Tranexamic acid for the prevention and the treatment of primary postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022;:1-13
Tranexamic acid (TA) has been proposed for preventing or treating primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a systematic literature search to the TA role in managing PPH in vaginal and caesarean delivery. Twenty-seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (33,302 women) were identified. Three RCTs investigated TA for preventing PPH after vaginal delivery and 22 after caesarean section. None demonstrated a preventive effect on secondary clinical outcomes related to blood loss. Two trials evaluated TA for treating PPH after vaginal and caesarean delivery. Only the WOMAN trial showed that 1 g of TA is effective. In conclusion, TA is considered useful and is recommended or advised for treating PPH. Conversely, available evidence on the prophylactic role is still limited, and this use is not supported. Further investigation is recommended. In this regard, stronger and more reliable outcomes than blood loss should be considered.
Elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC women's health. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Elagolix is effective and safe for treating menorrhagia in women with uterine fibroid. However, it is reported to be associated with hypoestrogenism that can be alleviated by adding estradiol/norethindrone acetate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid by comparing: elagolix versus placebo and elagolix versus estradiol/norethindrone acetate. METHODOLOGY The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2021, Issue 3 of 12), MEDLINE databases (1980 to December week 1, 2020), and trial registries for relevant randomized clinical trials were used. All randomized clinical trials were reviewed and evaluated. Random effects models were used to estimate the dichotomous outcomes and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Data for risk of bias, heterogeneity, sensitivity, reporting bias and quality of evidence were assessed. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials with 1949 premenopausal women from 323 locations were included. Elagolix improved menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 4.81, 95% CI 2.45 to 9.45; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline (RR 4.87, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.31; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) compared to placebo. There was no difference in menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16; five trials, 1365 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline between the elagolix (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15; five trials, 1365 participants; high quality evidence) and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. In both comparisons, elagolix has reduced the mean percentage change in uterine and fibroid volume, improved symptoms, and health-related quality of life. More patients had hot flush, and bone mineral density loss in the elagolix treatment compared to both placebo and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. CONCLUSIONS Elagolix appeared to be effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding caused by uterine fibroid and combination with estradiol/norethindrone acetate was able to alleviate the hypoestrogenism side effects in premenopausal women. Review registration PROSPERO CDR 42021233898.
Effectiveness and safety of carboxytocin versus oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effectiveness and safety of carbetocin and oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published up to February 2019. Next, two independent reviewers screened the studies according to the selection criteria as well as the strategies recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were then extracted and evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS A total of 24 studies involving 37 383 patients were included for analysis. For cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contraction (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.35, 0.65], p < 0.00001), PPH (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.95], p = 0.02), blood loss (mean [MD] = -64.36, 95% CI [-107.78, -20.93], p = 0.004), and transfusion (OR = 0.59, 95% CI [0.42, 0.82], p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference in severe PPH (OR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.66, 1.090], p = 0.19). For vaginal delivery patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contractions (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25, 0.93], p = 0.03), PPH (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.91], p = 0.03), and blood loss (MD = -63.52, 95% CI [-113.43, -13.60], p = 0.01), and there were no significant differences in severe PPH (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.40, 1.69], p = 0.59) and transfusion (OR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.22, 1.61], p = 0.31). With regard to safety, for cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the incidence of headache (OR = 0.72, [0.55, 0.95], p = 0.02), and there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever. For vaginal delivery patients, there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever between the two drugs. CONCLUSION For patients undergoing cesarean section and vaginal delivery, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in effectiveness and similar in safety. Therefore, carbetocin is expected to be an alternative uterine contraction agent for preventing PPH.
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (UAVM) as a rare cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH): a literature review
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2022
PURPOSE Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) are rare vascular lesions characterized by an abnormal arteriovenous communication between the branches of uterine artery and the myometrial venous plexus. UAVM can be a serious cause of massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) leading to potentially life-threatening anemic shock. This review aims to summarize main experiences on clinical presentation and management of UAVM in the setting of unexplained PPH. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. A case report of a PPH UAVM-related in a patient managed at the authors' center is also provided. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of cases was 30. In 3/11 cases, previous uterine surgeries were reported and 72.7% cases gave birth by cesarean section. Nine cases had a secondary PPH (24 h up to 12 week post-partum), whereas only one case had a primary PPH. Our case report had both a primary and a secondary PPH. Reported vaginal bleedings were profuse and blood loss entity ranged from 1000 to 2000 ml. In all cases a color Doppler ultrasound was performed first to suspect UAVM and in 10/11 cases a subsequent pelvic angiography confirmed the diagnosis of UAVM as leading cause of the unexplained PPH. In 81.8% cases a conservative management by uterine artery embolization (UAE) was adopted: bilateral UAE was always successful; in 1 out of 2 cases treated by unilateral UEA, emergency total hysterectomy was performed for a sudden hemodynamic instability. CONCLUSION Maternal mortality pregnancy-correlated is a major health concern worldwide, mostly due by PPH. UAVM should be considered in clinical practice among possible causes of unexplained PPH.
Clinical Presentation and Management of Endometriosis-Related Hemorrhagic Ascites: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
This study aims to analyze the patient profile and presentation of endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites and review its management to raise awareness among gynecologists and improve treatment strategies. We present a case report and engage in a systematic review involving human cases of histologically proven endometriosis with hemorrhagic ascites. Keywords were searched in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Ovid Discovery databases from inception until December 2018. Studies that did not include a description of ascites or histopathologic results confirming endometriosis or those that involved patients with other conditions that may contribute to ascites were excluded. The review yielded 73 articles describing 84 premenopausal women with histologically proven endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites. Of note, 83% (65/78) of the patients were nulliparous and 69.35% (43/62) were of African descent. The most common chief complaint was abdominal enlargement (58.33%, 49/84) but a host of other symptoms were also reported. Pleural effusion was reported in 32.14% (27/84), and elevated CA-125 was seen in 74.42% (32/43). The majority (64.29%, 54/84) of the patients underwent laparotomy, and an increasing trend of minimally invasive surgical approaches (p<0.001) and fertility-sparing techniques (p<0.001) was observed. The mean ascites volume was 4228.27 mL (SD: 2625.66). Moderate to severe endometriosis was seen in 97.44% (76/78) of cases. The majority of the patients who received medical treatment were given gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (63.79%, 37/58). The rate of recurrence after termination or suppression of ovarian function was 8.33% (7/84), and there was a mortality rate of 1.19% (1/84). Diagnosis of endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites may be challenging because it mimics several disease entities that cause ascites, thereby warranting a heightened clinical suspicion. Minimally invasive techniques are usually employed to establish a histologic diagnosis. The prevention of recurrence involves the recognition of endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites as a manifestation of severe endometriosis, which should prompt therapies directed at suppressing ovarian function. Since affected women are of childbearing age, ovary-preserving surgeries are generally preferred. The rate of recurrence is low after appropriate surgical and medical interventions.
Effectiveness of uterine tamponade devices for refractory postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth: a systematic review
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2021
OBJECTIVES To evaluate uterine tamponade devices' effectiveness for atonic refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth and the effect of including them in institutional protocols. SEARCH STRATEGY PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, POPLINE, from inception to January 2021. STUDY SELECTION randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. OUTCOMES composite outcome including surgical interventions (artery ligations, compressive sutures or hysterectomy) or maternal death, and hysterectomy. RESULTS all included studies were at high risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence was rated as very low to low. One randomised study measured the effect of the condom-catheter balloon compared to standard care and found unclear results for the composite outcome (RR 2.33, 95%CI 0.76-7.14) and hysterectomy (RR 4.14, 95%CI 0.48-35.93). Three comparative studies assessed the effect of including UBTs in institutional protocols. A stepped wedge cluster RCT suggested an increase in the composite outcome (RR 4.08, 95%CI 1.07-15.58) and unclear results for hysterectomy (RR 4.38, 95% CI 0.47-41.09) with the use of the condom-catheter or surgical glove balloon. One non-randomised study showed unclear effects on the composite outcome (RR 0.33, 95%CI 0.11-1.03) and hysterectomy (RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.04-5.38) after the inclusion of the Bakri balloon. The second non-randomised study found unclear effects on the composite outcome (RR 0.95, 95%CI 0.32-2.81) and hysterectomy (RR 1.84, 95%CI 0.44-7.69) after the inclusion of Ebb or Bakri balloon. CONCLUSIONS the effect of uterine tamponade devices for the management of atonic refractory PPH after vaginal delivery is unclear, as is the role of the type of device and the setting.
Prenatal anemia and postpartum hemorrhage risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2021
INTRODUCTION Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has remained the leading cause of maternal mortality. While anemia is a leading contributor to maternal morbidity, molecular, cellular and anemia-induced hypoxia, clinical studies of the relationship between prenatal-anemia and PPH have reported conflicting results. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the outcomes of studies on the relationships between prenatal anemia and PPH-related mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, PROSPERO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for studies published before August 2019. Keywords included "anemia," "hemoglobin," "postpartum hemorrhage," and "postpartum bleeding." Only studies involving the association between anemia and PPH were included in the meta-analysis. Our primary analysis used random effects models to synthesize odds-ratios (ORs) extracted from the studies. Heterogeneity was formally assessed with the Higgins' I(2) statistics, and explored using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. RESULTS We found 13 eligible studies investigating the relationship between prenatal anemia and PPH. Our findings suggest that severe prenatal anemia increases PPH risk (OR = 3.54; 95% CI: 1.20, 10.4, p-value = 0.020). There was no statistical association with mild (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.31, 1.17, p-value = 0.130), or moderate anemia (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 0.40, 11.1, p-value = 0.390) and the risk of PPH. CONCLUSION Severe prenatal anemia is an important predictive factor of adverse outcomes, warranting intensive management during pregnancy. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42020149184; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=149184.
Pregnant women with prenatal anaemia (13 studies).
Systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between prenatal anaemia and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) related mortality.
Severe prenatal anaemia was associated with increased PPH risk (OR = 3.54). There was no statistical association with mild (OR = 0.60), or moderate anaemia (OR = 2.09) and the risk of PPH.
Interventions to minimize blood loss in very preterm infants-A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(2):e0246353
Blood loss in the first days of life has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. In this systematic review we included randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of interventions to preserve blood volume in the infant from birth, reduce the need for sampling, or limit the blood sampled. Mortality and major neurodevelopmental disabilities were the primary outcomes. Included studies underwent risk of bias-assessment and data extraction by two review authors independently. We used risk ratio or mean difference to evaluate the treatment effect and meta-analysis for pooled results. The certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. We included 31 trials enrolling 3,759 infants. Twenty-five trials were pooled in the comparison delayed cord clamping or cord milking vs. immediate cord clamping or no milking. Increasing placental transfusion resulted in lower mortality during the neonatal period (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00; participants = 595; trials = 5; I2 = 0%, moderate certainty of evidence) and during first hospitalization (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51, 0.96; 10 RCTs, participants = 2,476, low certainty of evidence). The certainty of evidence was very low for the other primary outcomes of this review. The six remaining trials compared devices to monitor glucose levels (three trials), blood sampling from the umbilical cord or from the placenta vs. blood sampling from the infant (2 trials), and devices to reintroduce the blood after analysis vs. conventional blood sampling (1 trial); the certainty of evidence was rated as very low for all outcomes in these comparisons. Increasing placental transfusion at birth may reduce mortality in very preterm infants; However, extremely limited evidence is available to assess the effects of other interventions to reduce blood loss after birth. In future trials, infants could be randomized following placental transfusion to different blood saving approaches. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42020159882.
The Emergent Pelvic Artery Embolization in the Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Obstetrical & gynecological survey. 2021;76(4):234-244
IMPORTANCE Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an emergent obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal mortality. Pelvic arterial embolization (PAE) is an effective treatment for intractable PPH. However, a unique protocol has not been accepted in obstetrical practice. OBJECTIVE To evaluate its efficiency, safety, complications, and outcomes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of PAE for PPH in the literature. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The Medline, the database of abstract of reviews, the index to allied health literature, and the Chinese database Sino-Med were searched on March 31, 2020, for studies on PAE for PPH. The data for PAE indication, agents, arteries, success rate, complications, and outcomes were extracted and syncretized for meta-analysis. RESULTS From 1075 identified articles, 113 abstracts or full articles were retrieved and 43 studies were finally identified as meeting the including criteria. The results demonstrated that the indications for PAE were as follows: uterine atony, placental abnormality, delivery tract injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation, arteriovenous malformation, and vaginal hematoma. The embolization agents mostly in order were gelatin sponge particles, polyvinyl alcohol particles, Gelfoam, N-butyl cyanoacrylate, microcoil, and glue; for arteries, they were mostly uterine artery and internal iliac artery. The clinical success rate was 90.5%, whereas the technical success rate was 99.3%. The most common complications of PAE were postembolization syndrome and menstrual abnormality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The emergent PAE is a safe and effective method with high success rate in life-threatening PPH management. Gelatin sponge granules measuring 500 to 1000 μm in diameter have safe results. Pelvic arterial embolization may affect the recovery of menses and increase PPH in the subsequent pregnancy, but there was no noted correlation with fetal growth restriction.
Side-effects of carbetocin to prevent postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Pharmacology research & perspectives. 2021;9(2):e00745
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) increases the risk of maternal death worldwide. Heat-stable carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analog, is a newer uterotonic agent. Clinicians do not fully understand its side-effects, particularly the unanticipated side-effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the side-effects of carbetocin to PPH. The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier ScienceDirect, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from the inception to September 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that considered pregnant women who received carbetocin before delivery and provided at least one adverse event were included. Statistical analysis included random or fixed-effect meta-analyses using relative risk. Stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Begger's and Egger's test and funnel plots were used to assess the publication bias. Seventeen RCTs involving 32,702 women were included, and all these studies ranked as medium- to high-quality. Twenty-four side-effects were reported. The use of carbetocin had a lower risk of vomiting in intravenously (0.53, 0.30 to 0.93) and cesarean birth (0.51, 0.32 to 0.81) women, and had a slightly higher risk of diarrhea (8.00, 1.02 to 62.79) compared with oxytocin intervention. No significant difference was found among other side-effects. Evidence from our systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 RCTs suggested that the risk of vomiting decreased with carbetocin use in the prevention of PPH after delivery.