Efficacy of intraoperative cell salvage in spine surgery: a meta-analysis
J Neurosurg Spine. 2020;:1-9
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative cell salvage systems, or cell savers, are widely used for the management of blood loss in patients undergoing spine surgery. However, recent studies report conflicting evidence of their efficacy. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of cell savers in reducing blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS Both retrospective and prospective studies that investigated the efficacy of cell savers in reducing transfusion requirements in spine surgery patients when compared with control patients were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Library, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Outcome data extracted included number of patients receiving allogenic transfusions (transfusion rate); units of allogenic transfusions; postoperative hemoglobin; costs; operative time; and complications. RevMan 5 software was used to perform statistical analyses. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios (with 95% CIs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs [95% CI]) for dichotomous and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS Eighteen studies with 2815 patients in total were included in the meta-analysis. During spine surgery, the use of intraoperative cell salvage did not reduce the intraoperative (OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.30, 1.41]), postoperative (OR -0.57 [95% CI 0.20, 1.59]), or total transfusion (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.43, 1.98]) rate. There was a reduction in the number of allogenic units transfused intraoperatively by a mean of 0.81 (95% CI -1.15, -0.48). However, there were no differences in the number of units transfused postoperatively (WMD -0.02 [95% CI -0.41, 0.38]) or the total units transfused (WMD 0.08 [95% CI -1.06, 1.22]). There were also no differences in operative time (WMD 19.36 [95% CI -2.43, 42.15]) or complications reported (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.46, 1.37]) between groups. A difference in postoperative hemoglobin (WMD 0.54 [95% CI 0.11, 0.98]) between both groups was observed. CONCLUSIONS Cell saver is efficacious at reducing intraoperative allogenic units transfused. There is no difference in transfusion rates, postoperative units transfused, and the total number of units transfused. Further cost analysis studies are necessary to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this method of blood conservation. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: therapeutic; study design: meta-analysis; strength of recommendation: low.
Patients undergoing spine surgery (18 studies, n=2815).
Use of intraoperative cell salvage.
The use of intraoperative cell salvage did not reduce the intraoperative, or total transfusion rate. There was a reduction in the number of allogenic units transfused intraoperatively by a mean of 0.81. However, there were no differences in the number of units transfused postoperatively or the total units transfused. There were also no differences in operative time or complications reported between groups. A difference in postoperative hemoglobin between both groups was observed.
[Safety of cell salvage in tumor surgery : Systematic review with meta-analysis]
BACKGROUND Allogeneic blood transfusion is avoidable in many oncological interventions by the use of cell salvage or mechanical autotransfusion (MAT). As irradiation is elaborate and expensive, the safety of leucocyte depletion filters (LDF) for autologous blood from the surgical field might be a more acceptable alternative for the prevention of cancer recurrences. A previous meta-analysis could not identify an increased risk of cancer recurrence. The aim of this review article is to provide an update of a previous meta-analysis from 2012 as well as a safety analysis of cell salvage with LDF due to the improved data situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS This systematic review included all studies in PubMed, Cochrane, Cochrane Reviews and Web of Science on cell salvage or autotransfusion combined with outcomes, e.g. cancer recurrence, mortality, survival, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay (LOS) after the use of MAT without irradiation and with or without LDF. The grades of recommendations (GRADE) assessment of underlying evidence was applied. RESULTS A total of seven new observational studies and seven meta-analyses were found that compared unfiltered or filtered cell salvage with autologous predeposition, allogeneic transfusion or without any transfusion. No randomized controlled trials have been completed. A total of 27 observational and cohort studies were included in a meta-analysis. The evidence level was low. The risk of cancer recurrence in recipients of autologous salvaged blood with or without LDF was reduced (odds ratio, OR 0.71, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.58-0.86) as compared to non-transfused subjects, allogeneic or predeposited autologous transfusion. The transfusion rate could not be assessed due to the substantial selection bias and large heterogeneity. Cell salvage does not change mortality and LOS. Leucocyte depletion studies reported a removal rate of cancer cells in the range of 99.6-99.9%. CONCLUSION Randomized controlled trials on a comparison of MAT and allogeneic blood transfusion as well as LDF and irradiation would be desirable but are not available. From observational trials and more than 6300 subjects and various tumors, cell salvage in cancer surgery with or without LDF appears to be sufficiently safe. The efficacy of leucocyte depletion of autologous salvaged blood is equivalent to irradiation. Unavailability of radiation is not a contraindication for cell salvage use in cancer surgery. By usage of leucocyte depleted salvaged autologous blood, the risks of allogeneic transfusion can be avoided.
Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment-refractory relapsing multiple sclerosis: Position statement from the american society for blood and marrow transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling, immune-mediated, central nervous system demyelinating and degenerative disease. Approved disease modifying therapies may be incompletely effective in some patients with highly active relapsing disease and high risk of disability. Immunoablative or myeloablative therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) has been investigated in retrospective studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses/systematic reviews as an approach to address this unmet clinical need. On behalf of the American Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), a panel of experts in AHCT and MS convened to review available evidence and make recommendations on MS as an indication for AHCT. Review of recent literature identified eight retrospective studies, eight clinical trials, and three meta-analyses/systematic reviews. In aggregate, these studies indicate that AHCT is an efficacious and safe treatment for active relapsing forms of MS to prevent clinical relapses, MRI lesion activity, and disability worsening, and to reverse disability, without unexpected adverse events. Based on the available evidence, the ASBMT recommends that treatment-refractory relapsing MS with high risk of future disability be considered a "standard of care, clinical evidence available" indication for AHCT. Collaboration of neurologists with expertise in treating MS and transplant physicians with experience performing AHCT for autoimmune disease is crucial for appropriate patient selection and optimizing transplant procedures to improve patient outcomes. Transplant centers in the United States and Canada are strongly encouraged to report baseline and outcomes data on patients receiving AHCT for multiple sclerosis to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
Meta-analysis comparing autologous blood-derived products (including platelet-rich plasma) injection versus placebo in patients with achilles tendinopathy
Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2018;34((6):):1966-1975 e5
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of autologous blood-derived products (ABP) injection with that of placebo (sham injection, no injection, or physiotherapy alone) in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2017. All published or unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two independent raters assessed the risk of bias of RCTs with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The primary outcome was Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were used for random effect meta-analysis. RESULTS Seven RCTs were enrolled in meta-analysis. The ABP injection and placebo revealed equal effectiveness in VISA-A score improvement at 4 to 6 weeks (short term, WMD 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.69, 6.27), 12 weeks (medium term, WMD 2.63, 95% CI: -1.72, 6.98), 24 weeks (long term, WMD 4.61, 95% CI: -1.25, 10.47), and 48 weeks (very long term, WMD 4.16, 95% CI: -6.82, 15.14). In meta-regression, there was no association between change in VISA-A score and duration of symptoms at 4 to 6 weeks (short term), 12 weeks (medium term), and 24 weeks (long term). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis revealed that ABP injection was not more effective than placebo (sham injection, no injection, or physiotherapy alone) in Achilles tendinopathy and that no association was found between therapeutic effects and duration of symptoms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I, meta-analysis of Level I studies.
Evaluation of Autologous Blood in Pterygium Surgery With Conjunctival Autograft
PURPOSE Autologous blood has been used exploratively with conjunctival autograft in pterygium surgery. However, it is controversial whether autologous blood performed better than other fixation methods, including fibrin glue and sutures. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of using autologous blood in pterygium surgery with conjunctival autograft. METHODS The study was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. The MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and Embase databases were systematically searched from their establishment until April 1, 2018. Randomized controlled trials comparing autologous blood with fibrin glue/suture in pterygium surgery with conjunctival autograft were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Outcome measurements were recurrence, graft displacement, graft retraction, and surgical duration. Review Manager 5.3 (Cochrane Community, Cochrane Collaboration, London, UK) was used to perform the statistical analysis. When I < 50%, statistical heterogeneity was considered acceptable, and a fixed-effects model was adopted; alternatively, the random-effects model was used. RESULTS Seven randomized controlled trials including 516 patients were finally included in the meta-analysis. Four studies with 379 patients compared autologous blood and fibrin glue. Autologous blood was inferior to fibrin glue with respect to surgical duration, graft retraction, and graft displacement. However, there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in terms of the recurrence rate. Four studies with 152 patients compared autologous blood and traditional suturing. Autologous blood was superior to sutures in terms of surgical duration and inferior to sutures in terms of graft retraction. No difference was detected in terms of graft displacement and recurrence rate. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, autologous blood is an appropriate method for graft fixation in pterygium surgery. Current research suggests that autologous blood derivatives may be a promising approach after pterygium excision. However, this requires further confirmation.
Cell salvage used in scoliosis surgery: is it really effective?
World Neurosurgery. 2017;101:568-576
BACKGROUND Scoliosis surgery is usually associated with large volume of intraoperative blood loss and cell salvage is commonly used to filter and retranfusion autologous blood to patients. However, the efficacy of using cell salvage in scoliosis surgery is still controversial. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to make clear that intraoperative use of cell salvage is effective to decrease the volume of perioperative allogenic blood transfusion in scoliosis surgery. METHOD A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the relevant studies from PubMed, EMbase, Medline, Cochrane library and Google scholar till July 2016. All randomized trials and controlled clinical studies comparing the clinical outcomes of using cell salvage versus noncell salvage in scoliosis surgery were retrieved for the meta-analysis. The data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. RESULTS A total of 7 studies with 562 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Based on the analysis, the volumes of perioperative and postoperative allogenic RBCs transfusion in cell salvage group were significantly less than those in control group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01). However, no significant difference was detected in the amount of intraoperative allogenic RBCs transfusion and the risk of patients needing allogenic blood transfusion between the two groups (P = 0.14 and P = 0.61). Both the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels on the first day after surgery were significantly higher in cell salvage group than those in control group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001). But no significant differences were noted in neither hemoglobin nor hematocirt level at the time of discharge between the two groups (P = 0.76 and P = 0.32). One of the included study reported the number of patients with complications related to transfusion in the two groups, which was not significant different (P = 0.507). CONCLUSIONS Cell salvage significantly reduced the volumes of perioperative and postoperative allogenic RBCs transfusion in scoliosis surgery and increased the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels on the first day postoperatively. In addition, it seemed not increase the rate of transfusion complications during the surgery.
Review: Autologous blood transfusion drainage compared with no drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 2017;30((6)):2321-2327.
This is the first meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficiency, safety and potential advantages regarding the use of ABT drains compared with no drainage which is controversial in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).A comprehensive literature search was carried out in March 2015 using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. A metaanalysis was carried out on two retrospective comparative studies (RCSs) and five randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The number of patients receiving homologous blood transfusion was the primary outcome of the meta-analysis; the secondary outcome measure was the mean drop in Hb level in comparison to the mean pre-operative HB level, the range of flexion of the knee joint, and infections of the wound after surgery. A total of 868 patients, who were included in two retrospective studies and five RCTs, were distributed into subgroups for the meta-analysis. This pooled data showed no benefit of ABT drainage compared no drainage in the homologous blood transfusion rate (13.05% and 16.91%, OR:0.73[0.47,1.13], Z=1.41, P=0.016; and 3.49% and 6.54%, OR: 0.50[0.12,2.01], Z=0.98,P=0.033,respectively in subgroups), Hb drop (Weight mean differences (WMD): 0.20[-0.28,0.68], Z=0.82, P=0.41; WMD:0.16[-0.41,0.55], Z=0.93, P=0.35, respectively), range of flexion of the knee joint (WMD:-0.82 [-3.35,1.70], Z =0.64,P=0.52)and wound infection (OR:0.25[0.61,10.20]; Z =1.28, p=0.2) after TKA surgery. Our findings do not recommend the routine use of postoperative ABT drainage in total knee arthroplasty. Well-designed RCTs with large sample sizes, longer term measures and extensive follow-up period should be performed in the future to update the findings of this study.
The efficacy and safety of autologous blood transfusion drainage in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials
Bmc Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2016;17((1)):452.
BACKGROUND Autologous blood transfusion drainage (ABTD) has been used for many years to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluate the current evidence concerning the efficiency and safety of ABTD used in TKA compared with conventional suction drainage (CSD). METHODS We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of ABTD versus CSD in TKA were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS Sixteen RCTs involving 1534 patients who compared the effects of ABTD versus CSD were included. Five of the RCTs were performed in Asia, ten in Europe, and one in North America. Patients in the ABTD group had a lower blood transfusion rate (OR: 0.25 [0.13, 0.47]; Z = 4.27, P < 0.0001) and fewer units transfused per patient (WMD: -0.68 [-0.98, -0.39]; Z = 4. 52, P < 0.00001) than did patients in the CSD group. Wound complications, deep vein thrombosis, febrile complications, post-operative hemoglobin days 5-8, drainage volume, and length of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the two types of drainage systems. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that ABTD is a safe and effective method that yields a lower blood transfusion rate and fewer units transfused per patient in TKA compared with CSD.
Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2016;53((3):):483-491.
BACKGROUND Lateral epicondylitis is a common painful elbow disorder. Several approaches to treatment have been proposed, with a local injection of corticosteroids being the most frequently used. Recent insights into the pathophysiology encouraged the introduction of autologous blood injections as an alternative treatment method. AIM: The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize quantitatively the evidence regarding the efficacy of corticosteroids and autologous blood injections for treatment of pain in lateral epicondylitis. DESIGN Meta-analysis. SETTING Outpatient treatment. POPULATION Studies were considered eligible based on the following inclusion criteria: adult human, diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids versus autologous blood injections, pain assessment. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis or for other elbow disorders, concurrent treatment with drugs or physiotherapy, diagnosis of musculoskeletal systemic disorder. METHODS A systematic search of literature was performed according to PRISMA statement. Effect size of each included study was calculated and analyzed in a random-effects model. RESULTS Four studies, enrolling total of 218 patients (139 females and 79 males), were included in quantitative analysis. At 2 weeks there was a trend towards a reduction of VAS score in the corticosteroid group (WMD = 2.12 [95% CI: 4.38 to 0.14], P=0.07). No significant differences were recorded in the medium-term (4-12 weeks; WMD = 0.85 [95% CI: -0.44 to 2.15], P= 0.19) and long-term (24 weeks; WMD = 0.63 [95% CI: -2.40 to 3.66], P= 0.68) follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Few high-quality trials compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and autologous blood injections in the control of pain related to lateral epicondylitis. Available data indicate that corticosteroids tend to reduce VAS score in short-term follow-up, although these data are not statistically significant. No differences were recorded in the medium and long term. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT Contrary to popular opinion among medical professionals, and despite pathophysiological cues, the currently available data offer no support for the effectiveness of autologous blood injections in medium- and long- term follow-up. Further studies are necessary to establish which treatment has more impact on pain in lateral epicondylitis. These data could be then used as a basis for practical guidelines and new protocols of treatment.
Washed cell salvage in surgical patients: a review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials under PRISMA
BACKGROUND Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. RESULTS Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P < 0.001), resulting in an average saving of 0.20 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (weighted mean differences [WMD] = -0.20; 95% CI -0.22 to -0.18; P < 0.001), reduced risk of infection by 28% (RR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97; P = 0.03), reduced length of hospital stay by 2.31 days (WMD = -2.31; 95% CI -2.50 to -2.11; P < 0.001), but did not significantly affect risk of mortality (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.34; P = 0.66). No statistical difference could be observed in the number of patients exposed to re-operation, plasma, platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. CONCLUSIONS Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery.