The effects of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7866-7873
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. METHODS A total of 87 patients with prostate cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomies in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (the CNG, n=43, conventional infusion) and an observation group (the OG, n=44, acute hypervolemic hemodilution). Blood gas analyses were performed at different time points, and the patients' cognitive dysfunction was evaluated. RESULTS The intraoperative blood transfusion rates of the OG and the CNG were 11.36% and 30.23%. The average intraoperative blood transfusions in the OG and the CNG were (315.46±24.49) ml and (486.95±42.17) ml (P < 0.05). The CVP and JVP levels in the OG and the CNG at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than the levels at T0 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels of the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T0 (P < 0.05), and the Hb level in the OG at T4 was lower than it was at T1 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels in the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T1 (P < 0.05), and the Hb levels in the OG at T1 and T2 were lower than they were in the CNG (P < 0.05). The MMSE cognitive function scores were lower than the scores recorded on the day before the operations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Acute hypervolemic hemodilution in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients can maintain their hemodynamics in a stable state, help reduce blood transfusion, improve the oxygen supply to the brain tissue to maintain the supply and demand balance, and reduce the impact on the patients' cognitive function.
Does Intraoperative Cell Salvage Reduce Postoperative Infection Rates in Cardiac Surgery?
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2020
OBJECTIVE Primary outcome was the risk for infections after cell salvage in cardiac surgery. DESIGN Data of a randomized controlled trial on cell salvage and filter use (ISRCTN58333401). SETTING Six cardiac surgery centers in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS All 716 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or combined procedures over a 4-year period who completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS Postoperative infection data were assessed according to Centre of Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definitions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Fifty-eight (15.9%) patients with cell salvage had infections, compared with 46 (13.1%) control patients. Mediation analysis was performed to estimate the direct effect of cell salvage on infections (OR 2.291 [1.177;4.460], p=0.015) and the indirect effects of allogeneic transfusion and processed cell salvage blood on infections. Correction for confounders, including age, seks and body mass index was performed. Allogeneic transfusion had a direct effect on infections (OR=2.082 [1.133;3.828], p=0.018), but processed cell salvage blood did not (OR=0.999 [0.999; 1.001], p=0.089). There was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on allogeneic transfusion (OR=0.275 [0.176;0.432], p < 0.001), but a negative direct effect of processed cell salvage blood (1.001 [1.001;1.002], p < 0.001) on allogeneic transfusion. Finally, there was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on the amount of processed blood. CONCLUSIONS Cell salvage was directly associated with higher infection rates, but this direct effect was almost completely eliminated by its indirect protective effect through reduced allogeneic blood transfusion.
Effect of Retrograde Autologous Blood Priming of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Hemodynamic Parameters and Pulmonary Mechanics in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Study
Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2020
The present study aimed to assess the impact of retrograde autologous priming (RAP) on hemodynamics and pulmonary mechanics in children subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. This prospective randomized study analyzed the clinical records of 124 children with Rachs-1 left to right lesions subjected to cardiac surgery. They comprised 64 patients in RAP group and 60 patients in the conventional priming group. The preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of the studied patients were reported. The outcome measures included hematocrit value, blood gases, lung mechanics parameters, transfusion needs, ICU stay, postoperative complications and mortality. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences between the studied groups regarding the demographic data, underlying lesions, laboratory data, blood gases and pulmonary mechanics parameters. Intraoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly lower amount of blood loss, less frequent need to packed RBCs transfusion and better hematocrit values when compared with the control group. Postoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly higher Hct % at ICU arrival, significantly better pulmonary mechanics parameters and significantly shorter duration on mechanical ventilation. Retrograde autologous priming in children older than 12 months subjected to cardiac surgery for Rachs-1 left to right lesions is associated with less transfusion needs and better pulmonary mechanics.
Additional filtering of blood from a cell salvage device is not likely to show important additional benefits in outcome in cardiac surgery
BACKGROUND Several authors and manufacturers of cell salvage devices recommend additional filtering of processed blood before transfusion. There is no evidence to support this practice. Therefore, we compared the clinical outcome and biochemical effects of cell salvage with or without additional filtering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The patients, scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined procedures were part of our randomized multicenter factorial study of cell salvage and filter use on transfusion requirements (ISRCTN 58333401). They were randomized to intraoperative cell salvage or cell salvage plus additional WBC depletion filter. We compared the occurrence of major adverse events (combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction) as primary outcome and minor adverse events (renal function disturbances, infections, delirium), ventilation time, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. We also measured biochemical markers of organ injury and inflammation. RESULTS One hundred eighty-nine patients had cell salvage, and 175 patients had cell salvage plus filter and completed the study. Demographic data, surgical procedures, and amount of salvaged blood were not different between the groups. There was no difference in the primary outcome with a risk of 6.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.34-11.25) in the cell salvage plus filter group versus 5.8% (95% CI, 3.09-10.45) in the cell salvage group, a relative risk of 1.08 (95% CI, 0.48- 2.43]. There were no differences in minor adverse events and biochemical markers between the groups. CONCLUSION The routine use of an additional filter for transfusion of salvaged blood is unlikely to show important additional benefits.
Post-Operative Blood Salvage and Autotransfusion for Adult Spinal Deformity: A Randomized Controlled Trial
STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE To determine whether post-operative blood salvage and autotransfusion vs. traditional closed suction drainage reduces the rate of homologous blood transfusions in patients undergoing surgery for adult spinal deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The use of intra-operative blood salvage has become commonplace in spine surgery; however, the collection and reinfusion of blood drained from the wound post-operatively has not been employed routinely due to increased cost and questionable benefit. METHODS Adult patients undergoing long posterior fusions were randomized to either a blood salvage and reinfusion system (OrthoPat - Group 1) or a standard subfascial closed suction drain (Group 2). Blood collected in Group 1 was reinfused according to the manufacturer's protocol. Reinfusion drains were converted to standard closed suction drains when output was less than 50cc over 4 hours, and drains were removed when output was minimal. Patients received autologous or homologous blood transfusions when Hg < 8 g/dL or they had symptomatic anemia. RESULTS 34 patients were randomized into Group 1 and 36 patients into Group 2. There were no differences in pre-operative or intra-operative parameters. Patients in Group 1 had higher hemoglobin levels on POD #2 and POD #3 compared to those in Group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients requiring homologous blood transfusion between the two groups (41% Group 1 vs. 60% Group 2, p = 0.17). Similarly a subgroup analysis in patients with EBL > 2000cc also showed no difference in homologous blood transfusion rates (67% Group 1 vs. 76% Group 2, p = 0.58). There were no differences in the rate or type of post-operative complications. CONCLUSIONS Post-operative blood salvage and reinfusion results in a higher hemoglobin level in the early post-operative period, but does not significantly reduce the need for homologous blood transfusion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 1.
The effects of leukocyte filtration on cell salvaged autologous blood transfusion on lung function and lung inflammatory and oxidative stress reactions in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology. 2018;31((1):):36-42
BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the effects of leukocyte filtration of autologous salvaged blood on lung function, lung inflammatory reaction, and oxidative stress reaction in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: Leukocyte Filter group and Control group. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell and polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and respiratory function markers including dynamic respiratory system compliance, oxygenation index, and respiratory index were measured immediately before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately before blood transfusion (T1), and 1 (T2), 6 (T3), and 12 hours (T4) after end of blood transfusion. RESULTS The Leukocyte Filter group had higher dynamic respiratory system compliance at T2, oxygenation index at T2 and T3, respiratory index and superoxide dismutase at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). The Leukocyte Filter group had lower white blood cell, polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse reactions related specifically to blood transfusion or postoperative respiratory complications within 72 hours. CONCLUSIONS Salvaged autologous blood leukocyte filtration can improve ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and inhibit lung inflammatory and oxidative stress reactions in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery.
Superior blood-saving effect and postoperative recovery of comprehensive blood-saving strategy in infants undergoing open heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass
BACKGROUND Optimization of blood-saving strategies during open heart surgery in infants is still required. This study aimed to study a comprehensive blood-saving strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on postoperative recovery in low-weight infants undergoing open heart surgery. METHODS This was a prospective study of 86 consecutive infants (weighing <5 kg) with acyanotic congenital heart disease treated at the Tianjin Chest Hospital between March and December 2016, and randomized to the control (traditional routine CPB) and comprehensive blood-saving strategy groups. The primary endpoints were blood saving and clinical prognosis. The secondary endpoints were safety and laboratory indicators, prior to CPB (T1), after 30 minutes of CPB (T2), after modified ultrafiltration (T3), and postoperative 12 (T4), 24 (T5), 48 (T6), and 72 h (T7). RESULTS The total priming volume and banked red blood cells in the comprehensive strategy group were significantly lower than in the control group (P = .009 and P = .04, respectively). In the comprehensive strategy group, immediately after CPB, the amount of salvaged red blood cells exceeded the priming red blood cells by 40 +/- 11 mL. Postoperatively, the comprehensive strategy group showed a significant decrease in the inotrope score (P = .03), ventilation time (P = .03), intensive care unit stay (P = .04), and hospital stay (P = .03) in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION The comprehensive blood-saving strategies for CPB were associated with less blood use and favorable postoperative recovery in low-weight infants with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery.
A comparison of haemostatic biomarkers during low-risk patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass using either conventional centrifugal cell salvage or the HemoSep device
BACKGROUND Cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a coagulopathy due to haemodilution, thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction and the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, despite the use of large doses of unfractionated heparin. Conventional red cell salvage may exacerbate post-operative bleeding as plasma containing haemostatic factors is discarded. We hypothesized that a novel cell salvage device (HemoSep) may attenuate haemostatic changes associated with red cell salvage. We studied haemostatic markers following autologous transfusion from conventional cell salvage or the HemoSep device. METHODS This randomised, controlled trial compared haemostatic markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement who received autologous blood returned from cell salvage (control) or HemoSep (study). Blood samples were taken pre-operatively, end of CPB, post-transfusion of salvaged blood and 3 hours post-operatively and analysed for full blood count (FBC), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS Fifty-four patients were recruited (n=28 control, n=26 study). Processed blood volume for transfusion was significantly (p<0.001) higher in the HemoSep group. In the HemoSep group, the PT was shorter (18.7+/-0.3 vs 19.9+/-0.3 sec; p<0.05) post-operatively and the aPTT was longer (48.6+/-3.8 vs 37.3+/-1.0 sec; p<0.01) following autologous transfusion. In the control group, D-dimer and ETP levels were higher (1903+/-424 vs.1088+/-151; p<0.05 and 739+/-46 vs. 394+/-60; p<0.001, respectively) following autologous transfusion. CONCLUSIONS Although centrifuged cell salvage is known to adequately haemoconcentrate and remove unwanted substrates and bacteriological contamination, the process can exacerbate coagulopathy. The HemoSep device demonstrated some increase in haemostatic markers when used in low-risk cardiac surgery patients.
A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of intraoperative cell salvage during caesarean section in women at risk of haemorrhage: the SALVO (cell SALVage in Obstetrics) trial
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). 2018;22((2)):1-88.
BACKGROUND Caesarean section is associated with blood loss and maternal morbidity. Excessive blood loss requires transfusion of donor (allogeneic) blood, which is a finite resource. Cell salvage returns blood lost during surgery to the mother. It may avoid the need for donor blood transfusion, but reliable evidence of its effects is lacking. OBJECTIVES To determine if routine use of cell salvage during caesarean section in mothers at risk of haemorrhage reduces the rates of blood transfusion and postpartum maternal morbidity, and is cost-effective, in comparison with standard practice without routine salvage use. DESIGN Individually randomised controlled, multicentre trial with cost-effectiveness analysis. Treatment was not blinded. SETTING A total of 26 UK obstetric units. PARTICIPANTS Out of 3054 women recruited between June 2013 and April 2016, we randomly assigned 3028 women at risk of haemorrhage to cell salvage or routine care. Randomisation was stratified using random permuted blocks of variable sizes. Of these, 1672 had emergency and 1356 had elective caesareans. We excluded women for whom cell salvage or donor blood transfusion was contraindicated. INTERVENTIONS Cell salvage (intervention) versus routine care without salvage (control). In the intervention group, salvage was set up in 95.6% of the women and, of these, 50.8% had salvaged blood returned. In the control group, 3.9% had salvage deployed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary - donor blood transfusion. Secondary - units of donor blood transfused, time to mobilisation, length of hospitalisation, mean fall in haemoglobin, fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) measured by Kleihauer-Betke test, and maternal fatigue. Analyses were adjusted for stratification factors and other factors that were believed to be prognostic a priori. Cost-effectiveness outcomes - costs of resources and service provision taking the UK NHS perspective. RESULTS We analysed 1498 and 1492 participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Overall, the transfusion rate was 2.5% in the intervention group and 3.5% in the control group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 1.01; p = 0.056]. In a planned subgroup analysis, the transfusion rate was 3.0% in the intervention group and 4.6% in the control group among emergency caesareans (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.99), whereas it was 1.8% in the intervention group and 2.2% in the control group among elective caesareans (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.83) (interaction p = 0.46, suggesting that the difference in effect between subgroups was not statistically significant). Secondary outcomes did not differ between groups, except for FMH, which was higher under salvage in rhesus D (RhD)-negative women with RhD-positive babies (25.6% vs. 10.5%, adjusted OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.43 to 22.14; p = 0.013). No case of amniotic fluid embolism was observed. The additional cost of routine cell salvage during caesarean was estimated, on average, at pound8110 per donor blood transfusion avoided. CONCLUSIONS The modest evidence for an effect of routine use of cell salvage during caesarean section on rates of donor blood transfusion was associated with increased FMH, which emphasises the need for adherence to guidance on anti-D prophylaxis. We are unable to comment on long-term antibody sensitisation effects. Based on the findings of this trial, cell salvage is unlikely to be considered cost-effective. FUTURE WORK Research into risk of alloimmunisation among women exposed to cell salvage is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66118656. FUNDING This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
Randomized trial of Cell Saver in 2- to 3-level lumbar instrumented posterior fusions
Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine. 2018;:1-6.
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Cell Saver in 2- and 3-level lumbar decompression and fusion. METHODS Patients seen at a tertiary care spine center who were undergoing a posterior 2- or 3-level lumbar decompression and fusion were randomized to have Cell Saver used during their surgery (CS group, n = 48) or not used (No Cell Saver [NCS] group, n = 47). Data regarding preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit, estimated blood loss, volume of Cell Saver blood reinfused, number of units and volume of allogeneic blood transfused intraoperatively and postoperatively, complications, and costs were collected. Costs associated with Cell Saver use were calculated based on units of allogeneic blood transfusions averted. RESULTS Demographics and surgical parameters were similar in both groups. The mean estimated blood loss was similar in both groups: 612 ml in the CS group and 742 ml in the NCS group. There were 53 U of allogeneic blood transfused in 29 patients in the NCS group at a total blood product cost of $67,688; and 38 U of allogeneic blood transfused in 16 patients in the CS group at a total blood cost of $113,162, resulting in a cost of $3031 per allogeneic blood transfusion averted using Cell Saver. CONCLUSIONS Cell Saver use produced lower rates of allogeneic transfusion but was found to be more expensive than using only allogeneic blood for 2- and 3-level lumbar degenerative fusions. This increased cost may be reasonable to patients who perceive that the risks associated with allogeneic transfusions are unacceptable. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: therapeutic; study design: randomized controlled trial; evidence: class III.