Evaluating the Effect of Tranexamic Acid Local Injection on the Intraoperative Bleeding Amount and the Postoperative Edema and Ecchymosis in Primary Rhinoplasty Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Aesthetic plastic surgery. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The purpose of this study was assessing the effect of local injection of tranexamic acid (TXA) on the amount of bleeding during the primary rhinoplasty and edema and ecchymosis following the surgery. METHODS In this randomized clinical trial, 50 patients applying for primary rhinoplasty were divided into two groups of intervention and observation. In the intervention group, 10 mg/kg of TXA was injected locally to the operation field. In the observation group, no medicine was injected. The same anesthesia technique was used during the operation for all the patients. Age, sex, blood pressure, bleeding amount during the operation, the amount of edema and ecchymosis on the first and seventh day after the surgery were noted. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 24 and using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage of frequency and Fisher and Mann-Whitney's exact statistical tests. RESULTS Our results showed that there was a significant difference between the amounts of bleeding during the surgery between two groups (P-value < 0.001). Also, the postoperative edema on the first and seventh day in intervention group was less than the observation group (P-value < 0.001). There were no complications during the surgery and in the follow-up of the patients. CONCLUSION We revealed that local injection of TXA during the rhinoplasty procedure and decreased the intraoperative bleeding and postoperative ecchymosis and edema without any side effects and complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Tranexamic Acid Irrigation in Liposuction: A Double-Blind, Half-Body, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 2023
BACKGROUND Hematomas are common complications following plastic and esthetic surgeries. Large and complex hematomas might result in prolonged hospitalization, further interventions, additional expenses, and poor esthetic outcome. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has long been used to reduce blood loss. Its use in the field of plastic surgery has gained popularity recently. Several studies have presented the ability of TXA to reduce blood loss, hematomas, and ecchymoses after liposuctions. However, the proper dose and the route of administration remained controversial. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of a low dose of TXA in an irrigation method in reducing hematomas and ecchymoses following liposuction. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Following liposuction, 400 mg of TXA were administered in an irrigation protocol to one side of the body in each patient, while the other side was administered with saline. The patients were photographed on 1, 2, 4, and 11 post-operative days. Ecchymosis and hematoma were measured and rated. RESULTS No statistical difference was observed between the intervention and control groups in terms of RBC in liposuction area (p = 0.11), RBC in lipoaspirate (p = 0.79), bruising size on days 1, 2, 4, and 11 (p = 0.68, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.75), and average ecchymosis score on the same days (p = 0.34, 0.72, 0.09, and 1) CONCLUSIONS The use of a low-dose TXA irrigation solution did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in post-operative hematoma formations rates and subsequent ecchymosis size and scale. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Tranexamic acid in rhytidectomy: a scoping review
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2023;85(10):4964-4968
BACKGROUND Intraoperative and postoperative bleeding is considered one of the most common risks in rhytidectomy. Recently, the use of antifibrinolytic agents in facial plastic and reconstructive surgeries has been evaluated, but their use in rhytidectomy remains a topic of ongoing discussion. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent that prevents enzymatic degradation of the fibrin clot by blocking the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, improves platelet function, and has a direct anti-inflammatory effect. This review covers pertinent literature to elucidate whether the use of TXA in rhytidectomy confers intraoperative and postoperative benefits. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted in online databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science for all articles on the topic of TXA in facelift published up to and including June, 2023 using the following terms: "TXA," "tranexamic acid," "plastic surgery," "aesthetic surgery," "facelift," "rhytidectomy". They were either searched individually or in combination. All relevant original research articles, of any study design were included and narratively discussed in this review. Studies not carried out in humans and studies centred on the use of TXA in other specialties were excluded. English Language was included. RESULTS Eight articles were reviewed in this paper. Through these articles, the authors provided in detail the possible beneficial effects of TXA in facelift patients in evaluating several clinical outcomes: intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drain output, postoperative oedema, ecchymosis, operative time, and surgical field quality. CONCLUSION Although there is still a lack of information on TXA in facelift patients, we are not able to deny the beneficial effects of TXA on this topic. Therefore, further investigations including prospective, case-controlled multi-institutional studies comparing routes of delivery should be performed until reaching, at the end, an evidence-based guideline providing a clear protocol in terms of the administration and dosage of TXA in facelift.
A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Facelift Surgery
Aesthetic surgery journal. 2023
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has become widely utilized in different specialities including facelift surgery. To robustly evaluate the quality of available evidence on the efficacy and safety of TXA use in facelift surgery. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Google Scholar, Science Citation Index and LILAC databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies. Primary outcomes were blood loss, post-operative hematoma, ecchymosis, and swelling, in addition to technical considerations and complications. We assessed reviews quality using the AMSTAR 2 tool, studies quality using GRADE, and risk of bias using Cochrane's Risk of Bias tool for RCTs and ROBINS-I for non-randomized studies. Of the 368 articles, a total of three studies including 150 patients met the inclusion criteria. The RCT reported a significant reduction in postoperative serosanguineous collections in the TXA group (p < 0.01), and the surgeon rated postoperative ecchymosis and bruising. The prospective cohort study reported reduced drainage output in first 24 hours in the TXA group (P < 0.01). The retrospective cohort study reported lower intraoperative blood loss, mean POD1 drain output, percentage of drain removal on POD1 and number of days to drain removal the TXA group (all, p < 0.01). The quality of studies was moderate, and this review was the highest rated compared to previous reviews, as per the AMSTAR2 tool. Based on limited literature, TXA improves clinical outcomes regardless of the route of administration. Topical TXA is an emerging route, expediting drain removal and reducing blood loss. Future Level I high-quality studies are required.
Effectiveness of Tranexamic Acid in Orthognathic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews
Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2023;:101592
PURPOSE This study aimed to review the currently available evidence on the effectiveness of administering tranexamic acid (TXA) to patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. METHODS A study protocol was developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Guideline for Overviews of Reviews (PRIOR) and registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under Registration No. CRD42021232931. Furthermore, the reporting of the present systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA checklist. RESULTS The search strategy yielded a total of 50 articles. After reading the abstracts, 28 articles were excluded, and the English full texts of the remaining 22 studies were separately examined for eligibility by two authors; 15 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Finally, seven systematic reviews and meta-analysis satisfied the criteria for inclusion and were processed for critical review evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Within the limits of the present study and the reviews of the 7 articles included, it is observed that TXA is able to reduce the amount of intraoperative blood loss and the amount of irrigation fluids required. However, it does not influence postoperative levels of hemoglobin or hematocrit, nor does it affect the requirement for blood transfusions. It was interestingly discovered that TXA could increase the quality of the surgical site. These data imply that TXA may be an effective adjuvant in lowering bleeding during orthognathic surgery. As a result, the potential risk of problems related with considerable blood loss may be minimized.
The Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
The Journal of craniofacial surgery. 2023
This study aimed to evaluate the use of tranexamic acid in craniomaxillofacial surgery by meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) mainly in 3 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) before August 2022. We collected and managed data for weighted mean difference of intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirement, and operation time for the study. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Compared with the control group, the tranexamic acid group showed a reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 198.67 ml (95% CI: -258.84 to -138.50 ml, P<0.00001), with blood transfusion requirement decreased by 7.77 ml/kg (95% CI: -10.80 to -4.73, P<0.0001) and less operation time (weighted mean difference= -10.39 min; 95% CI: -16.49 to -4.30 min, P=0.0008).
Risk of bleeding in anticoagulated patients undergoing dental extraction treated with topical tranexamic acid compared to collagen-gelatin sponge: Randomized clinical trial
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2023;51(6):393-398
This two-arm, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized clinical trial design evaluated the risk of postoperative bleeding in anticoagulated patients undergoing dental extraction treated with topical TXA in comparison to collagen-gelatin sponge. Forty patients were randomly included in one of the study groups: (1) topical use of 4.8% TXA solution; and (2) resorbable hydrolyzed collagen-gelatin sponge applied to the surgical alveolus. Primary outcomes were postoperative bleeding episodes and secondary outcomes were thromboembolic events and postoperative INR values. The relative risk (RR), the absolute risk reduction (RAR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) were used as effect estimates and calculated from the counting of bleeding episodes observed during the first postoperative week. The bleeding rate under the TXA treatment was 22.2%, while in the collagen-gelatin sponge group it was 45.7%, resulting in a RR of 0.49 (95% CI 0.24-099; p = 0.046), RAR 23.5% and NNT 4.3. TXA was more effective in reducing bleeding in surgical sites located in the mandible (RR = 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.71; p = 0.021) and the posterior region (RR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.18-0.84; p = 0.016). Within the limitations of the study it seems that topical TXA is more effective in controlling bleeding after tooth extractions in anticoagulated patients than collagen-gelatin sponge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION RBR-83qw93.
Local Tranexamic Acid for Preventing Hemorrhage in Anticoagulated Patients Undergoing Dental and Minor Oral Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;10(12)
Dental procedures have posed challenges in managing anticoagulated patients due to early reports of oral hemorrhage. This study aims to evaluate the risks of postoperative bleeding with the local application of tranexamic acid. A systematic search was conducted until 31 March 2022, with keywords including tranexamic acid, oral hemorrhage, dental, and/or coagulation. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane Library. Statistical analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.4. In total, 430 patients were pooled in with the local application of tranexamic acid using mouthwash, irrigation, and compression with a gauze/gauze pad. The mean age was 61.8 years in the intervention group and 58.7 in the control group. Only 4 patients in the intervened group out of the 210 discontinued the trial due to non-drug-related adverse events. The risk difference was computed as -0.07 (p = 0.05), meaning that patients administered with local antifibrinolytic therapy for postoperative bleeding reduction for dental procedures were at a 7% less risk of oral bleeding. Current evidence on managing anticoagulated patients undergoing dental or oral procedures remains unclear. The present study presents favorable outcomes of postoperative bleeding with local tranexamic acid used in the postoperative period.
Efficacy of tranexamic acid in prevention of alveolar osteitis following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar
National journal of maxillofacial surgery. 2022;13(Suppl 1):S85-s90
CONTEXT Many preventive measures are described to avoid alveolar osteitis (AO) during third molar surgery (TMS), but very few are found to be effective. Tranexamic acid (TA), an antifibrinolytic agent, impedes the proteolytic degradation of fibrin and prevents blood clot disintegration. AIMS The study was conducted to determine the efficacy of intra-alveolar application of TA soaked in Gelfoam in prevention of AO. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This was a randomized control trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 200 patients (100 in control group and 100 in study group) reporting for TMS were allocated randomly. Following surgery, TA soaked in gel foam was placed in socket and sutured in the study group, while in the control group, closure was done by suturing. Patients followed subsequently to observe the incidence of AO, pain severity, and duration of healing after AO. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Z-test, Mann-Whitney test, and t-test were applied, respectively, to compare the incidence of AO, severity of pain, and duration of healing between the two groups. RESULTS The incidence of AO in the control group was 18% and 6% in the study group. Patients in the control group experienced severe pain as compared to patients in the study group. The duration of healing varied from 12 to 16 days in the control group, but in the study group, it was <10 days. CONCLUSION TA significantly reduces the incidence of AO in addition to the reduced severity of pain and enhanced healing. We recommend the routine use of TA, owing to its astonishing rewards.
World Workshop on Oral Medicine VII: Bleeding control interventions for invasive dental procedures in patients with inherited functional platelet disorders: A systematic review
Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. 2021
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to determine bleeding control interventions (BCIs) that were reported to be effective in controlling postoperative bleeding in patients with inherited functional platelet disorders (IFPDs) undergoing invasive dental procedures. STUDY DESIGN We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library (Wiley), and Scopus from 1960 through April 2020 for studies on patients with IFPD undergoing invasive dental procedures. Two reviewers conducted assessments independently. RESULTS We found a total of 620 nonduplicate published articles, of which 32 studies met our inclusion criteria. Management with BCI in patients with IFPD included in this systematic review was effective in 80.7% of treatment sessions. Local measures used intraoperatively were found to be effective. Three different protocols of BCI were noted; the most effective protocol consisted of antifibrinolytics, scaffold/matrix agents, and sutures (P < .01). An adjunct protocol consisting of a tissue sealant was also effective (P < .01). A third protocol of platelet transfusion and antifibrinolytics was ineffective in controlling postoperative bleeding in 4 of 6 dental sessions. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review supports the use of local measures intraoperatively and antifibrinolytics postoperatively. It also supports making decision regarding platelet transfusion based on the clinician's clinical judgment and medical history of the individual patient.