Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 randomized trials
International journal of surgery (London, England). 2020
BACKGROUND Efficacy of minimal acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in avoiding homologous blood transfusion during cardiovascular surgery remains controversial. Postoperative bleeding and transfusion remain a source of morbidity and cost after open heart operations. To better understand the role of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), we compared ANH with standard intraoperative care in a systematic review including a standard pairwise meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to April 1, 2020. The primary outcome was to assess the incidence of ANH-related number of allogeneic red blood cell units (ARBCu) transfused. Secondary outcomes included the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and estimated total blood loss. RESULTS A total of 22 RCTs including 1688 patients were identified for the present meta-analysis. Of these studies, 19 were about CABG with on-pump and three with off-pump. Our pooled result indicated that patients received ANH experienced fewer ARBCu transfusions, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.60 (95%CI -0.96 to -0.24; P = 0.001). The rate of allogeneic blood transfusion in ANH group was significant reduced when compared with controls, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.65 (95%CI 0.52 to 0.82; P = 0.0002). In addition, less postoperative estimated total blood loss was present, with a SMD of -0.53 (95%CI -0.88 to -0.17; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS The present meta-analysis indicated that ANH could reduce the number of ARBCu transfused in the CABG surgery setting. In addition, ANH could also reduce the rate of ARBCu transfusion and estimated total blood loss for CABG patients.
Impact of cell saver during cardiac surgery on blood transfusion requirements: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Vox sanguinis. 2019
OBJECTIVE We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery and compared the rates of red blood cell (RBC), platelet and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion between the cell saver (CS) and the standard of care groups. METHODS MEDLINE (R), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), American Society of Hematology (ASH) and bibliographies of relevant studies were searched. We used random-effect model. RESULTS Our search strategy returned 624 citations, of which 15 studies were selected. The use of CS did not decrease the rate of RBC transfusion (odds ratio [OR]: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.48-1.00), albeit with a substantial heterogeneity (I(2) = 60%). The year of publication explained most of the heterogeneity (P for subgroup effect <0.001). Although the rate of platelet transfusion was lower in the CS group, the difference was not statistically significant (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.57-1.2; I(2) = 0%). The rate of FFP transfusion was numerically higher in the CS group; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.82-1.94; I(2) = 15%). Only two studies scored five on the Jadad score. There was no indication of a publication bias using the funnel plot and Egger test (P = 0.34, 0.87, and 0.62 for RBC, platelet and FFP, respectively). CONCLUSION The use of CS during cardiac surgery does not have an impact on the rates of RBC, platelet and FFP transfusion; however, this should be interpreted in the light of the study limitations.
Acute normovolemic hemodilution reduces allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials
Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2016;124((3):):743-752
BACKGROUND To better understand the role of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in a surgical setting with high risk of bleeding, we analyzed all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the setting of cardiac surgery that compared ANH with standard intraoperative care. The aim was to assess the incidence of ANH-related number of allogeneic red blood cell units (RBCu) transfused. Secondary outcomes included the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and estimated total blood loss. METHODS Twenty-nine RCTs for a total of 2439 patients (1252 patients in the ANH group and 1187 in the control group) were included in our meta-analysis using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and EMBASE. RESULTS Patients in the ANH group received fewer allogeneic RBCu transfusions (mean difference = -0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.25 to -0.34; P = .001; I = 95.1%). Patients in the ANH group were overall transfused less with allogeneic blood when compared with controls (356/845 [42.1%] in the ANH group versus 491/876 [56.1%] in controls; risk ratio = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.87; P < .0001; I = 72.5%), and they experienced less postoperative blood loss (388 mL in ANH versus 450 mL in control; mean difference = -0.64; 95% CI, -0.97 to -0.31; P < .0001; I = 91.8%). CONCLUSIONS ANH reduces the number of allogeneic RBCu transfused in the cardiac surgery setting together with a reduction in the rate of patients transfused with allogeneic blood and with a reduction of bleeding.
Cell salvage during cardiac surgery may decrease red blood cell transfusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Haematologica. 2015;100((S1)):138-9.. Abstract no. P394.
The efficacy of an intraoperative cell saver during cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials
Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2009;109((2):):320-30.
BACKGROUND Cell salvage may be used during cardiac surgery to avoid allogeneic blood transfusion. It has also been claimed to improve patient outcomes by removing debris from shed blood, which may increase the risk of stroke or neurocognitive dysfunction. In this study, we sought to determine the overall safety and efficacy of cell salvage in cardiac surgery by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials. METHODS A comprehensive search was undertaken to identify all randomized trials of cell saver use during cardiac surgery. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and abstract databases were searched up to November 2008. All randomized trials comparing cell saver use and no cell saver use in cardiac surgery and reporting at least one predefined clinical outcome were included. The random effects model was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals [CI]) and the weighted mean differences (WMD, 95% CI) for dichotomous and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS Thirty-one randomized trials involving 2282 patients were included in the meta-analysis. During cardiac surgery, the use of an intraoperative cell saver reduced the rate of exposure to any allogeneic blood product (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.94, P = 0.02) and red blood cells (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.92, P = 0.02) and decreased the mean volume of total allogeneic blood products transfused per patient (WMD -256 mL, 95% CI: -416 to -95 mL, P = 0.002). There was no difference in hospital mortality (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.25-1.68, P = 0.37), postoperative stroke or transient ischemia attack (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.20-1.76, P = 0.34), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.69-1.23, P = 0.56), renal dysfunction (OR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.41-1.80, P = 0.70), infection (OR 1.25, 95% CI: 0.75-2.10, P = 0.39), patients requiring fresh frozen plasma (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.66, P = 0.40), and patients requiring platelet transfusions (OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.63-1.28, P = 0.55) between cell saver and noncell saver groups. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence suggests that the use of a cell saver reduces exposure to allogeneic blood products or red blood cell transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Subanalyses suggest that a cell saver may be beneficial only when it is used for shed blood and/or residual blood or during the entire operative period. Processing cardiotomy suction blood with a cell saver only during cardiopulmonary bypass has no significant effect on blood conservation and increases fresh frozen plasma transfusion.
Retrograde autologous priming and allogeneic blood transfusions: a meta-analysis
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. 2009;8((3):):373-6.
A literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the clinical effectiveness of retrograde autologous priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to reduce allogeneic packed red blood transfusions in adult cardiac surgery. Structured searches of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Science Direct were performed to identify randomized trials comparing retrograde autologous priming to a prospective control group. A total of 21,643 studies were identified and eighteen trials were retrieved for full-text review. Six trials met eligibility criteria. Pooled estimates demonstrated that retrograde autologous priming significantly reduced the number of patients receiving intraoperative packed red cell transfusions (OR=0.36; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.94; P=0.04, I(2)=47.5%), total hospital stay packed red cell transfusions (OR=0.26; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.52; P=0.0001, I(2)=0%), and the number of units transfused of total hospital stay packed red blood cells (WMD=-0.60; 95% CI: -0.90, -0.31; P=0.0001, I(2)=0%). Retrograde autologous priming, however, did not provide a clinical benefit in reducing the number of units transfused of intraoperative packed red blood cells (WMD=-0.29; 95% CI: -0.59, 0.01; P=0.05). The combined patient population studied in the six trials was mainly primary isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Assessing the safety of retrograde autologous priming was not possible due to limited data.
Perioperative blood transfusion and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists clinical practice guideline
Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2007;83((5 Suppl):):S27-86.
BACKGROUND A minority of patients having cardiac procedures (15% to 20%) consume more than 80% of the blood products transfused at operation. Blood must be viewed as a scarce resource that carries risks and benefits. A careful review of available evidence can provide guidelines to allocate this valuable resource and improve patient outcomes. METHODS We reviewed all available published evidence related to blood conservation during cardiac operations, including randomized controlled trials, published observational information, and case reports. Conventional methods identified the level of evidence available for each of the blood conservation interventions. After considering the level of evidence, recommendations were made regarding each intervention using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology classification scheme. RESULTS Review of published reports identified a high-risk profile associated with increased postoperative blood transfusion. Six variables stand out as important indicators of risk: (1) advanced age, (2) low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), (3) preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, (4) reoperative or complex procedures, (5) emergency operations, and (6) noncardiac patient comorbidities. Careful review revealed preoperative and perioperative interventions that are likely to reduce bleeding and postoperative blood transfusion. Preoperative interventions that are likely to reduce blood transfusion include identification of high-risk patients who should receive all available preoperative and perioperative blood conservation interventions and limitation of antithrombotic drugs. Perioperative blood conservation interventions include use of antifibrinolytic drugs, selective use of off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery, routine use of a cell-saving device, and implementation of appropriate transfusion indications. An important intervention is application of a multimodality blood conservation program that is institution based, accepted by all health care providers, and that involves well thought out transfusion algorithms to guide transfusion decisions. CONCLUSIONS Based on available evidence, institution-specific protocols should screen for high-risk patients, as blood conservation interventions are likely to be most productive for this high-risk subset. Available evidence-based blood conservation techniques include (1) drugs that increase preoperative blood volume (eg, erythropoietin) or decrease postoperative bleeding (eg, antifibrinolytics), (2) devices that conserve blood (eg, intraoperative blood salvage and blood sparing interventions), (3) interventions that protect the patient's own blood from the stress of operation (eg, autologous predonation and normovolemic hemodilution), (4) consensus, institution-specific blood transfusion algorithms supplemented with point-of-care testing, and most importantly, (5) a multimodality approach to blood conservation combining all of the above.
Ultrafiltration reduces blood transfusions following cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2006;30((6):):892-7.
BACKGROUND Although used routinely in pediatric patients, ultrafiltration techniques that reverse hemodilution are infrequently used in adults. Data from small, unblinded clinical trials suggest that the use of ultrafiltration can reduce inflammatory mediators, improve cardiac function, and reduce hemodilution. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials to evaluate the effects of ultrafiltration on blood transfusions and blood loss following adult cardiac surgery. METHODS Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched and randomized controlled trials evaluating modified and/or conventional ultrafiltration, meeting pre-determined selection criteria, were obtained. Quality evaluation and data extraction were performed by two independent observers blinded to study source. Random effects models were used to determine pooled effect estimates and sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression. RESULTS One hundred and thirty two studies were screened and 10 randomized trials evaluating 1004 patients (control, n = 495; ultrafiltration, n = 509) were identified of which only two were double-blinded. The use of ultrafiltration was associated with a reduction in postoperative blood transfusions (weighted mean difference (95% CI) of -0.73 units (-1.16, -0.31); p = 0.001). This reduction was greater in studies evaluating modified ultrafiltration. Use of ultrafiltration was also associated with reduced postoperative bleeding (-70 ml, (-118, -21); p = 0.005), which was driven primarily by trials evaluating modified rather than conventional ultrafiltration. CONCLUSIONS Use of ultrafiltration is associated with a significant reduction in postoperative blood transfusions as well as reduced bleeding in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ultrafiltration as a blood conservations strategy should be evaluated in a large, randomized, double-blinded study.