The Pitfalls of Global Hemostasis Assays in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Future Challenges
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2023
Venous and arterial thromboembolism are major complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), comprising polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Global hemostasis assays, including thrombin generation assay (TGA), rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and thromboelastography (TEG), have been proposed as biomarkers to assess the hypercoagulability and thrombotic risk stratification in MPNs. We performed a systematic literature review on the parameters of TGA, ROTEM, and TEG and their association with thrombotic events and treatment strategies in MPNs. Thirty-two studies (all cross-sectional) were included, which collectively enrolled 1,062 controls and 1,608 MPN patients. Among the 13 studies that reported arterial or venous thrombosis, the overall thrombosis rate was 13.8% with 6 splanchnic thromboses reported. Out of the 27 TGA studies, there was substantial heterogeneity in plasma preparation and trigger reagents employed in laboratory assays. There was a trend toward increased peak height among all MPN cohorts versus controls and higher endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) between ET patients versus controls. There was an overall trend toward lower ETP between PV and PMF patients versus. controls. There were no substantial differences in ETP between JAK2-positive versus JAK2-negative MPNs, prior history versus negative history of thrombotic events, and among different treatment strategies. Of the three ROTEM studies, there was a trend toward higher maximum clot firmness and shorter clot formation times for all MPNs versus controls. The three TEG studies had mixed results. We conclude that the ability of parameters from global hemostasis assays to predict for hypercoagulability events in MPN patients is inconsistent and inconclusive. Further prospective longitudinal studies are needed to validate these biomarker tools so that thrombotic potential could be utilized as a primary endpoint of such studies.
Prognostic Value of Bleeding in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Meta-Analysis
Technology in cancer research & treatment. 2021;20:15330338211034259
BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. It is of great significance to the prognosis of patients. But the results are controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between gastrointestinal bleeding and clinical prognosis in patients with GIST. METHODS A systematic literature search was performed in Pumbed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, CNKI, VIP and wanfang databases with the pattern of unlimited languages. 12 studies with 2781 individuals were included in the final analysis. The overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival/disease-free survival (RFS/DFS) and related factors affecting bleeding in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) were extracted. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for in the meta-analysis. RESULTS A total of 12 articles were included in the study, including 2781 patients with GIST, including 845 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. The OS of GIST patients with gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly worse (HR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.13-5.73, P = 0.025). But there was no significant difference in RFS between gastrointestinal bleeding patients and non-bleeding patients (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.70-2.61, P = 0.371). Further analysis of the related factors of GI bleeding in GIST patients was observed, besides the aging factor (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.69-1.50, P = 0.929), Small intestinal stromal tumor (HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.41-0.76, P < 0.001), tumor diameter ≥ 5 cm (HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.20-3.63, P = 0.009), Mitotic index ≥ 5/50 HPF (HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.11-2.49, P = 0.014) and tumor rupture (HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.0-3.82, P = 0.026) all increased the risk of GI bleeding in patients with GIST. CONCLUSIONS The OS of GIST patients with GI bleeding was worse than non-GI bleeding, but had no significant effect on RFS. Nevertheless the aging factor, the location of GIST in the small intestine, tumor diameter ≥ 5 cm, Mitotic index ≥ 5/50 HPF and tumor rupture all increased the risk of GI bleeding in patients with GIST.
Postoperative bleeding in essential thrombocytosis patients with colorectal cancer: Case report and literature review
International journal of surgery case reports. 2021;86:106374
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased platelet count and a high risk of bleeding or thrombotic events due to platelet dysfunction. Patients with ET are treated according to their risk of complications with cytoreductive or anti-aggregant treatment. Neither guidelines for oncologic patients nor perioperative management of patients with ET have been determined. CASE PRESENTATION A 41-year-old female patient with ET who had alternating constipation and diarrhea was referred after a screening colonoscopy diagnosing a locally advanced rectosigmoid junction colon adenocarcinoma with liver metastases. Systemic preoperative chemotherapy was indicated. The patient underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection plus volume-preserving right lobectomy of the liver. Postoperative bleeding of the internal iliac artery (IIA) associated with hematoma at the lower pelvic cavity was diagnosed and treated by interventional radiology; the patient was discharged without other complications 16 days after surgery. CLINICAL DISCUSSION ET has been related to the development of hematologic complications or second non-hematologic malignancies. A systematic review was conducted to seek guidance for the management of such patients in the perioperative period. Special perioperative care must be taken, and complications management should avoid further hemorrhages or cloth formation. CONCLUSION Under oncologic and hematological guidance, minimally invasive surgery and non-invasive management of complications are advised in the lack of published perioperative management guidelines of ET patients with colorectal cancer.
The risk factors for delayed bleeding after endoscopic resection of colorectal tumors: a meta-analysis
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020
INTRODUCTION The most common complication of post-colorectal endoscopic resection is delayed bleeding. The assessment of risk factors for delayed bleeding provide important and useful information in standard clinical operations. The risk factors have been previously reported, however they remain inconsistent across different studies. AREAS COVERED In this meta-analysis the patient conditions, lesion-related factors, and operation-related factors were compared between delayed bleeding and no bleeding. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database were searched to identify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated along with heterogeneity. EXPERT OPINION This study is the first meta-analysis to investigate risk factors for colorectal delayed bleeding. We found several risk factors contributing to this condition: colorectal tumors located in the proximal colon, a history of antithrombotic drug use, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or early cancer, piecemeal resection, intraoperative hemorrhage, no clip placement, and severe submucosal fibrosis. Despite our findings, we also conclude that more high-quality, large-scale clinical randomized controlled studies are needed due to limited retrospective studies at present. Future therapeutic colonoscopies should focus on precise diagnosis, treatment safety, and management during the perioperative period.