatment with pathogen-reduced platelets (PR-PLTs) does not increase the occurrence of bleeding events, although a slight increase in the occurrence of severe bleeding events was observed in the overall comparison. No between-groups difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events was observed. PR-PLT recipients had a lower 1 and 24 h CI and CCI. The number of patients with platelet refractoriness and alloimmunization was significantly higher in PR-PLT recipients compared with St-PLT recipients. PR-PLT recipients had a higher number of platelet and RBC transfusions compared with St-PLT recipients, with a shorter transfusion time interval. The quality of evidence for these outcomes was from moderate to high. Blood components treated with PRTs are not implicated in serious adverse events, and PR-PLTs do not have a major effect on the increase in bleeding events. However, treatment with PRTs may require a greater number of transfusions in shorter time intervals and may be implicated in an increase in platelet refractoriness and alloimmunization.
Technical Procedures for Preparation and Administration of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Related Products: A Scoping Review
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology. 2020;8:598816
INTRODUCTION Platelet-rich plasma is widely used for different types of clinical situations, but universal standardization of procedures for its preparation is still lacking. METHODS Scoping review of comparative studies that have assessed at least two alternatives in one or more stages of preparation, storage and/or administration of PRP or its related products. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. Two authors screened references independently. Data extraction was performed iteratively, and results were presented for each included comparison. RESULTS Thirty-nine studies were included after assessing full texts, focusing on the comparison of PRP to a related product, types of anticoagulants, centrifugation protocols, commercial kits, processing time, methods for activation, and application concomitantly to other substances. Only laboratory outcomes were assessed, as platelet, leukocyte and growth factor concentrations. CONCLUSION Results showed great variability related to methods employed in different stages of PRP processing, which may explain the variability observed in clinical trials assessing the efficacy of PRP for different clinical situations.
Bacterial contamination rate of platelet components by primary culture: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Platelets have the highest bacterial contamination risk of all blood components, and septic transfusion reactions remain a problem. A good estimate of contamination rates could provide information about residual risk and inform optimal testing strategies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of platelet contamination rates by primary culture. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A literature search in December 2019 identified articles on platelet contamination rates using primary culture. We used meta-analysis to estimate the overall rate of contamination and meta-regression to identify heterogeneity. We studied the following sources of heterogeneity: collection method, sample volume, positivity criteria, and study date. Contamination rate estimates were obtained for apheresis (AP), platelet rich plasma (PRP), and buffy coat (BC) collection methods. RESULTS The search identified 6102 studies, and 22 were included for meta-analysis. Among these 22 studies, there were 21 AP cohorts (4,072,022 components), 4 PRP cohorts (138,869 components), and 15 BC cohorts (1,474,679 components). The overall mean contamination rate per 1000 components was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.38-0.67) including AP (0.23, 95% CI: 0.18-0.28), PRP, (0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.70), and BC (1.12, 95% CI: 0.51-1.96). There was considerable variability within each collection method. Sample volume, positivity criteria, and publication year were significant sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION The bacterial contamination rate of platelets by primary culture is 1 in 1961. AP and PRP components showed a lower contamination rate than BC components. There is clinically significant between-study variability for each method. Larger sample volumes increased sensitivity, and bacterial contamination rates have decreased over time.
Concentrations of blood components in commercial platelet-rich plasma separation systems: a review of the literature
The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018;:363546517746112.
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has proven to be a very safe therapeutic option in the treatment of tendon, muscle, bone, and cartilage injuries. Currently, several commercial separation systems are available for the preparation of PRP. The concentrations of blood components in PRP among these separation systems vary substantially. PURPOSE To systematically review and evaluate the differences between the concentrations of blood components in PRP produced by various PRP separation systems. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. METHODS MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and EMBASE were searched for studies that compared the concentrations of blood components and growth factors in PRP between various separation systems and studies that reported on the concentrations of blood components and growth factors of single separation systems. The primary outcomes were platelet count, leukocyte count, and concentration of growth factors (eg, platelet-derived growth factor-AB [PDGF-AB], transforming growth factor-beta1 [TGF-beta1], and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). Furthermore, the preparation protocols and prices of the systems were compared. RESULTS There were 1079 studies found, of which 19 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. The concentrations of platelets and leukocytes in PRP differed largely between, and to a lesser extent within, the studied PRP separation systems. Additionally, large differences both between and within the studied PRP separation systems were found for all the growth factors. Furthermore, preparation protocols and prices varied widely between systems. CONCLUSION There is a large heterogeneity between PRP separation systems regarding concentrations of platelets, leukocytes, and growth factors in PRP. The choice for the most appropriate type of PRP should be based on the specific clinical field of application. As the ideal concentrations of blood components and growth factors for the specific fields of application are yet to be determined for most of the fields, future research should focus on which type of PRP is most suitable for the specific field.
Platelet storage duration and its clinical and transfusion outcomes: a systematic review
Critical Care (London, England). 2018;22((1)):185.
BACKGROUND Platelets (PLTs) are usually stored for up to 5 days prior to transfusion, although in some blood services the storage period is extended to 7 days. During storage, changes occur in both PLT and storage medium, which may lead to PLT activation and dysfunction. The clinical significance of these changes remains uncertain. METHODS We performed a systematic review to assess the association between PLT storage time and clinical or transfusion outcomes in patients receiving allogeneic PLT transfusion. We searched studies published in English between January 2000 and July 2017 identified from MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and the Cochrane Libraries. RESULTS Of the 18 studies identified, five included 4719 critically ill patients (trauma, post-cardiac surgery and a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients) and 13 included 8569 haematology patients. The five studies in critically ill patients were retrospective and did not find any association between PLT storage time when PLTs were stored for up to 5 days and mortality. There was also no association between older PLTs and sepsis in the two largest studies (n = 4008 patients). Of the 13 studies in haematology patients, seven analysed prolonged storage time up to 6.5 or 7 days. Administration of fresh PLTs (less than 2 or 3 days) was associated with a significant increase in corrected count increment (CCI) compared to older PLTs in seven of the eight studies analysing this outcome. One single centre retrospective study found an increase in bleeding events in patients receiving older PLTs. CONCLUSIONS PLT storage time does not appear to be associated with clinical outcomes, including bleeding, sepsis or mortality, in critically ill patients or haematology patients. The freshest PLTs (less than 3 days) were associated with a better CCI, although there was no impact on bleeding events, questioning the clinical significance of this association. However, there is an absence of evidence to draw definitive conclusions, especially in critically ill patients.
Effect of storage time of platelet products on clinical outcomes after transfusion: a systematic review and meta-analyses
Vox Sanguinis. 2017;112((4):):291-300
BACKGROUND Prolonged storage improves availability of platelet products but could also influence safety and efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analyses summarize and quantify the evidence of the effect of storage time of transfused platelets on clinical outcomes. METHODS A systematic search in seven databases was performed up to February 2016. All studies reporting storage time of platelet products and clinical outcomes were included. To quantify heterogeneity, I(2) was calculated, and to assess publication bias, funnel plots were constructed. RESULTS Twenty-three studies reported safety outcomes and fifteen efficacy outcomes. The relative risk of a transfusion reaction after old platelets compared to fresh platelets was 1.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.25) (12 studies). This was 2.05 (CI:1.47-2.85) before and 1.05 (CI: 0.60-1.84) after implementation of universal leucoreduction. The relative risk of bleeding was 1.13 (CI: 0.97-1.32) for old platelets compared to fresh (five studies). The transfusion interval was 0.25 days (CI: 0.13; 0.38) shorter after transfusion of old platelets (four studies). Three studies reported use of platelet products: two for haematological patients and one for trauma patients. Selecting only studies in haematological patients, the difference was 4.51 units (CI: 1.92; 7.11). CONCLUSION Old platelets increase the risk of transfusion reactions in the setting of non-leucoreduction, shorten platelet transfusion intervals, thereby increase the numbers of platelet transfusions in haematological patients, and may increase the risk of bleeding.
Effect of blood donor characteristics on transfusion outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2016;30((2):):69-80
Optimal selection of blood donors is critical for ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor at the time of donation and of the recipient at the time of transfusion. Recent evidence suggests that the characteristics of the donor may affect short- and long-term transfusion outcomes for the transfused recipient. We conducted a systematic review with the primary objective of assessing the association between blood donor characteristics and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central databases and performed manual searches of top transfusion journals for all available prospective and retrospective studies. We described study characteristics, methodological quality, and risk of bias and provided study-level effect estimates and, when appropriate, pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals using the Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance approach. The overall quality of the evidence was graded using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. From 6121 citations identified by our literature search, 59 studies met our eligibility criteria (50 observational, 9 interventional). We identified the evaluation of association of 17 donor characteristics on RBC transfusion outcome. The risk of bias and confounding of the included studies was high. The quality of evidence was graded as very low to low for all 17 donor characteristics. Potential associations were observed for donor sex with reduced survival at 90 days and 6 months in male recipients that receive donated blood from females (hazard ratio 2.60 [1.09, 6.20] and hazard ratio 2.40 [1.10, 5.24], respectively; n = 1), Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (HLA-DR) selected transfusions (odds ratio [OR] 0.39 [0.15, 0.99] for the risk of transplant alloimmunization, n = 9), presence of antileukocyte antibodies (OR 5.84 [1.66, 20.59] for risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury, n = 4), and donor RBC antigens selection (OR 0.20 [0.08, 0.52] for risk of alloimmunization, n = 4). Based on poor quality evidence, positive antileukocyte antibodies, female donor to male recipients, HLA-DR selected RBC transfusion, or donor RBC antigen selection may affect RBC transfusion outcome. Our findings that donor characteristics may be associated with transfusion outcomes warrant establishing vein-to-vein data infrastructure to allow for large robust evaluations. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013006726.
Comparing the efficacy and safety of apheresis and whole blood-derived platelet transfusions: a systematic review
BACKGROUND A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine if there were differences between apheresis platelet concentrates (APCs) or platelets (PLTs) derived from whole blood (WBD) for the outcomes acute reactions, alloimmunization, refractoriness, corrected count increment (CCI), radiolabeled recovery and survival, time to next transfusion, and bleeding. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Registry of Controlled Trials, PapersFirst, ProceedingsFirst, and AABB and ASH abstracts for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing APCs and WBD PLTs for clinical outcomes. Study selection, data extraction, and methodologic quality assessments were performed in duplicate. Results were pooled using meta-analytic methods. RESULTS Ten RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Acute reactions per patient were lower for APCs (relative risk [RR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98); however, when controlling for leukoreduction, there was no significant difference (leukoreduced [LR]-APCs vs. LR-WBDs; odds ratio, 1.78; 95% CI, 0.87-3.62). There was no difference between products when reaction frequencies were assessed per transfusion (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.33-1.28). APCs were associated with significantly higher CCIs than WBD PLTs at both 1 hour (weighted mean difference [WMD], 2.49; 95% CI, 2.21-2.77) and 18 to 24 hours (WMD, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.60-2.67). No conclusions could be made for the outcomes of alloimmunization and refractoriness. No studies addressed outcomes of time to next transfusion or bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Owing to the small number of trials and lack of comparability of PLT products for leukoreduction, we were unable to draw definitive conclusions about the clinical benefits of APCs compared with WBD PLTs. Rigorous RCTs using clinically important end points are needed to settle this issue.