Transfusion reactions associated with COVID-19 convalescent plasma in outpatient clinical trials
BACKGROUND COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is an important therapeutic option for outpatients at high risk of hospitalization from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We assessed the safety of outpatient CCP transfusions administered during clinical trials. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data pertaining to transfusion-related reactions from two randomized controlled trials in the U.S. that evaluated the efficacy of CCP versus control plasma in various ambulatory settings. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess whether CCP was associated with transfusion reactions, after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS The combined study reported 79/1351 (5.9%) adverse events during the transfusion visit, with the majority 62/1351 (4.6%) characterized by mild, allergic-type findings of urticaria, and/or pruritus consistent with minor allergic transfusion reactions; the other reported events were attributed to the patients' underlying disease, COVID-19, or vasovagal in nature. We found no difference in the likelihood of allergic transfusion reactions between those receiving CCP versus control plasma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.43-1.31). Risk of urticaria and/or pruritus increased with a pre-existing diagnosis of asthma (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.16-4.67). We did not observe any CCP-attributed antibody disease enhancement in participants with COVID-19 or increased risk of infection. There were no life-threatening severe transfusion reactions and no patients required hospitalization related to transfusion-associated complications. DISCUSSION Outpatient plasma administration was safely performed for nearly 1400 participants. CCP is a safe therapeutic option for outpatients at risk of hospitalization from COVID-19.
Epidemiological and clinical features, therapeutic strategies and outcomes in patients with hyperhaemolysis: A systematic review
British journal of haematology. 2023
Hyperhaemolysis syndrome (HHS), a severe form of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction most commonly described in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), involves destruction of both donor and recipient red blood cells (RBCs). As the epidemiology and underlying pathophysiology have yet to be definitively elucidated, recognition can be challenging. We systematically reviewed PubMed and EMBASE to identify all cases of post-transfusion hyperhaemolysis and characterized the epidemiological, clinical and immunohaematological characteristics and treatments of HHS. We identified 51 patients (33 females and 18 males), including 31 patients with SCD (HbSS, HbSC and HbS/β-thalassaemia). The median haemoglobin nadir (3.9 g/dL) occurred a median of 10 days post-transfusion. 32.6% and 45.7% of patients had a negative indirect anti-globulin test and a negative direct anti-globulin test, respectively. The most common therapies included corticosteroids and intravenous immune globulin. 66.0% of patients received ≥1 supportive transfusion, which was associated with a longer median hospital stay/time to recovery (23 days vs. 15 days; p = 0.015) compared to no supportive transfusion. These findings illustrate that HHS that often results in marked anaemia 10 days post-transfusion is not restricted to patients with haemoglobinopathies, and additional transfused RBCs may be associated with a longer time-to-recovery.
The epidemiology of transfusion-related acute lung injury: A scoping review and analysis
BACKGROUND The purpose of this scoping review was to identify available sources of evidence on the epidemiology of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and whether meta-analysis on the incidence of TRALI is feasible. TRALI is a serious complication and the second leading cause of death related to blood transfusion. Estimates of the incidence of TRALI would provide a useful benchmark for research to reduce TRALI. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases for publications related to the incidence of TRALI and hemovigilance. We included all studies irrespective of language or country. Both full-text articles and conference abstracts were included. Participants of the studies must all have received a blood transfusion. Reviews and case studies were excluded. RESULTS We identified 427 articles or abstracts to include for review. More than half were abstracts, and the majority were published after 2010. Reported TRALI definitions varied, but only 27.2% of studies reported any definition for TRALI. TRALI rates were reported using different denominators, such as per blood unit (54.1%), patient (34.4%), and transfusion episode (14.8%). Study populations and contexts were mostly general (75.6% and 80.3%, respectively). There was also variation in study design with most being observational (90.6%) and only 13.1% of all studies used modern donor restriction policies. DISCUSSION There was substantial variation in reporting in studies on TRALI incidence. Meta-analysis of TRALI rates may be feasible in specific circumstances where reporting is clear. Future studies should clearly report key items, such as a TRALI definition.
Guideline development for prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease: reduction of indications for irradiated blood components after prestorage leukodepletion of blood components
British journal of haematology. 2021
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare, commonly fatal complication of transfusion preventable by irradiation of blood units. The revision of the Dutch transfusion guideline addressed the question whether irradiation is still necessary if blood components are prestorage leukodepleted. We searched for published cases of TA-GVHD following transfusion of prestorage leukodepleted blood and through contacting haemovigilance systems. Six presumed cases were found, dating from 1998 to 2013. Four out of six patients had received one or more non-irradiated units despite recognised indications for irradiated blood components. In the countries providing information, over 50 million prestorage leukodepleted, non-irradiated, non-pathogen-reduced cellular components were transfused in a 10-year period. Potential benefits of lifting indications for irradiation were considered. These include reduced irradiation costs (€ 1.5 million annually in the Netherlands) and less donor exposure for neonates. Findings were presented in an invitational expert meeting. Recommendations linked to human leukocyte antigen similarity between donor and recipient or intra-uterine transfusion were left unchanged. Indications linked to long-lasting deep T-cell suppression were defined with durations of 6 or 12 months after end of treatment (e.g. autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation). Need for continued alertness to TA-GVHD and haemovigilance reporting of erroneous non-irradiated transfusions was emphasised.
Transfusion transmitted babesiosis: A systematic review of reported cases
Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;:102843
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmitted babesiosis (TTB) has a high mortality rate but may go unrecognized, particularly in non-endemic areas. We therefore conducted a systematic review to better characterize clinical aspects of TTB. METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL databases, from which 25 eligible articles describing 60 TTB patients met criteria for data extraction. RESULTS Symptom evaluation was provided for 25 implicated donors: 18/25 (72%) were asymptomatic while 7/25 (28%) had mild flu-like symptoms but were asymptomatic at time of donation. It was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Where reported, species included B. microti - 54/60 (90%), B. duncani - 3/60 (5%), and B. divergens-like MO-1 - 1/60 (2%). Most TTB patients (44/60, 73%) resided in endemic states, while most TTB deaths 6/9 (67%) occurred in non-endemic states. Severity of hemolysis was proportional to degree of parasitemia. Mortality in our series was 9/60 (15%); most deaths occurred at extremes of the age spectrum: 6/9 non-survivors were aged >55 years, 2/9 were <1 year, only 1/9 was 2-54 years. Number of comorbidities was higher among non-survivors (median = 4) compared to survivors (median = 1). CONCLUSIONS All implicated donors (for which symptoms data were reported) resulting in TTB infections were asymptomatic at the time of donation, and it was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Mortality of TTB appeared highest among those with more comorbidities and in non-endemic states. Heightened awareness of this diagnosis is key in its recognition.
A systematic review of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic areas
Malaria Journal. 2018;17((1)):36.
BACKGROUND Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is an accidental Plasmodium infection caused by whole blood or a blood component transfusion from a malaria infected donor to a recipient. Infected blood transfusions directly release malaria parasites in the recipient's bloodstream triggering the development of high risk complications, and potentially leading to a fatal outcome especially in individuals with no previous exposure to malaria or in immuno-compromised patients. A systematic review was conducted on TTM case reports in non-endemic areas to describe the epidemiological characteristics of blood donors and recipients. METHODS Relevant articles were retrieved from Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, and LILACS. From each selected study the following data were extracted: study area, gender and age of blood donor and recipient, blood component associated with TTM, Plasmodium species, malaria diagnostic method employed, blood donor screening method, incubation period between the infected transfusion and the onset of clinical symptoms in the recipient, time elapsed between the clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of malaria, infection outcome, country of origin of the blood donor and time of the last potential malaria exposure. RESULTS Plasmodium species were detected in 100 TTM case reports with a different frequency: 45% Plasmodium falciparum, 30% Plasmodium malariae, 16% Plasmodium vivax, 4% Plasmodium ovale, 2% Plasmodium knowlesi, 1% mixed infection P. falciparum/P. malariae. The majority of fatal outcomes (11/45) was caused by P. falciparum whilst the other fatalities occurred in individuals infected by P. malariae (2/30) and P. ovale (1/4). However, non P. falciparum fatalities were not attributed directly to malaria. The incubation time for all Plasmodium species TTM case reports was longer than what expected in natural infections. This difference was statistically significant for P. malariae (p = 0.006). A longer incubation time in the recipient together with a chronic infection at low parasite density of the donor makes P. malariae a subtle but not negligible risk for blood safety aside from P. falciparum. CONCLUSIONS TTM risk needs to be taken into account in order to enhance the safety of the blood supply chain from donors to recipients by means of appropriate diagnostic tools.
Comparative study of intravenous ascorbic acid versus low-dose desferroxamine in patients on hemodialysis with hyperferritinemia
Journal of Nephrology. 2003;16((5):):703-9.
BACKGROUND In patients on hemodialysis (HD), parenteral iron improves the response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) therapy, but in some subjects it produces an iron overload, increasing their morbidity and mortality rates. In these cases, iron administration must be discontinued. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) or desferroxamine (DFO) to mobilize and reduce iron stores, and to determine the effect of these compounds on erythropoiesis. METHODS We performed a prospective and randomized trial over 6 months, which included 27 patients with serum ferritin levels >800 ng/mL, TSAT >30% and stabilized hemoglobin (Hb) and rhuEPO doses. All patients had previously received parenteral iron (Ferlecit). Nine patients received 200 mg of intravenous (i. v. ) AA 3 times/week and nine patients received 1 mg/Kg/week of DFO; the remaining nine patients were the control group. RESULTS There were no significant differences in iron loss or mobilization due to dialysis. When Ferlecit was discontinued, functional iron did not vary and the epoetin resistance index (rhuEPO dose/Hb) was reduced by 21% in the i. v. AA group. In the DFO and control groups, functional iron levels fell. In the DFO group the epoetin resistance index increased by 20%, with no modifications in the control group. There was a positive correlation between transaminases and serum ferritin. CONCLUSIONS In HD patients with an iron overload, neither i. v. AA administration or low-dose DFO increased iron mobilization or iron loss due to dialysis. I. v. AA administration allows elimination of iron from stores without any drop in the functional iron produced by discontinuing parenteral maintenance iron; it also improves the response to rhuEPO. DFO did not elicit any positive effects on erythropoiesis.
Randomized clinical controlled cross-over trial (RCT) in the prevention of blood transfusion febrile reactions with small dose hydrocortisone versus anti-histamines Chinese
Chung-Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]. 1992;31((9):):536-8.
RCT was used in 73 patients who had experienced blood transfusion febrile reactions. For further two transfusions Benadryl was used before the first transfusion and hydrocortisone before the second in 36 patients. In the other group of 37 patients hydrocortisone was administered before the first the and Benadryl before the second transfusion. The effective rate of preventing transfusion febrile reactions with Benadryl (72.6%) was not significantly different from that with hydrocortisone (86.3%).