Does Intraoperative Cell Salvage Reduce Postoperative Infection Rates in Cardiac Surgery?
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2020
OBJECTIVE Primary outcome was the risk for infections after cell salvage in cardiac surgery. DESIGN Data of a randomized controlled trial on cell salvage and filter use (ISRCTN58333401). SETTING Six cardiac surgery centers in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS All 716 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or combined procedures over a 4-year period who completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS Postoperative infection data were assessed according to Centre of Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definitions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Fifty-eight (15.9%) patients with cell salvage had infections, compared with 46 (13.1%) control patients. Mediation analysis was performed to estimate the direct effect of cell salvage on infections (OR 2.291 [1.177;4.460], p=0.015) and the indirect effects of allogeneic transfusion and processed cell salvage blood on infections. Correction for confounders, including age, seks and body mass index was performed. Allogeneic transfusion had a direct effect on infections (OR=2.082 [1.133;3.828], p=0.018), but processed cell salvage blood did not (OR=0.999 [0.999; 1.001], p=0.089). There was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on allogeneic transfusion (OR=0.275 [0.176;0.432], p < 0.001), but a negative direct effect of processed cell salvage blood (1.001 [1.001;1.002], p < 0.001) on allogeneic transfusion. Finally, there was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on the amount of processed blood. CONCLUSIONS Cell salvage was directly associated with higher infection rates, but this direct effect was almost completely eliminated by its indirect protective effect through reduced allogeneic blood transfusion.
Efficacy of intraoperative cell salvage in spine surgery: a meta-analysis
J Neurosurg Spine. 2020;:1-9
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative cell salvage systems, or cell savers, are widely used for the management of blood loss in patients undergoing spine surgery. However, recent studies report conflicting evidence of their efficacy. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of cell savers in reducing blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS Both retrospective and prospective studies that investigated the efficacy of cell savers in reducing transfusion requirements in spine surgery patients when compared with control patients were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Library, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Outcome data extracted included number of patients receiving allogenic transfusions (transfusion rate); units of allogenic transfusions; postoperative hemoglobin; costs; operative time; and complications. RevMan 5 software was used to perform statistical analyses. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios (with 95% CIs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs [95% CI]) for dichotomous and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS Eighteen studies with 2815 patients in total were included in the meta-analysis. During spine surgery, the use of intraoperative cell salvage did not reduce the intraoperative (OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.30, 1.41]), postoperative (OR -0.57 [95% CI 0.20, 1.59]), or total transfusion (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.43, 1.98]) rate. There was a reduction in the number of allogenic units transfused intraoperatively by a mean of 0.81 (95% CI -1.15, -0.48). However, there were no differences in the number of units transfused postoperatively (WMD -0.02 [95% CI -0.41, 0.38]) or the total units transfused (WMD 0.08 [95% CI -1.06, 1.22]). There were also no differences in operative time (WMD 19.36 [95% CI -2.43, 42.15]) or complications reported (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.46, 1.37]) between groups. A difference in postoperative hemoglobin (WMD 0.54 [95% CI 0.11, 0.98]) between both groups was observed. CONCLUSIONS Cell saver is efficacious at reducing intraoperative allogenic units transfused. There is no difference in transfusion rates, postoperative units transfused, and the total number of units transfused. Further cost analysis studies are necessary to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this method of blood conservation. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: therapeutic; study design: meta-analysis; strength of recommendation: low.
Patients undergoing spine surgery (18 studies, n=2815).
Use of intraoperative cell salvage.
The use of intraoperative cell salvage did not reduce the intraoperative, or total transfusion rate. There was a reduction in the number of allogenic units transfused intraoperatively by a mean of 0.81. However, there were no differences in the number of units transfused postoperatively or the total units transfused. There were also no differences in operative time or complications reported between groups. A difference in postoperative hemoglobin between both groups was observed.
[Safety of cell salvage in tumor surgery : Systematic review with meta-analysis]
BACKGROUND Allogeneic blood transfusion is avoidable in many oncological interventions by the use of cell salvage or mechanical autotransfusion (MAT). As irradiation is elaborate and expensive, the safety of leucocyte depletion filters (LDF) for autologous blood from the surgical field might be a more acceptable alternative for the prevention of cancer recurrences. A previous meta-analysis could not identify an increased risk of cancer recurrence. The aim of this review article is to provide an update of a previous meta-analysis from 2012 as well as a safety analysis of cell salvage with LDF due to the improved data situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS This systematic review included all studies in PubMed, Cochrane, Cochrane Reviews and Web of Science on cell salvage or autotransfusion combined with outcomes, e.g. cancer recurrence, mortality, survival, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay (LOS) after the use of MAT without irradiation and with or without LDF. The grades of recommendations (GRADE) assessment of underlying evidence was applied. RESULTS A total of seven new observational studies and seven meta-analyses were found that compared unfiltered or filtered cell salvage with autologous predeposition, allogeneic transfusion or without any transfusion. No randomized controlled trials have been completed. A total of 27 observational and cohort studies were included in a meta-analysis. The evidence level was low. The risk of cancer recurrence in recipients of autologous salvaged blood with or without LDF was reduced (odds ratio, OR 0.71, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.58-0.86) as compared to non-transfused subjects, allogeneic or predeposited autologous transfusion. The transfusion rate could not be assessed due to the substantial selection bias and large heterogeneity. Cell salvage does not change mortality and LOS. Leucocyte depletion studies reported a removal rate of cancer cells in the range of 99.6-99.9%. CONCLUSION Randomized controlled trials on a comparison of MAT and allogeneic blood transfusion as well as LDF and irradiation would be desirable but are not available. From observational trials and more than 6300 subjects and various tumors, cell salvage in cancer surgery with or without LDF appears to be sufficiently safe. The efficacy of leucocyte depletion of autologous salvaged blood is equivalent to irradiation. Unavailability of radiation is not a contraindication for cell salvage use in cancer surgery. By usage of leucocyte depleted salvaged autologous blood, the risks of allogeneic transfusion can be avoided.
Effect of Retrograde Autologous Blood Priming of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Hemodynamic Parameters and Pulmonary Mechanics in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Study
Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2020
The present study aimed to assess the impact of retrograde autologous priming (RAP) on hemodynamics and pulmonary mechanics in children subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. This prospective randomized study analyzed the clinical records of 124 children with Rachs-1 left to right lesions subjected to cardiac surgery. They comprised 64 patients in RAP group and 60 patients in the conventional priming group. The preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of the studied patients were reported. The outcome measures included hematocrit value, blood gases, lung mechanics parameters, transfusion needs, ICU stay, postoperative complications and mortality. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences between the studied groups regarding the demographic data, underlying lesions, laboratory data, blood gases and pulmonary mechanics parameters. Intraoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly lower amount of blood loss, less frequent need to packed RBCs transfusion and better hematocrit values when compared with the control group. Postoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly higher Hct % at ICU arrival, significantly better pulmonary mechanics parameters and significantly shorter duration on mechanical ventilation. Retrograde autologous priming in children older than 12 months subjected to cardiac surgery for Rachs-1 left to right lesions is associated with less transfusion needs and better pulmonary mechanics.
Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment-refractory relapsing multiple sclerosis: Position statement from the american society for blood and marrow transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, immune-mediated, central nervous system demyelinating and degenerative disease. Approved disease modifying therapies may be incompletely effective in some patients with highly active relapsing disease and high risk of disability. Immunoablative or myeloablative therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) has been investigated in retrospective studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses/systematic reviews as an approach to address this unmet clinical need. On behalf of the American Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), a panel of experts in AHCT and MS convened to review available evidence and make recommendations on MS as an indication for AHCT. Review of recent literature identified eight retrospective studies, eight clinical trials, and three meta-analyses/systematic reviews. In aggregate, these studies indicate that AHCT is an efficacious and safe treatment for active relapsing forms of MS to prevent clinical relapses, MRI lesion activity, and disability worsening, and to reverse disability, without unexpected adverse events. Based on the available evidence, the ASBMT recommends that treatment-refractory relapsing MS with high risk of future disability be considered a "standard of care, clinical evidence available" indication for AHCT. Collaboration of neurologists with expertise in treating MS and transplant physicians with experience performing AHCT for autoimmune disease is crucial for appropriate patient selection and optimizing transplant procedures to improve patient outcomes. Transplant centers in the United States and Canada are strongly encouraged to report baseline and outcomes data on patients receiving AHCT for multiple sclerosis to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
Additional filtering of blood from a cell salvage device is not likely to show important additional benefits in outcome in cardiac surgery
BACKGROUND Several authors and manufacturers of cell salvage devices recommend additional filtering of processed blood before transfusion. There is no evidence to support this practice. Therefore, we compared the clinical outcome and biochemical effects of cell salvage with or without additional filtering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The patients, scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined procedures were part of our randomized multicenter factorial study of cell salvage and filter use on transfusion requirements (ISRCTN 58333401). They were randomized to intraoperative cell salvage or cell salvage plus additional WBC depletion filter. We compared the occurrence of major adverse events (combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction) as primary outcome and minor adverse events (renal function disturbances, infections, delirium), ventilation time, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. We also measured biochemical markers of organ injury and inflammation. RESULTS One hundred eighty-nine patients had cell salvage, and 175 patients had cell salvage plus filter and completed the study. Demographic data, surgical procedures, and amount of salvaged blood were not different between the groups. There was no difference in the primary outcome with a risk of 6.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.34-11.25) in the cell salvage plus filter group versus 5.8% (95% CI, 3.09-10.45) in the cell salvage group, a relative risk of 1.08 (95% CI, 0.48- 2.43]. There were no differences in minor adverse events and biochemical markers between the groups. CONCLUSION The routine use of an additional filter for transfusion of salvaged blood is unlikely to show important additional benefits.
Post-Operative Blood Salvage and Autotransfusion for Adult Spinal Deformity: A Randomized Controlled Trial
STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE To determine whether post-operative blood salvage and autotransfusion vs. traditional closed suction drainage reduces the rate of homologous blood transfusions in patients undergoing surgery for adult spinal deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The use of intra-operative blood salvage has become commonplace in spine surgery; however, the collection and reinfusion of blood drained from the wound post-operatively has not been employed routinely due to increased cost and questionable benefit. METHODS Adult patients undergoing long posterior fusions were randomized to either a blood salvage and reinfusion system (OrthoPat - Group 1) or a standard subfascial closed suction drain (Group 2). Blood collected in Group 1 was reinfused according to the manufacturer's protocol. Reinfusion drains were converted to standard closed suction drains when output was less than 50cc over 4 hours, and drains were removed when output was minimal. Patients received autologous or homologous blood transfusions when Hg < 8 g/dL or they had symptomatic anemia. RESULTS 34 patients were randomized into Group 1 and 36 patients into Group 2. There were no differences in pre-operative or intra-operative parameters. Patients in Group 1 had higher hemoglobin levels on POD #2 and POD #3 compared to those in Group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients requiring homologous blood transfusion between the two groups (41% Group 1 vs. 60% Group 2, p = 0.17). Similarly a subgroup analysis in patients with EBL > 2000cc also showed no difference in homologous blood transfusion rates (67% Group 1 vs. 76% Group 2, p = 0.58). There were no differences in the rate or type of post-operative complications. CONCLUSIONS Post-operative blood salvage and reinfusion results in a higher hemoglobin level in the early post-operative period, but does not significantly reduce the need for homologous blood transfusion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 1.
A comparison of haemostatic biomarkers during low-risk patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass using either conventional centrifugal cell salvage or the HemoSep device
BACKGROUND Cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a coagulopathy due to haemodilution, thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction and the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, despite the use of large doses of unfractionated heparin. Conventional red cell salvage may exacerbate post-operative bleeding as plasma containing haemostatic factors is discarded. We hypothesized that a novel cell salvage device (HemoSep) may attenuate haemostatic changes associated with red cell salvage. We studied haemostatic markers following autologous transfusion from conventional cell salvage or the HemoSep device. METHODS This randomised, controlled trial compared haemostatic markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement who received autologous blood returned from cell salvage (control) or HemoSep (study). Blood samples were taken pre-operatively, end of CPB, post-transfusion of salvaged blood and 3 hours post-operatively and analysed for full blood count (FBC), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS Fifty-four patients were recruited (n=28 control, n=26 study). Processed blood volume for transfusion was significantly (p<0.001) higher in the HemoSep group. In the HemoSep group, the PT was shorter (18.7+/-0.3 vs 19.9+/-0.3 sec; p<0.05) post-operatively and the aPTT was longer (48.6+/-3.8 vs 37.3+/-1.0 sec; p<0.01) following autologous transfusion. In the control group, D-dimer and ETP levels were higher (1903+/-424 vs.1088+/-151; p<0.05 and 739+/-46 vs. 394+/-60; p<0.001, respectively) following autologous transfusion. CONCLUSIONS Although centrifuged cell salvage is known to adequately haemoconcentrate and remove unwanted substrates and bacteriological contamination, the process can exacerbate coagulopathy. The HemoSep device demonstrated some increase in haemostatic markers when used in low-risk cardiac surgery patients.
A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of intraoperative cell salvage during caesarean section in women at risk of haemorrhage: the SALVO (cell SALVage in Obstetrics) trial
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). 2018;22((2)):1-88.
BACKGROUND Caesarean section is associated with blood loss and maternal morbidity. Excessive blood loss requires transfusion of donor (allogeneic) blood, which is a finite resource. Cell salvage returns blood lost during surgery to the mother. It may avoid the need for donor blood transfusion, but reliable evidence of its effects is lacking. OBJECTIVES To determine if routine use of cell salvage during caesarean section in mothers at risk of haemorrhage reduces the rates of blood transfusion and postpartum maternal morbidity, and is cost-effective, in comparison with standard practice without routine salvage use. DESIGN Individually randomised controlled, multicentre trial with cost-effectiveness analysis. Treatment was not blinded. SETTING A total of 26 UK obstetric units. PARTICIPANTS Out of 3054 women recruited between June 2013 and April 2016, we randomly assigned 3028 women at risk of haemorrhage to cell salvage or routine care. Randomisation was stratified using random permuted blocks of variable sizes. Of these, 1672 had emergency and 1356 had elective caesareans. We excluded women for whom cell salvage or donor blood transfusion was contraindicated. INTERVENTIONS Cell salvage (intervention) versus routine care without salvage (control). In the intervention group, salvage was set up in 95.6% of the women and, of these, 50.8% had salvaged blood returned. In the control group, 3.9% had salvage deployed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary - donor blood transfusion. Secondary - units of donor blood transfused, time to mobilisation, length of hospitalisation, mean fall in haemoglobin, fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) measured by Kleihauer-Betke test, and maternal fatigue. Analyses were adjusted for stratification factors and other factors that were believed to be prognostic a priori. Cost-effectiveness outcomes - costs of resources and service provision taking the UK NHS perspective. RESULTS We analysed 1498 and 1492 participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Overall, the transfusion rate was 2.5% in the intervention group and 3.5% in the control group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 1.01; p = 0.056]. In a planned subgroup analysis, the transfusion rate was 3.0% in the intervention group and 4.6% in the control group among emergency caesareans (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.99), whereas it was 1.8% in the intervention group and 2.2% in the control group among elective caesareans (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.83) (interaction p = 0.46, suggesting that the difference in effect between subgroups was not statistically significant). Secondary outcomes did not differ between groups, except for FMH, which was higher under salvage in rhesus D (RhD)-negative women with RhD-positive babies (25.6% vs. 10.5%, adjusted OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.43 to 22.14; p = 0.013). No case of amniotic fluid embolism was observed. The additional cost of routine cell salvage during caesarean was estimated, on average, at pound8110 per donor blood transfusion avoided. CONCLUSIONS The modest evidence for an effect of routine use of cell salvage during caesarean section on rates of donor blood transfusion was associated with increased FMH, which emphasises the need for adherence to guidance on anti-D prophylaxis. We are unable to comment on long-term antibody sensitisation effects. Based on the findings of this trial, cell salvage is unlikely to be considered cost-effective. FUTURE WORK Research into risk of alloimmunisation among women exposed to cell salvage is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66118656. FUNDING This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
The effects of leukocyte filtration on cell salvaged autologous blood transfusion on lung function and lung inflammatory and oxidative stress reactions in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology. 2018;31((1):):36-42
BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the effects of leukocyte filtration of autologous salvaged blood on lung function, lung inflammatory reaction, and oxidative stress reaction in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: Leukocyte Filter group and Control group. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell and polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and respiratory function markers including dynamic respiratory system compliance, oxygenation index, and respiratory index were measured immediately before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately before blood transfusion (T1), and 1 (T2), 6 (T3), and 12 hours (T4) after end of blood transfusion. RESULTS The Leukocyte Filter group had higher dynamic respiratory system compliance at T2, oxygenation index at T2 and T3, respiratory index and superoxide dismutase at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). The Leukocyte Filter group had lower white blood cell, polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse reactions related specifically to blood transfusion or postoperative respiratory complications within 72 hours. CONCLUSIONS Salvaged autologous blood leukocyte filtration can improve ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and inhibit lung inflammatory and oxidative stress reactions in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery.