Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain in the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Literature Review
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:4439867
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to review the literature regarding the blood loss and postoperative pain in the isolated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Investigating the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, articles were selected from 1970 to 2021 in the English published databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Article retrieval and selection were performed by two authors, and they independently evaluated them based on the eligibility criteria. The articles meeting the search criteria had especially at least 30 patients. RESULTS In the review of intraoperative blood loss, a total of 139 articles were retrieved and restricted to 6 articles (SSRO: 4; IVRO 2). In the review of postoperative pain, a total of 174 articles were retrieved and restricted to 4 articles (SSRO: 3; IVRO 1). The mean blood loss of SSRO and IVRO was ranged from 55 to 167 mL and 82 to 104 mL, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the first postoperative day were 2 to 5.3 in SSRO and 2.93 to 3.13 in IVRO. The mean VAS scores of the second postoperative day were 1 to 3 in SSRO and 1.1 to 1.8 in IVRO. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional SSRO, IVRO had a significantly lower amount of blood loss. However, the blood transfusion is not necessary in a single-jaw operation (SSRO or IVRO). Postoperative pain was similar between SSRO and IVRO.
Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Single and Multiple Coronally Advanced Flap for Type 1 Recession: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2021;57(2)
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in addition to coronally advanced flap (CAF) for the treatment of both single and multiple gingival recessions (GRs) compared to the CAF alone and to the adjunct of connective tissue graft (CTG). Root coverage outcomes using platelet concentrates have gained increased interest. In particular, it has been suggested that adding L-PRF to CAF may provide further benefits in the treatment of GRs. Materials and Methods: An electronic and manual literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RTCs) investigating root coverage outcomes with CAF + L-PRF. The outcomes of interest included mean root coverage (mRC), recession reduction, keratinized tissue width (KTW) gain, gingival thickness (GT) gain, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROms) such as pain perception and discomfort. Results: A total of 275 patients and 611 surgical sites were analyzed. L-PRF in adjunct to single CAF seems to show statistically significant results regarding clinical attachment level (CAL) with a weighted means (WM) 0.43 95% CI (-0.04,0.91), p < 0.0001, GT (WM 0.17 95% CI (-0.02,0.36), p < 0.0001, and mRC (WM 13.95 95% CI (-1.99,29.88) p < 0.0001, compared to single CAF alone. Interesting results were obtained from the adjunct of PRF to multiple CAF with respect to multiple CAF alone with an increase in the mRC WM 0.07 95% CI (-30.22,30.35), p = 0.0001, and PPD change WM 0.26 95% CI (-0.06,0.58), p < 00001. On the other hand, no statistically significant data were obtained when L-PRF was added to single or multiple CAF combined with CTG according to the included outcomes such as mRC (p = 0.03 overall). Conclusions: L-PRF is a valid alternative to CAF alone. L-PRF compared to CTG in single and multiple CAF showed statistically significant results regarding pain perception and discomfort PROms (p < 0.0001). However, CTG remains the gold standard for treating gingival recession.
Use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin in the Treatment of Periodontal Intrabony Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:6669168
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a kind of autologous platelet concentrate which is easy to obtain and cheap. In recent years, it has been studied to improve the effect of periodontal regeneration. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the complementary effect of PRF in the treatment of intrabony defects. The present review is aimed at systematically assessing the effects of PRF on clinical and radiological outcomes of the surgical treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. METHODS The protocol was registered at PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) as CRD42020206056. An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Only randomized clinical trials were selected. Systematically healthy patients with two or three walls of intrabony defects were considered. Intrabony defect (IBD) depth reduction and bone fill (BF) % were set as primary outcomes while probing depth (PD) reduction, clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, and gingival margin level (GML) gain were considered as the secondary outcome. When possible, a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS Eighteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and seventeen studies were quantitatively analyzed. Of 17 studies, four were rated as high risk of bias and thirteen as the moderate risk of bias. Two comparisons were set: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) combined with PRF and OFD alone and (2) bone grafting (BG) combined with PRF and BG alone. Compared to OFD alone, OFD+PRF showed significantly greater in all primary and secondary outcomes. Compared to BG alone, BG+PRF showed significantly greater in IBD depth reduction, PD reduction, CAL gain, and GML gain. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF was significantly effective in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. The benefit of OFD+PRF may be greater than BG+PRF. PRF can promote early wound healing in periodontal surgery. As all included studies were not at low risk of bias, well-designed RCTs having a high methodological quality are needed to clarify the additional effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of intrabony defects in the future.
Complications and Management of Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders During Dental Extractions: a Systematic Literature Review
Journal of oral & maxillofacial research. 2021;12(2):e1
OBJECTIVES The systematic literature review aims to assess patients' dental extraction with inherited bleeding disorders, to understand the type, dosage, and modality of administration of the haemostatic agents for safe intra- and postoperational results. MATERIAL AND METHODS The search was undertaken in MEDLINE (PubMed) databases and Cochrane library for articles published in English from 1 January, 2010 till 31 October, 2020. Before the full-text articles were considered, titles and abstracts were screened. RESULTS A total of 78 articles were screened, from which 3 met the necessary criteria and were used for the review. Minor complications, such as postoperative bleedings from the socket and epistaxis, were observed, but they were resolved with proper medical care. No major fatal complications were reported. Generally, all the articles provided evidence of successful extractions with correct treatment plans made by haematologists and surgeons. CONCLUSIONS Available clinical trials demonstrate that local and systemic haemostatic therapies in combination are effective in preventing bleeding during dental extractions in patients with coagulopathies.
Tranexamic Acid in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine. 2021
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and decreasing surgery duration in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Methods: The literature was searched systematically for all comparative studies of the effect of TXA on craniomaxillofacial surgery with placebo to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss, and secondary outcomes were postoperative hematocrit, postoperative hemoglobin, and operation duration. Results: This systematic review included 16 studies consisting of 958 patients. Meta-analysis revealed that compared with the placebo group, the TXA group showed a significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 139.81 mL (95% confidence interval, CI: -179.66 to -99.96 mL; p < 0.01), a shortening of the maxillary surgery duration of 15.48 min (95% CI: -21.03 to -9.92 min; p < 0.01), an elevation of the postoperative hemoglobin level of 0.74 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.42 to 1.07 mg/dL; p < 0.01), and a limited effect on increasing the postoperative hematocrit level of 1.77% (95% CI: 0.17 to 3.36; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The use of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery can effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss, maintain elevate postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reduce the operation duration.
The clinical implications of platelet-rich fibrin on periodontal regeneration: A systematic review
The Saudi dental journal. 2021;33(2):55-62
OBJECTIVES Platelet concentrates have been shown to enhance periodontal regeneration when used as a treatment on their own or in conjunction with bone grafting materials. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), both alone and in combination with other conventionally used materials, on periodontal regeneration in clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic electronic search was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science. Specifically, we searched for English language articles published between 2009 and 2019 that conducted in-human studies and included a summary of the results. Our primary search yielded 220 articles, and of these, 110 were clinical studies. Forty-four articles were then selected for a full reading. RESULTS Twenty-six randomized control trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Despite the differences between the reviewed studies, most revealed the ability of PRF to promote periodontal wound healing. The positive effects of PRF were observed in clinical criteria, such as reductions in pocket probing depth (PD) and increases in clinical attachment level (CAL), as well as in the degree of defect bone fill, which was determined either radiographically or by surgical re-entry. CONCLUSIONS Additional studies are needed to compare the clinical outcomes of various PRF application procedures and establish standardized protocols for treating periodontal disease with PRF.
Efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
The journal of evidence-based dental practice. 2021;21(3):101540
OBJECTIVE Adequate hemostasis is a critical step in endodontic surgery. It facilitates the procedure and affects the success and prognosis of the operation. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) aimed to systematically assess the efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery and to identify the most effective ones. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost databases were searched up to December 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of different hemostatic measures in endodontic surgery, and their risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's randomized trial tool (RoB 2.0). Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted, with Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) as effect estimates using the "netmeta" package in R. The quality of evidence was assessed using the CINeMA approach. RESULTS Six RCTs involving 353 patients (mean age 48.12 y) were included. NMA revealed that aluminum chloride achieved higher hemostatic efficacy than epinephrine (OR = 2.55, 95% CI [1.41, 4.64]), while there was non-significant difference when compared with PTFE strips + epinephrine (OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.35, 2.90]), electrocauterization (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [0.84, 8.46]), or ferric sulfate (OR = 8.65, 95% CI [0.31, 240.92]). Of all hemostatic agents, aluminum chloride ranked first in control bleeding during endodontic surgery (P-score = 0.84), followed by PTFE strips + epinephrine (P-score = 0.80), electrocauterization (P-score = 0.34), epinephrine (P-score = 0.34), ferric sulfate (P-score = 0.18). The quality of evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS Based on the limited data, aluminum chloride provides better hemostasis than epinephrine, while there was no significant difference between the remaining hemostatic agents used in endodontic surgery, which could help clinicians choose the hemostatic agent that achieves adequate hemostasis. achieve adequate hemostasis. Given insufficient evidence, future RCTs addressing this evidence gap are required.
Comparative analysis of the hemostatic, analgesic and healing effects of cyanoacrylate on free gingival graft surgical wounds in donor and recipient areas: a systematic review
Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine. 2021;32(9):98
To analyze the hemostatic, Dsurgical wounds in donor and recipient areas of free gingival grafts (FGG). Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane and Web of Science) were searched up to March 2021 (PROSPERO CRD42019134497). The focus of the study (cyanoacrylate) was combined with the condition (periodontal surgery OR free gingival graft OR free soft tissue graft OR autografts), and outcome (healing OR epithelialization OR pain OR analgesia OR bleeding OR hemostasis OR hemostatic). Studies reporting cyanoacrylate isolated or associated with another substance in FGG stabilization and closure were investigated and assessed for the quality and risk of bias through the Cochrane Manual. Six studies with 323 participants were included. Evaluation of the quality and risk of bias highlighted a low risk for four articles, intermediate for one and unclear for another. The use of cyanoacrylate associated or not with the hemostatic sponge or the platelet-rich fibrin was more effective in healing (three studies), analgesia (four studies), and hemostasis in one study (p < 0.05). However, groups with the association in cyanoacrylate showed superior healing, and analgesic action to the isolated cyanoacrylate group. In addition, two studies demonstrated that cyanoacrylate use reduces surgery duration, one study showed that it reduces postoperative sensibility, and another present hemostatic effect (p < 0.05). There is scarce literature for the use of cyanoacrylate in FGG wounds indicates that it can promote a minor inflammatory response, reduce operation time, does not interfere with healing, relieves postoperative discomfort, and suggests the possibility immediate hemostasis. Its use presents an alternative to suturing in FGG surgeries. But, the limited number of cases and the relative heterogeneity of the included studies suggest caution in generalizing the indication. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cyanoacrylate seems to present analgesic effects and less pain when applied to wound closure and covering donor and recipient areas reducing the need for postoperative analgesic medication; and has a healing effect in the closure of the donor area on the palate. In addition, it can reduce bleeding time after surgery, and prevents late bleeding during the first postsurgical week. Scientific justification: To evaluate the hemostatic, analgesic and healing actions of cyanoacrylate compared to the suture thread and other agents when used to close surgical wounds from periodontal free gingival graft surgical wounds in both the donor and recipient areas of the graft. MAIN FINDINGS The use of cyanoacrylate individually or in association with wound dressing agents presents analgesic effects because the patient reports less pain experienced when cyanoacrylate is applied to the wound closure and covering, thereby reducing the need for postoperative analgesic medication. In addition, a healing effect is observed in the closure of the donor area on the palate; as well as it seems to present hemostatic effects, reducing the bleeding time after surgery, and preventing late bleeding during the first postsurgical week. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Dentists may cautiously apply cyanoacrylate after periodontal surgeries for free gingival graft in both the donor and recipient areas of the graft. However, they must consider the limitations of the surgery, tension-free positioning, the patient's dyscrasia and postoperative care, constituting a set of predictors for adequate clinical decision-making. Widespread use of such material for all patients and surgical configurations may not be recommended.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.
Effectiveness of local hemostatic to prevent bleeding in dental patients on anticoagulation: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2021
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of hemostatic protocols to prevent bleeding in dental procedures among individuals undergoing oral anticoagulation therapy. A systematic review and network meta-analysis were accomplished. Searches of literature and grey literature were performed in different electronic databases. Clinical trials were considered as part of the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included articles were performed. Assessment of the certainty of evidence was also performed. As results we find that the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate [RR -35.00 (95% CI - 107.12, -5.78)], calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) [RR -5.62 (95% CI -11.41, -1.03)], and tranexamic acid (TXA) [RR -3.46 (95% CI -7.63, -0.77)] showed beneficial effects compared to placebo. However, only TXA presented beneficial effects with moderate certainty evidence. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) presented very low certainty evidence. In the comparisons between the hemostatic agents, no differences were observed. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in the comparisons was observed as well. Concluding, bleeding events in individuals on oral anticoagulation decreased with the use of TXA compared to placebo. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) were also superior to placebo, but the certainty of evidence was low. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in hemostatic agents was observed.