Should Cell Salvage be Used in Liver Resection and Transplantation? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Annals of surgery. 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion (IBSA) use on red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and postoperative outcomes in liver surgery. BACKGROUND Intraoperative RBC transfusions are common in liver surgery and associated with increased morbidity. IBSA can be utilized to minimize allogeneic transfusion. A theoretical risk of cancer dissemination has limited IBSA adoption in oncologic surgery. METHODS Electronic databases were searched from inception until May 2021. All studies comparing IBSA use to control in liver surgery were included. Screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted independently, in duplicate. The primary outcome was intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion (proportion of patients and volume of blood transfused). Core secondary outcomes included: overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), transfusion-related complications, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization costs. Data from transplant and resection studies were analyzed separately. Random effects models were used for meta-analysis. RESULTS Twenty-one observational studies were included (16 transplant, 5 resection, n=3,433 patients). Seventeen studies incorporated oncologic indications. In transplant, IBSA was associated with decreased allogeneic RBC transfusion (MD -1.81, 95% CI[-3.22, -0.40], P=0.01, I2=86%, very-low certainty). Few resection studies reported on transfusion for meta-analysis. No significant difference existed in OS or DFS in liver transplant (HR=1.12[0.75, 1.68], P=0.59, I2=0%; HR=0.93[0.57, 1.48], P=0.75, I2=0%) and liver resection (HR=0.69[0.45, 1.05], P=0.08, I2=0%; HR=0.93[0.59, 1.45], P=0.74, I2=0%). CONCLUSION IBSA may reduce intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion without compromising oncologic outcomes. The current evidence base is limited in size and quality, and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed.
Patients undergoing oncologic and non-oncologic liver surgery (either resection or transplantation), (21 studies, n= 3,433).
Any intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion (IBSA) device.
No IBSA use.
Data from transplant and resection studies were analyzed separately. Despite significant heterogeneity, most studies reported lower rates and volumes of intraoperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing IBSA. In transplant, IBSA was associated with decreased allogeneic red blood cell transfusion (mean difference: -1.81, very-low certainty). Few resection studies reported on transfusion for meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in overall survival or disease-free survival in liver transplant and liver resection.
The Effect of Cell Salvage on Bleeding and Transfusion Needs in Cardiac Surgery
Anesthesiology research and practice. 2022;2022:3993452
INTRODUCTION Cell salvaging is well established in the blood management of cardiac patients, but there remain some concerns about its effects on perioperative bleeding and transfusion variables. This randomized controlled study investigated the potential effects of the centrifuged end-product on bleeding, transfusion rates, and other transfusion-related variables in adult cardiac surgery patients submitted to extracorporeal circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were randomly chosen to receive (cell-salvage group, 99 patients) or not to receive (control group, 110 patients) the centrifuged product of a cell salvage apparatus. Bleeding and transfusion rates according to the universal definition of perioperative bleeding (UDPB) classification, postoperative hemoglobin, coagulation, and oxygenation indices were recorded and compared between the groups. RESULTS Both groups had almost identical bleeding and transfusion rates (median value: 2 units of red blood cells (RBC) and no units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets (PLT) for both groups, p > 0.05). Patients in the cell-salvage group presented slightly higher hemoglobin concentrations (10.6 ± 1.1 vs. 10.1 ± 1.7 g/dL, p < 0.05, respectively) and a tendency towards better oxygenation indices (P(a)O(2)/F(i)O(2): 241 ± 94 vs. 207 ± 84, p=0.013) in the postoperative period albeit with a tendency for prolongation of prothrombin time (INR: 1.31 ± 0.18 vs. 1.26 ± 0.12, p=0.008). CONCLUSION Within the study's constraints, the perioperative use of the cell salvage concentrate does not seem to affect bleeding or transfusion variables, although it could probably ameliorate postoperative oxygenation in adult cardiac surgery patients. A tendency to promote coagulation disturbances was detected.
Effect of Autotransfusion in HCC Surgery on Survival and Recurrence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND The chronic blood shortage has forced clinicians to seek alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusions during surgery. Due to anatomic uniqueness resulting in a vast vasculature, liver surgery can lead to significant blood loss, and an estimated 30% of patients require blood transfusions in major hepatectomy. Allogeneic transfusion harbors the risk of an immunologic reaction. However, the hesitation to reinfuse a patient's own blood during cancer surgery is reinforced by the potentiality of reintroducing and disseminating tumor cells into an individual undergoing curative treatment. Two methods of autotransfusions are common: autotransfusion after preoperative blood donation and intraoperative blood salvage (IBS). We aim to investigate the effect of autotransfusion on recurrence and survival rates of patients undergoing surgery for HCC. METHODS The protocol for this meta-analysis was registered at PROSPERO prior to data extraction. MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for publications on liver surgery and blood salvage (autologous transfusion or intraoperative blood salvage). Comparative studies were included. Outcomes focused on long-term oncologic status and mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) estimated outcomes with a fixed-effects model. Risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I, and certainty of evidence was evaluated with GRADE. Separate analyses were performed for liver transplantation and hepatectomies. RESULTS Fifteen studies were included in the analysis (nine on transplantation and six on hepatectomies), and they comprised 2052 patients. Overall survival was comparable between patients who received intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) or not for liver transplantation (HR 1.13, 95% CI [0.89, 1.42] p = 0.31). Disease-free survival also was comparable (HR 0.97, 95% CI [0.76, 1.24], p = 0.83). Autotransfusion after prior donation was predominantly used in hepatectomy. Patients who received autotransfusion had a significantly better overall survival than the control (HR 0.71, 95% CI [0.58, 0.88], p = 0.002). Disease-free survival was also significantly higher in patients with autotransfusion (HR 0.88, 95% CI [0.80, 0.96], p = 0.005). Although overall, the certainty of evidence is low and included studies exhibited methodological heterogeneity, the heterogeneity of outcomes was low to moderate. CONCLUSION Autotransfusion, including intraoperative blood salvage, does not adversely affect the overall or disease-free survival of patients with HCC undergoing resection or transplantation. The results of this meta-analysis justify a randomized-controlled trial regarding the feasibility and potential benefits of autotransfusion in HCC surgery.
Patients undergoing liver surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma (15 studies, n= 2,052).
Autologous transfusion (including intraoperative blood salvage).
No autologous transfusion.
Overall survival was comparable between patients who received intraoperative blood salvage or not for liver transplantation (Hazard ratio (HR): 1.13, 95% CI: 0.89-1.42). Disease-free survival also was comparable (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76-1.24). Autotransfusion after prior donation was predominantly used in hepatectomy. Patients who received autotransfusion had a significantly better overall survival than the control (HR, 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58-0.88). Disease-free survival was also significantly higher in patients with autotransfusion (HR, 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.96). Although overall, the certainty of evidence is low and included studies exhibited methodological heterogeneity, the heterogeneity of outcomes was low to moderate.
Effect of intraoperative cell rescue on bleeding related indexes after cesarean section
World journal of clinical cases. 2022;10(8):2439-2446
BACKGROUND Obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally, especially in China. The key to a successful rescue is immediate and rapid blood transfusion. Autotransfusion has become an integral part of clinical blood transfusion, with intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS) being the most widely used. AIM: To investigate the application of IOCS in cesarean section. METHODS A total of 87 patients who underwent cesarean section and blood transfusion in our hospital from March 2015 to June 2020 were included in this prospective controlled study. They were divided into the observation (43 cases) and control (44 cases) groups using the random number table method. The patients in both groups underwent lower-segment cesarean section. The patients in the control group were treated with traditional allogeneic blood transfusion, whereas those in the observation group were treated with IOCS. Hemorheology [Red blood cell count, platelet volume, and fibrinogen (FIB)] and coagulation function (partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, and activated coagula-tion time) were measured before and 24 h after transfusion. In the two groups, adverse reactions, such as choking and dyspnea, within 2 h after cesarean section were observed. RESULTS Before and after transfusion, no significant differences in hemorheology and coagulation function indices between the two groups were observed (P > 0.05). About 24 h after transfusion, the erythrocyte count, platelet ratio, and FIB value significantly decreased in the two groups (P < 0.05); the PLT value significantly decreased in the two groups; the activated partial thromboplastin time, PT, and activated clotting time significantly increased in the two groups (P < 0.05); and no statistical differences were observed in hemorheology and coagulation function indices between the two groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION In patients undergoing cesarean section, intraoperative cell salvage has a minimum effect on hemorheology and coagulation function and does not increase the risk of amniotic fluid embolism.
The neurocognitive outcomes of hemodilution in adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2022;25(2):133-140
OBJECTIVE The study aimed to evaluate the effect of mild and moderate hemodilution during CPB on the neurocognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DESIGN A randomized clinical study. SETTING Cardiac center. PATIENTS 186 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTION The patients were classified into 2 groups (each = 93), Mild hemodilution group: The hematocrit value was maintained >25% by transfusion of packed-red blood cells plus hemofiltration during CPB. Moderate hemodilution group: the hematocrit value was maintained within the range of 21-25%. MEASUREMENTS The monitors included the hemofiltrated volume, number of transfused packed red blood cells, and the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. MAIN RESULTS The hemofiltrated volume during CPB was too much higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The number of the transfused packed red blood cells during CPB was higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001), but after CPB, the number of the transfused packed red blood cells was lower with the mild hemodilution group than the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The incidence of total postoperative neurological complications was significantly lower with the mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.033). The incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction was significantly lower with mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS The mild hemodilution was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction compared to moderate hemodilution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Also, the transfused packed red blood cells increased during CPB and decreased after CPB with the mild hemodilution than moderate hemodilution.
Intraoperative Cell Salvage for Women at High Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage During Cesarean Section: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can lead to substantial blood loss that compromises maternal hemodynamic stability and consequently cause severe maternal complications such as organ dysfunction or death. Intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS), an effective method of blood conservation used in other surgical specialties, can be an alternative intervention for managing PPH. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IOCS for women at high risk of PPH undergoing cesarean sections. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to February 25, 2021 for randomized controlled studies and observational studies published in English or Mandarin about IOCS use in cesarean sections. Primary outcomes of interest were changes in postoperative hematologic parameters and any adverse events reported among patients that had IOCS and controls that had an allogeneic blood transfusion. The certainty of the evidence of the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE approach. A total of 24 studies with 5872 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 13 observational studies were analyzed. Postoperative hemoglobin levels were higher among patients with IOCS SMD 0.39 (95% CI; 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001, high certainty). Allogeneic blood transfusion increased adverse events RR = 1.81(95% CI; 1.24, 2.62; P = 0.002, low certainty). IOCS shortened hospital stay SMD - 0.59 (95% CI: - 0.98, - 0.19; P = 0.004, low certainty) and shortened prothrombin time SMD - 0.67 (95% CI; - 1.31, - 0.04), P = 0.037, low certainty). The lower incidence of transfusion-related adverse events and shorter hospital stay among other findings demonstrate that IOCS use in obstetrics is an effective and safe alternative for the management of PPH; however, high-quality randomized control studies are required to confirm this evidence.
Safety of Intraoperative Cell Salvage in Cancer Surgery: An Updated Meta-Analysis of the Current Literature
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2022;49(3):143-157
BACKGROUND Allogeneic blood transfusions in oncologic surgery are associated with increased recurrence and mortality. Adverse effects on outcome could be reduced or avoided by using intraoperative autologous blood cell salvage (IOCS). However, there are concerns regarding the safety of the autologous IOCS blood. Previous meta-analyses from 2012 and 2020 did not identify increased risk of cancer recurrence after using autologous IOCS blood. The objective of this review was to reassess a greater number of IOCS-treated patients to present an updated and more robust analysis of the current literature. METHODS This systematic review includes full-text articles listed in PubMed, Cochrane, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science. We analyzed publications that discussed cell salvage or autotransfusion combined with the following outcomes: cancer recurrence, mortality, survival, allogeneic transfusion rate and requirements, length of hospital stay (LOS). To rate the strength of evidence, a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) of the underlying evidence was applied. RESULTS In the updated meta-analysis, 7 further observational studies were added to the original 27 observational studies included in the former 2020 analysis. Studies compared either unfiltered (n = 2,311) or filtered (n = 850) IOCS (total n = 3,161) versus non-IOCS use (n = 5,342). Control patients were either treated with autologous predonated blood (n = 484), with allogeneic transfusion (n = 4,113), or did not receive a blood transfusion (n = 745). However, the current literature still contains only observational studies on these topics, and the strength of evidence remains low. The risk of cancer recurrence was reduced in recipients of autologous salvaged blood with or without LDF (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.90) compared to nontransfused patients or patients with allogeneic transfusion. There was no difference in mortality (OR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.71-1.27) and LOS (mean difference -0.07 days, 95% CI: -0.63 to 0.48) between patients treated with IOCS blood or those in whom IOCS was not used. Due to high heterogeneity, transfusion rates or volumes could not be analyzed. CONCLUSION Randomized controlled trials comparing mortality and cancer recurrence rate of IOCS with or without LDF filtration versus allogeneic blood transfusion were not found. Outcome was similar or better in patients receiving IOCS during cancer surgery compared to patients with allogeneic blood transfusion or nontransfused patients.
The safty profile of blood salvage applied for collected blood with amniotic fluid during cesarean section
BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2022;22(1):160
BACKGROUND The guidelines of National Health Service(NHS, the United Kingdom) recommended for use in obstetrics at increased risk of bleeding, requiring two suction devices to reduce amniotic fluid contamination, however, when comes to massive hemorrhage, it is may difficult to operate because the complex operation may delay time. The aim of the study was to detect the effect of amniotic fluid recovery on intraoperative cell salvage in obstetrics and provide evidence for clinical applications. METHOD Thirty-four patients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the cumulative blood from the operation field, including the amniotic fluid, was collected using a single suction device for processing. In group 2, after suctioning away the amniotic fluid using another suction device for the cumulative blood from the operation field. From each group, four samples were taken, including maternal venous blood (sample I), blood before washing (sample II), blood after washing (sample III) and blood after filtration with a leukocyte filter (sample IV), to detect serum potassium (K +), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and squamous cell (SC) levels. RESULTS The AFP, K + and WBC levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly lower than sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05). Significantly more SCs were found in sample III than in sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05), but SCs of sample IV had no statistical difference compared to sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the K + , Hb, WBC, AFP and SC levels of sample IV between group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). The HbF levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION There is little or no possibility for AF contamination to enter the re-infusion system when used in conjunction with a leucodepletion filter. For maternal with Rh-negative blood, we recommend two suction devices to reduce HbF pollution. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR1800015684 , 2018.4.15.
The effects of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7866-7873
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. METHODS A total of 87 patients with prostate cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomies in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (the CNG, n=43, conventional infusion) and an observation group (the OG, n=44, acute hypervolemic hemodilution). Blood gas analyses were performed at different time points, and the patients' cognitive dysfunction was evaluated. RESULTS The intraoperative blood transfusion rates of the OG and the CNG were 11.36% and 30.23%. The average intraoperative blood transfusions in the OG and the CNG were (315.46±24.49) ml and (486.95±42.17) ml (P < 0.05). The CVP and JVP levels in the OG and the CNG at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than the levels at T0 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels of the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T0 (P < 0.05), and the Hb level in the OG at T4 was lower than it was at T1 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels in the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T1 (P < 0.05), and the Hb levels in the OG at T1 and T2 were lower than they were in the CNG (P < 0.05). The MMSE cognitive function scores were lower than the scores recorded on the day before the operations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Acute hypervolemic hemodilution in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients can maintain their hemodynamics in a stable state, help reduce blood transfusion, improve the oxygen supply to the brain tissue to maintain the supply and demand balance, and reduce the impact on the patients' cognitive function.
Effect of Retrograde Autologous Blood Priming of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Hemodynamic Parameters and Pulmonary Mechanics in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Study
Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2020
The present study aimed to assess the impact of retrograde autologous priming (RAP) on hemodynamics and pulmonary mechanics in children subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. This prospective randomized study analyzed the clinical records of 124 children with Rachs-1 left to right lesions subjected to cardiac surgery. They comprised 64 patients in RAP group and 60 patients in the conventional priming group. The preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of the studied patients were reported. The outcome measures included hematocrit value, blood gases, lung mechanics parameters, transfusion needs, ICU stay, postoperative complications and mortality. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences between the studied groups regarding the demographic data, underlying lesions, laboratory data, blood gases and pulmonary mechanics parameters. Intraoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly lower amount of blood loss, less frequent need to packed RBCs transfusion and better hematocrit values when compared with the control group. Postoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly higher Hct % at ICU arrival, significantly better pulmonary mechanics parameters and significantly shorter duration on mechanical ventilation. Retrograde autologous priming in children older than 12 months subjected to cardiac surgery for Rachs-1 left to right lesions is associated with less transfusion needs and better pulmonary mechanics.