Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in intracranial haemorrhage: A meta-analysis
PloS one. 2023;18(3):e0282726
BACKGROUND Although some studies have shown that tranexamic acid is beneficial to patients with intracranial haemorrhage, the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid for intracranial haemorrhage remain controversial. METHOD The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. The review followed PRISMA guidelines. Data were analyzed using the random-effects model. RESULTS Twenty-five randomized controlled trials were included. Tranexamic acid significantly inhibited hematoma growth in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. (ICH: mean difference -1.76, 95%CI -2.78 to -0.79, I2 = 0%, P < .001; TBI: MD -4.82, 95%CI -8.06 to -1.58, I2 = 0%, P = .004). For subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, it significantly decreased the risk of hydrocephalus (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.50, I2 = 0%, P = .04) and rebleeding (OR, 0.52, 95%CI 0.35 to 0.79, I2 = 56% P = .002). There was no significance in modified Rankin Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale 3-5, mortality, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or ischemic stroke/transient ischemic. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid can significantly reduce the risk of intracranial haemorrhage growth in patients with ICH and TBI. Tranexamic acid can reduce the incidence of complications (hydrocephalus, rebleeding) in patients with SAH, which can indirectly improve the quality of life of patients with intracranial haemorrhage.
Tranexamic Acid for Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients on Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (TICH-NOAC): A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trial
BACKGROUND Evidence-based hemostatic treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) associated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is lacking. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug potentially limiting hematoma expansion. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of TXA in NOAC-ICH. METHODS We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at 6 Swiss stroke centers. Patients with NOAC-ICH within 12 hours of symptom onset and 48 hours of last NOAC intake were randomized (1:1) to receive either intravenous TXA (1 g over 10 minutes followed by 1 g over 8 hours) or matching placebo in addition to standard medical care via a centralized Web-based procedure with minimization on key prognostic factors. All participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Primary outcome was hematoma expansion, defined as ≥33% relative or ≥6 mL absolute volume increase at 24 hours and analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for baseline hematoma volume on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS Between December 12, 2016, and September 30, 2021, we randomized 63 patients (median age, 82 years [interquartile range, 76-86]; 40% women; median hematoma volume, 11.5 [4.8-27.4] mL) of the 109 intended sample size before premature trial discontinuation due to exhausted funding. The primary outcome did not differ between TXA (n=32) and placebo (n=31) arms (12 [38%] versus 14 [45%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.22-1.82]; P=0.40). There was a signal for interaction with onset-to-treatment time (P(interaction)=0.024), favoring TXA when administered within 6 hours of symptom onset. Between the TXA and placebo arms, the proportion of participants who died (15 [47%] versus 13 [42%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.07 [0.37-3.04]; P=0.91) or had major thromboembolic complications within 90 days (4 [13%] versus 2 [6%]; odds ratio, 1.86 [0.37-9.50]; P=0.45) did not differ. All thromboembolic events occurred at least 2 weeks after study treatment, exclusively in participants not restarted on oral anticoagulation. CONCLUSIONS In a smaller-than-intended NOAC-ICH patient sample, we found no evidence that TXA prevents hematoma expansion, but there were no major safety concerns. Larger trials on hemostatic treatments targeting an early treatment window are needed for NOAC-ICH. REGISTRATION URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02866838.
Tranexamic Acid in Non-Traumatic Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TANICH II): Introducing the Potential Role of 3 g Tranexamic Acid in Haematoma Reduction
The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS. 2023;30(3):93-102
BACKGROUND Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) can be devastating, particularly if haematoma expansion occurs. The efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic agent, in reducing haematoma expansion is now being studied worldwide. However, the optimal dosage of TXA has yet to be determined. This study was designed to further establish the potential of different doses of TXA. METHODS A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study was carried out among adults with non-traumatic ICH. Eligible study subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 2-g TXA treatment or 3-g TXA treatment. Haematoma volumes before and after intervention were measured using the planimetric method. RESULTS A total of 60 subjects with 20 subjects in each treatment group were recruited for this study. Among the 60 subjects, the majority were male (n = 36, 60%), had known cases of hypertension (n = 43, 71.7%) and presented with full Glasgow coma scale (GCS) (n = 41, 68.3%). The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.315) in the mean changes of haematoma volume when compared with three study groups using ANCOVA, although the 3-g TXA group was the only group that showed haematoma volume reduction (mean reduction of 0.2 cm(3)) instead of expansion as in placebo (mean expansion 1.8 cm(3)) and 2-g TXA (mean expansion 0.3 cm(3)) groups. Good recovery was observed in all study groups, with only three subjects being moderately disabled. No adverse effects were reported in any of the study groups. CONCLUSION To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical study using 3 g of TXA in the management of non-traumatic ICH. From our study, 3 g of TXA may potentially be helpful in reducing haematoma volume. Nonetheless, a larger-scale randomised controlled trial should be carried out to further establish the role of 3 g of TXA in non-traumatic ICH.
The efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Future science OA. 2023;9(6):Fso866
AIM: The efficacy of antifibrinolytics in subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear due to conflicting evidence from studies. MATERIALS & METHODS Online databases were queried to include randomized controlled trials and propensity matched observational studies. We used Review Manager for the statistical analysis, presenting results as odds ratios with 95% CI. RESULTS The 12 shortlisted studies included 3359 patients, of which 1550 (46%) were in the intervention (tranexamic acid) group and 1809 (54%) in the control group. Antifibrinolytic therapy significantly reduced the risk of rebleeding (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.40-0.75; p = 0.0002) with no significant decrease in poor clinical outcome (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86-1.20; p = 0.85) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.92; CI: 0.72-1.17; p = 0.50). CONCLUSION In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, antifibrinolytics reduce the risk of rebleeding without significantly affecting mortality or clinical outcomes.
Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Remote Cerebral Ischemic Lesions in Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Substudy of a Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA neurology. 2022
IMPORTANCE Hyperintense foci on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) that are spatially remote from the acute hematoma occur in 20% of people with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Tranexamic acid, a hemostatic agent that is under investigation for treating acute ICH, might increase DWI hyperintense lesions (DWIHLs). OBJECTIVE To establish whether tranexamic acid compared with placebo increased the prevalence or number of remote cerebral DWIHLs within 2 weeks of ICH onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective nested magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) recruited participants from the multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 RCT (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage [TICH-2]) from July 1, 2015, to September 30, 2017, and conducted follow-up to 90 days after participants were randomized to either the tranexamic acid or placebo group. Participants had acute spontaneous ICH and included TICH-2 participants who provided consent to undergo additional MRI scans for the MRI substudy and those who had clinical MRI data that were compatible with the brain MRI protocol of the substudy. Data analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis on January 20, 2020. INTERVENTIONS The tranexamic acid group received 1 g in 100-mL intravenous bolus loading dose, followed by 1 g in 250-mL infusion within 8 hours of ICH onset. The placebo group received 0.9% saline within 8 hours of ICH onset. Brain MRI scans, including DWI, were performed within 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence and number of remote DWIHLs were compared between the treatment groups using binary logistic regression adjusted for baseline covariates. RESULTS A total of 219 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [13.8] years; 126 men [57.5%]) who had brain MRI data were included. Of these participants, 96 (43.8%) were randomized to receive tranexamic acid and 123 (56.2%) were randomized to receive placebo. No baseline differences in demographic characteristics and clinical or imaging features were found between the groups. There was no increase for the tranexamic acid group compared with the placebo group in DWIHL prevalence (20 of 96 [20.8%] vs 28 of 123 [22.8%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.33-1.53; P = .39) or mean (SD) number of DWIHLs (1.75 [1.45] vs 1.81 [1.71]; mean difference [MD], -0.08; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.20; P = .59). In an exploratory analysis, participants who were randomized within 3 hours of ICH onset or those with chronic infarcts appeared less likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. Participants with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy appeared more likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This substudy of an RCT found no evidence of increased prevalence or number of remote DWIHLs after tranexamic acid treatment in acute ICH. These findings provide reassurance for ongoing and future trials that tranexamic acid for acute ICH is unlikely to induce cerebral ischemic events. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
Antifibrinolytic therapy for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022;11(11):Cd001245
BACKGROUND Rebleeding is an important cause of death and disability in people with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rebleeding is probably related to the dissolution of the blood clot at the site of the aneurysm rupture by natural fibrinolytic activity. This review is an update of previously published Cochrane Reviews. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of antifibrinolytic treatment in people with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (May 2022), CENTRAL (in the Cochrane Library 2021, Issue 1), MEDLINE (December 2012 to May 2022), and Embase (December 2012 to May 2022). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing studies, we searched reference lists and trial registers, performed forward tracking of relevant references, and contacted drug companies (the latter in previous versions of this review). SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised trials comparing oral or intravenous antifibrinolytic drugs (tranexamic acid, epsilon amino-caproic acid, or an equivalent) with control in people with subarachnoid haemorrhage of suspected or proven aneurysmal cause. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors (MRG & WJD) independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted the data for the current update. In total, three review authors (MIB & MRG in the previous update; MRG & WJD in the current update) assessed risk of bias. For the primary outcome, we dichotomised the outcome scales into good and poor outcome, with poor outcome defined as death, vegetative state, or (moderate) severe disability, assessed with either the Glasgow Outcome Scale or the Modified Rankin Scale. We assessed death from any cause, rates of rebleeding, delayed cerebral ischaemia, and hydrocephalus per treatment group. We expressed effects as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used random-effects models for all analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS We included one new trial in this update, for a total of 11 included trials involving 2717 participants. The risk of bias was low in six studies. Five studies were open label, and we rated them at high risk of performance bias. We also rated one of these studies at high risk for attrition and reporting bias. Five trials reported on poor outcome (death, vegetative state, or (moderate) severe disability), with a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.13; P = 0.53; 5 trials, 2359 participants; high-quality evidence), which showed no difference between groups. All trials reported on death from all causes, which showed no difference between groups, with a pooled RR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.16; P = 0.77; 11 trials, 2717 participants; high-quality evidence). In trials that combined short-term antifibrinolytic treatment (< 72 hours) with preventative measures for delayed cerebral ischaemia, the RR for poor outcome was 0.98 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.18; P = 0.83; 2 trials, 1318 participants; high-quality evidence). Antifibrinolytic treatment reduced the risk of rebleeding, reported at the end of follow-up (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.91; P = 0.01; 11 trials, 2717 participants; absolute risk reduction 7%, 95% CI 3 to 12%; moderate-quality evidence), but there was heterogeneity (I² = 59%) between the trials. The pooled RR for delayed cerebral ischaemia was 1.27 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.62; P = 0.05; 7 trials, 2484 participants; moderate-quality evidence). However, this effect was less extreme after the implementation of ischaemia preventative measures and < 72 hours of treatment (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.46; P = 0.49; 2 trials, 1318 participants; high-quality evidence). Antifibrinolytic treatment showed no effect on the reported rate of hydrocephalus (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.20; P = 0.09; 6 trials, 1992 participants; high-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The current evidence does not support the routine use of antifibrinolytic drugs in the treatment of people with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. More specifically, early administration with concomitant treatment strategies to prevent delayed cerebral ischaemia does not improve clinical outcome. There is sufficient evidence from multiple randomised controlled trials to incorporate this conclusion in treatment guidelines.
Tranexamic acid for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 2991 patients
The International journal of neuroscience. 2022;:1-14
OBJECTIVE We aimed to synthesize evidence from published clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS We followed the standard methods of the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews for interventions and the PRISMA statement guidelines 2020 when conducting and reporting this study. A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted from inception until 1 January 2022. We selected observational studies and clinical trials comparing TXA versus no TXA in aSAH patients. Data of all outcomes were pooled as the risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals in the meta-analysis models. RESULTS Thirteen studies with a total of 2991 patients were included in the analysis. TXA could significantly cut the risk of rebleeding (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.72) and mortality from rebleeding (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92, p = 0.02). However, TXA did not significantly improve the overall mortality, neurological outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, or hydrocephalus (all p > 0.05). In terms of safety, no significant adverse events were reported. No statistical heterogeneity or publication bias was found in all outcomes. CONCLUSION In patients with aSAH, TXA significantly reduces the incidence of rebleeding and mortality from rebleeding. However, current evidence does not support any benefits in overall mortality, neurological outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, or hydrocephalus.
Analysis of Relapse by Inflammatory Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale Status in the PATH Study of Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Clinical trials in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) often assess efficacy using the ordinal Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score. Here, data from the PATH study was reanalyzed using change in Inflammatory Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (I-RODS) to define CIDP relapse instead of INCAT. METHODS The PATH study comprised an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) dependency period and an IVIG (IgPro10 [Privigen®]) restabilization period; subjects were then randomized to weekly maintenance subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG; IgPro20 [Hizentra®]) 0.2 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg or placebo for 24 weeks. CIDP relapse was defined as ≥1-point deterioration in adjusted INCAT, with a primary endpoint of relapse or withdrawal rates. This retrospective exploratory analysis redefined relapse using I-RODS via three different cut-off methods: an individual variability method, fixed cut-off of ≥8-point deterioration on I-RODS centile score or ≥4-point deterioration on I-RODS raw score. RESULTS Relapse or withdrawal rates were 47% for placebo, 34% for 0.2 g/kg IgPro20 and 19% for 0.4 g/kg IgPro20 using the raw score; 40%, 28% and 15%, respectively using the centile score, and 49%, 40% and 27%, respectively using the individual variability method. INTERPRETATION IgPro20 was shown to be efficacious as a maintenance therapy for CIDP when relapse was defined using I-RODS. A stable response pattern was shown for I-RODS across various applied cut-offs, indicating that any could be used in future clinical trials.
Tranexamic Acid After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Post-Hoc Analysis of the ULTRA Trial
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The ULTRA-trial showed that ultra-early and short-term tranexamic acid treatment after subarachnoid hemorrhage did not improve clinical outcome at six months. An expected proportion of the included patients had non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage In this post-hoc study, we will investigate whether ultra-early and short-term tranexamic acid treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage improves clinical outcome at six months. METHODS The ULTRA-trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment, conducted between July 24, 2013 and January 20, 2020. After confirmation of subarachnoid hemorrhage on non-contrast computer tomography, patients were allocated to either ultra-early and short-term tranexamic acid treatment with usual care, or usual care only. In this post-hoc analysis, we included all ULTRA-participants with a confirmed aneurysm on CT angiography and/or digital subtraction angiography. The primary endpoint was clinical outcome at six months, assessed by the modified Rankin Scale, dichotomized into good (0-3) and poor (4-6) outcome. RESULTS Of the 813 ULTRA-trial patients who had an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 409 (50%) were assigned to the tranexamic acid group and 404 (50%) to the control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 233 of 405 (58%) patients in the tranexamic acid group and 238 of 399 (60%) patients in the control group had a good clinical outcome (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·92; 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 0·69 to 1·24). None of the secondary outcomes showed significant differences between the treatment groups: excellent clinical outcome (mRS 0-2) aOR 0.76, 95% C.I. 0.57-1.03, all-cause mortality at 30 days aOR 0.91, 95% C.I. 0.65-1.28), all-cause mortality at six months aOR 1.10 (95% C.I. 0.80-1.52). DISCUSSION Ultra-early and short-term tranexamic acid treatment did not improve clinical outcome at six months in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and therefore, cannot be recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02684812; submission date February 18, 2016, first patient enrollment on July 24(th), 2013). CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE This study provides Class II evidence that tranexamic acid does not improve outcomes in patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:790149
Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce rebleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, whether it can reduce mortality and improve clinical outcomes is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tranexamic acid in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from inception to March 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tranexamic acid and placebo in adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook, and the quality of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE approach. This meta-analysis included 13 RCTs, involving 2,888 patients. In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage tranexamic acid had no significant effect on all-cause mortality (RR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.84-1.10, p = 0.55, I (2) = 44%) or poor functional outcome (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.95-1.15, p = 0.41) compared with the control group. However, risk of rebleeding was significantly lower (RR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.43-0.80, p = 0.0007, I (2) = 53%). There were no significant differences in other adverse events between tranexamic acid and control treatments, including cerebral ischemia (RR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.95-1.46, p = 0.15, I (2) = 53%). At present, routine use of tranexamic acid after subarachnoid hemorrhage cannot be recommended. For a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is essential to obliterate the aneurysm as early as possible. Additional higher-quality studies are needed to further assess the effect of tranexamic acid on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.