The efficacy of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy: An Updated Meta-Analysis
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2021;:34894211045264
OBJECTIVE There is controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing tonsillectomy-related hemorrhage. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prophylactic role of TXA in tonsillectomy. METHODS We searched 6 databases to identify studies that directly compare the effect of TXA versus controls in tonsillectomy patients. Standardized mean difference was applied to summate the findings across the studies. Dichotomous data were expressed as relative risk. RESULTS Ten studies representing a total of 111 898 patients were included. The pooled results showed a significant reduction of intraoperative blood loss by 39.02 ml (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.20, P = .016) and the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (RR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.65, P < .0001), with no significant difference in reduction of further intervention risk (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.35, P = .373). CONCLUSIONS Overall, this study indicates that TXA may reduce blood loss and frequency of post-operative hemorrhage associated with tonsillectomy. Further large, high-quality clinical trials are still needed to explore TXA's effect on post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage and the safety of its use.
Tranexamic Acid in sinus and nasal surgery: an up-to-date meta-analysis
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-25
Role of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Edema and Ecchymosis in Primary Elective Rhinoplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA facial plastic surgery. 2019
Importance: Blood loss from surgical procedures is a major issue worldwide as the demand for blood products is increasing. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent commonly used to reduce intraoperative blood loss. Objective: To systematically examine the role of tranexamic acid in reducing intraoperative blood loss and postoperative edema and ecchymosis among patients undergoing primary elective rhinoplasty. Data Sources: A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken in an academic medical setting using Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar from inception to June 30, 2018. All references of included articles were screened for potential inclusion. The search was mapped to Medical Subject Headings, and the following terms were used to identify potential articles: reconstruction or rhinoplasty and tranexamic acid or anti-fibrinolysis or antifibrinolysis and bleeding or ecchymosis or bruising or edema or complications. Study Selection: The population of interest consisted of adult patients undergoing primary elective rhinoplasty. The intervention was the use of tranexamic acid. The control group was composed of patients receiving a placebo. Primary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss and postoperative edema and ecchymosis. In vitro or animal studies were excluded, and only English-language articles were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The PRISMA guidelines were followed, and articles were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall effect size. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss and postoperative edema and ecchymosis. Results: Five studies (comprising 332 patients) were included in the qualitative analysis, all of which were randomized clinical trials published within the past 5 years. The mean (SD) patient age was 27 (7) years (age range, 16-42 years), while the mean (SD) sample size was 66 (19) (range, 50-96). Meta-analysis of 4 studies (271 patients) indicated that tranexamic acid treatment resulted in a mean reduction in intraoperative blood loss of -41.6 mL (95% CI, -69.8 to -13.4 mL) compared with controls (P = .004). Three studies indicated that postoperative edema and ecchymosis were reduced with tranexamic acid treatment compared with controls; however, there was no significant difference compared with corticosteroid use. Four studies were considered of high methodological quality, with a low risk of bias. The overall quality of evidence was high. Conclusions and Relevance: Tranexamic acid has the ability to significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative edema and ecchymosis among patients undergoing primary elective rhinoplasty. Level of Evidence: 4.
Does topical application of tranexamic acid reduce intraoperative bleeding in sinus surgery during general anesthesia?
Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2019
INTRODUCTION Tranexamic acid is a hemostatic agent, which inhibits fibrin degradation, which may be beneficial in controlling bleeding during surgery. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to provide a meta-analysis and review of the effects of tranexamic acid on hemorrhage and surgical fields and side effects on patients during endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS Two authors independently searched six databases (Medline, SCOPUS, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library) from the start of article collection until July 2018. Postoperative complications such as intraoperative bleeding, operative time, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and coagulation profile were included in the analysis of tranexamic acid (Treatment Group) and placebo (Control Group) during the operation. RESULTS The amount of blood loss during surgery was statistically lower in the treatment group compared to the placebo group, and the surgical field quality was statistically higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in operation time, hemodynamics, or coagulation profile between groups. In addition, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on vomiting and thrombosis compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis has shown that topical administration of tranexamic acid can reduce the amount of bleeding during surgery and improve the overall quality of the surgery. Hemodynamic instability during surgery, vomiting after surgery, or abnormal clotting profile were not reported. Additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this study because there are fewer studies.
Tranexamic Acid Decreases Blood Transfusion Burden in Open Craniosynostosis Surgery Without Operative Compromise
The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2018;30((1):):120-126.
In the surgical management of craniosynostosis, there is a high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion burden due to the small blood volume of the patients combined with significant blood loss that can occur with open surgery (OS). Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic which has been shown to decrease such a burden in particular surgeries. The aim of this study was to compare the operative outcomes of craniosynostosis OS which did and did not utilize TXA. Searches of 7 electronic databases from inception to February 2018 were conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. There were 206 articles screened against selection criteria for inclusion. Relevant data were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis of proportions. A total of 9 comparative studies were included for meta-analysis. Compared with the control cohort, craniosynostosis OS utilizing TXA demonstrated significantly lower intraoperative RBC transfusion volumes (mean difference, -8.25 mL/kg; P < 0.001), blood loss (mean difference, -10.96 mL/kg; P < 0.001) and postoperative RBC transfusion incidence (odds ratio, OR, 0.12; P = 0.005). Fresh frozen plasma and crystalloid transfusion, operation time, length of stay, and complications were not significantly different with TXA use. Based on the comparative evidence currently available, TXA significantly decreased RBC transfusion burden during craniosynostosis OS without operative compromise. There is significant heterogeneity in reported TXA regimes in the literature. Future studies that are larger, randomized, and account for these factors will further enhance the authors' understanding.
Efficacy of tranexamic acid on operative bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review
The Laryngoscope. 2018
OBJECTIVES Tranexamic acid might help control bleeding during surgery because of antifibrinolytic characteristics. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of systemic tranexamic acid compared to control in blood loss, operative time, and surgical field and incidence of postoperative emesis and thromboembolism in endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS Two authors independently searched six databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane database) from their inception to July 2018. The included studies compared perioperative tranexamic acid administration (treatment group) with a placebo, and the outcomes of interest were intraoperative morbidities, including surgical time, operative bleeding, and hypotension; postoperative morbidities such as nausea and vomiting; and coagulation profiles. RESULTS Seven studies comprising 562 participants were reviewed in this study. Operative time (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI)[-0.93, -0.29]) and intraoperative blood loss (SMD = -0.66; 95% CI [-0.86, -0.46]) were statistically lower in the treatment group than placebo group; and the quality of the surgical field (SMD = -0.80; 95% CI [-1.12; -0.48]) and surgeon satisfaction (SMD = 1.74; 95% CI [1.36; 2.13]) were statistically higher in the treatment group than the placebo group. By contrast, there were no significant differences in the hemodynamic (SMD = 0.08; 95% CI [-0.20; 0.37]) and coagulation profiles (SMD = -0.18; 95% CI [-0.42, 0.07]) of the two groups. Additionally, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on emetic or thrombotic events compared to placebo. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis showed that the systemic administration of tranexamic acid could decrease operative time and blood loss intraoperatively, increasing the satisfaction of surgeons. It did not provoke intraoperative hemodynamic instability, postoperative emetic events, or coagulation profile abnormality. Only a small number of studies were enrolled, so further trials are needed to confirm the results of this study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IA. Laryngoscope, 2018.
Preoperative Tranexamic Acid for Treatment of Bleeding, Edema, and Ecchymosis in Patients Undergoing Rhinoplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA Otolaryngology-- Head & Neck Surgery. 2018;144((9)):816-823.
Importance: Evidence has emerged on the efficacy of tranexamic acid to control blood loss and postoperative complications after rhinoplasty. Objective: To investigate the results of tranexamic acid use to reduce intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema, and periorbital ecchymosis in rhinoplasty. Data Sources and Study Selection: For this systematic review of randomized clinical trials, searches were performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Google Scholar, OpenThesis, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to December 23, 2017. Key words included tranexamic acid, rhinoplasty, and nasal surgical procedures. The following elements were used to define eligibility criteria: (1) population: patients undergoing rhinoplasty surgery; (2) intervention and controls: tranexamic acid vs placebo solution or no-treatment control group; (3) outcomes: intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema and periorbital ecchymosis, and thromboembolic events; and (4) study type: randomized clinical trials. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality according to the Cochrane guidelines for randomized clinical trials. Treatment effects were defined as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CIs. The strength of evidence was analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation rating system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema and periorbital ecchymosis. To calculate the effect sizes, means and SDs were obtained for each study group and outcome of interest. Results: Five studies comprising 276 patients were included in the systematic review: 177 patients (64.1%) were women, and mean age was 26.8 (range, 16-42) years. Four studies comprising 246 patients estimated the amount in intraoperative bleeding as a primary outcome and were included in the meta-analysis. Eyelid edema and ecchymosis were evaluated as outcomes in 2 studies. Tranexamic acid was associated with reduced bleeding during rhinoplasty was found (WMD, -42.28 mL; 95% CI, -70.36 to -14.21 mL), with differences (P = .01) between oral (WMD, -61.70 mL; 95% CI, -83.02 to -40.39 mL; I2 = 0%) and intravenous (WMD, -23.88 mL; 95% CI, -45.19 to -2.58 mL; I2 = 56%) administration. Eyelid edema and ecchymosis scores in patients receiving tranexamic acid were significantly lower compared with the control group within the first postoperative week: lower eyelid edema, WMD, -0.76; 95% CI, -1.04 to -0.49 and lower eyelid ecchymosis, WMD, -0.94; 95% CI, -1.80 to -0.08. No cases of thromboembolic events were reported. Conclusions and Relevance: Current available evidence suggests that preoperative administration of tranexamic acid is safe and may reduce intraoperative bleeding as well as postoperative eyelid edema and ecchymosis in patients undergoing rhinoplasty.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of tranexamic acid in tonsillectomy
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 2013;270((2):):735-48.
Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage is a serious complication that can lead to death despite the fact that tonsillectomy is one of the commonest procedures performed in otolaryngology. Post-operative haemorrhage can be reduced by a potent antifibrinolytic agent such as tranexamic acid (TXA). This systematic review aims to evaluate the role of TXA in tonsillectomy. Searches were performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently by two reviewers. Mean difference (MD) in volume of blood loss was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk ratios (RR) with 95% CI were computed using random effects for the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage. This review identified and included a total of seven studies. Two studies (n=180) compared the effects of TXA on volume of blood loss. Meta-analysis of these studies showed a significant decrease in the mean blood loss of 32.72ml (95% CI -42.66 to -22.78, p<0.00001). Five studies (n=1,670) compared the number of patients with post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage between TXA and control groups. TXA does not reduce the number of patients with post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage significantly (RR=0.51, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.07, p=0.08). TXA led to a significant reduction of tonsillectomy blood loss volume but had no impact on the rate of patients with post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage. This systematic review demonstrated that most studies were conducted before 1980; therefore, a new, large and well-designed randomised controlled trial is needed to investigate the risks and benefits of TXA. Systematic Review
Role of tranexamic acid in endoscopic sinus surgery - A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND The role of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is not clearly defined. The aim of our study is to systematically review the existing evidence on the role of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing ESS. METHODOLOGY Systematic search of MEDLINE (1950 - 2013), EMBASE (1980 - 2013), metaRegister, Cochrane Library and ISI conference proceedings was carried out. RESULTS Five randomised controlled trials with 192 patients receiving tranexamic acid and 196 controls were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated that mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower, and surgical field quality was significantly better in tranexamic acid group. There was no significant difference in mean operative time between the two groups. No significant adverse effects were noted in either of the groups. CONCLUSION Intra-operative use of local and systemic tranexamic acid in ESS, results in significantly reduced estimated blood loss and improved surgical field quality. There is no statistically significant difference seen in operative time and incidence of side effects. Well-conducted larger RCTs using validated objective outcome measures and reporting on minor and major complications are required.