Cell salvage in emergency trauma surgery
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015;((1):):CD007379.
BACKGROUND Trauma is the leading cause of death in people under the age of 45 years. Over the past 20 years, intraoperative autologous transfusions (obtained by cell salvage, also known as intraoperative blood salvage (IBS)) have been used as an alternative to blood products from other individuals during surgery because of the risk of transfusion-related infections such as hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this review, we sought to assess the effects and cost of cell salvage in individuals undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery. OBJECTIVES To compare the effect and cost of cell salvage with those of standard care in individuals undergoing abdominal or thoracic trauma surgery. SEARCH METHODS We ran the search on 25 November 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE Classic + EMBASE (OvidSP), PubMed, and ISI Web of Science (SCI-Expanded & CPSI-SSH). We also screened reference lists and contacted principal investigators. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials comparing cell salvage with no cell salvage (standard care) in individuals undergoing abdominal or thoracic trauma surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors independently extracted data from the trial reports. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. MAIN RESULTS Only one small study (n = 44) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results suggested that cell salvage did not affect mortality overall (death rates were 67% (14/21 participants) in the cell salvage group and 65% (15/23) in the control group) (odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31 to 3.72). For individuals with abdominal injury, mortality was also similar in both groups (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.10).Less donor blood was needed for transfusion within the first 24 hours postinjury in the cell salvage group compared with the control group (mean difference (MD) -4.70 units, 95% CI -8.09 to -1.31). Adverse events, notably postoperative sepsis, did not differ between groups (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.55). Cost did not notably differ between groups (MD -177.81, 95% CI -452.85 to 97.23, measured in GBP in 2002). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Evidence for the use of cell salvage in individuals undergoing abdominal or thoracic trauma surgery remains equivocal. Large, multicentre, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to assess the relative efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of cell salvage in different surgical procedures in the emergency context.
Reducing blood transfusion requirements in preterm infants by a new device: a pilot study
Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2009;98((2):):247-50.
OBJECTIVE To test a new device designed to salvage red blood cells (RBCs) from blood samples drawn from preterm infants, with the intent of decreasing blood loss and lowering the requirements for RBC transfusions. DESIGN A case-controlled pilot study was conducted in two Israeli neonatal intensive care units in large municipal hospitals. Twenty low-birthweight preterm infants were randomly and equally divided into the ErythroSave group or a control group. All blood tests in the study group (except for complete blood count and coagulation parameters) were obtained during the first week of life by the new device in the study group and by ordinary syringes in the control group. The main outcome measure was the total number of units of blood needed. RESULTS The average volume of blood obtained for laboratory analyses from each infant was 27 mL in the ErythroSave group and 24 mL in controls (not significant). The average volume of transfused packed cells was 6. 4 mL for the ErythroSave group and 21. 3 mL for the controls (p = 0. 008). CONCLUSION The use of ErythroSave for sampling blood significantly reduced blood transfusion requirements in premature infants compared to sampling by conventional syringes.
Intraoperative blood salvage in penetrating abdominal trauma: a randomised, controlled trial
World Journal of Surgery. 2006;30((6):):1074-80.
BACKGROUND Blood is a scarce and costly resource. Transfusion is often required after major trauma but blood may not be readily available, and concerns remain over the potential adverse consequences of allogeneic blood transfusion. Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) is used extensively after blunt abdominal trauma, but when blood is contaminated by enteric contents its use has been considered contraindicated. METHODS This was a randomised, controlled trial conducted with Ethical Review Board approval in an inner city trauma unit. Patients with penetrating torso injury requiring a laparotomy and who had exhibited hypotension either pre-hospital or on arrival and in whom there was considered to be significant blood loss were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The control group was given allogeneic blood transfusion at the discretion of the attending medical staff. The cell save (CS) group underwent IBS with transfusion of both allogeneic and autologous blood. All patients received prophylactic antibiotics. The primary outcome was exposure to allogeneic blood up to the first 24 hours postinjury. RESULTS Twenty-three patients were entered into the control group and 21 into the CS group. The groups were equivalent in demographic details, injury patterns and injury severity. The mean volume of salvaged blood re-infused in the CS group was 1,493 ml (range 0-2,690 ml). The mean number of units of allogeneic blood transfused in the first 24 hours in the control group was 11. 17 compared to 6. 47 in the CS group (P=0. 008). Enteric injury had been sustained in 17/23 (75%) of the control group and 18/21 (85%) of the CS group (P=NS). Survival in the control group was 8/23 (35%) compared to 7/21 (33. 3%) in the CS arm (P=NS). Patients with documented postoperative sepsis were significantly more likely to die compared to those without sepsis (P=0. 04); however, those patients in the CS arm were no more likely to develop sepsis compared to those who received allogeneic blood alone. CONCLUSION In this randomised, controlled trial for patients with penetrating abdominal injuries, IBS led to a significant reduction in allogeneic blood usage with no discernable effect on rates of postoperative infection or mortality.
Minimizing diagnostic blood loss in critically ill patients
American Journal of Critical Care. 1992;1((1):):85-90.
BACKGROUND Blood loss from diagnostic procedures in critically ill patients needs to be minimized. Traditionally, when drawing blood from arterial lines, the initial sample used to clear the line has been discarded (open method). Use of a temporary reservoir enables this discard sample to be returned to the patient (closed method). METHODS Critically ill surgical patients were prospectively randomized to the open or closed method of drawing blood from arterial lines. Blood loss to diagnostic sampling was measured in both groups. RESULTS A comparison study (n = 1657) of these two methods revealed that blood loss to the patient was significantly decreased (P << .01) using the closed method. Mean blood loss per patient per day was 69 mL in the open group (n = 873) vs 35 mL in the closed group (n = 784). CONCLUSIONS Use of the closed method when drawing blood from arterial lines results in a significant decrease in blood lost to diagnostic procedures.
Individualized hemodilution in acute brain infarct using a 20% albumin solution and physiological saline solution Dutch
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde. 1992;136((49):):2422-8.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of normovolaemic haemodilution in patients after a cerebrovascular accident. DESIGN Prospective, randomized clinical trial. SETTING St Lucas Hospital, Amsterdam. METHOD Normovolaemic haemodilution was achieved by means of bloodletting and administration of a 20% solution of albumin plus crystalline infusion fluids under haemodynamic and rheological monitoring during the acute phase of the cerebral infarction. All patients were subjected to general intensive care and monitoring with a pulmonary artery catheter. This custom-tailored fluid therapy was guided by a pulmonary wedge pressure of 12 mm Hg (SD 3) and a haematocrit (Ht) of 0.32 l/l (SD 0.02). The control group only received individually dosed rehydration with crystalline infusion fluids. Endpoints of the study after 3 months were mortality and dependence/independence concerning everyday functioning. RESULTS The results in the total haemodilution group and the control group did not differ significantly. However, in the subgroup with normal Ht (< 0.45 l/l; n = 201) there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the mortality after 3 months (27% and 16%, respectively) and an increase of independence at home (35% and 48%, respectively) due to a reduction of the viscosity by means of haemodilution with albumin (a specific viscosity effect in the normovolaemic group). In the control group with raised Ht (dehydration; Ht > or = 0.45 l/l; n = 50) there was a significant decrease (p < 0.005) of the mortality after 3 months (27% and 8%, respectively) and an increase of independence at home (35% and 59%, respectively) compared with the control group with normal Ht without signs of dehydration (Ht < 0.045 l/l; n = 102), due to rehydration exclusively with crystalline infusion fluids (a specific rehydration effect in the dehydrated group). CONCLUSION In cerebrovascular accident patients haemodilution should be adjusted individually; in normovolaemic patients haemodilution should be carried out with an albumin solution; the higher the Ht, the more rehydration with crystalline infusion fluids is to be carried out.
Hemodilution and rehydration in acute ischemic stroke. A preliminary report on the Amsterdam Stroke Study
Acta Medica Austriaca. 1991;18(Suppl 1):41-4
The Amsterdam Stroke Study was a prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial, investigating the effect of normovolemic hemodilution and rehydration with albumin 20% and crystalloids. All patients (n = 300) received general intensive care treatment and monitoring with a pulmonary artery catheter. The therapy was individually "customized" and guided on the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 12 +/- 3 mm Hg and for the hemodilution group on a hematocrit of 0.32 +/- 0.02 l/l. The significant differences in the subgroups emphasize the importance of a differentiation between a viscosity effect and an effect in hemodilution therapy, sometimes intensifying, sometimes counteracting each other.