A Network Meta-Analysis of Two Doses of Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin for Treating Sepsis-Related Thrombocytopenia
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2022;2022:2124019
Previous studies suggest that sepsis remains a common critical illness with a global incidence of 31.5 million. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative therapeutic value of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in treating sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia. We conducted a comprehensive electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and CNKI from its inception through December 31, 2021. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 963 patients were included. Network meta-analyses showed that rhTPO 300 U/kg/day and rhTPO 15000 U/day significantly increased the platelet (PLT) levels on the 7(th) day and decreased the requirement of transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, and PLT compared with IVIG and NAT. SUCRA showed that rhTPO 300 U/kg/day ranked first in terms of 28-day mortality (85.5%) and transfusion, including RBC (88.7%), plasma (89.6%), and PLT (95.2%), while rhTPO 15000 U/day ranked first for the length of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay (95.9%) and PLT level at day 7 (91.6%). rhTPO 300 U/kg/day may be the optimal dose to reduce 28-day mortality and transfusion requirements. However, rhTPO 15000 U/day may be the optimal dose for shortening the ICU stay and increasing the PLT level on the 7th day. However, additional studies to further validate our findings are needed.
[The role of recombinant human thrombopoietin in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia: a clinical study]
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2020;32(12):1445-1449
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of recombinant human thrombogenin (rhTPO) on sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. One hundred patients with sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia admitted to the department of critical care medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2019 to October 2020 were enrolled. The enrolled patients were divided into rhTPO-using group (TPO group) and routine group (control group) by random number table method, with 50 cases in each group. Both groups were treated according to the guideline of Sepsis-3. In addition, TPO group received rhTPO 15 000 U, once daily for 7 days. Geneal information and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) were recorded. The levels of platelet count (PLT), blood coagulation function [prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTA)], myocardial enzyme indexes [troponin (Tn) and creatine kinase (CK)], liver and kidney function [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) and creatinine (Cr)] and inflammatory biomarkers [procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] were recorded before treatment and 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment. The infusion volume of blood components, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in ICU, total length of hospitalization, total cost of hospitalization and 28-day outcome were recorded. According to whether the PLT was lower than 50×10(9)/L, the patients in TPO group were divided into the TPO A group (PLT ≥ 50×10(9)/L, 16 cases) and TPO B group (PLT < 50×10(9)/L, 34 cases), and the absolute value of PLT increase, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in ICU, total length of hospitalization, total cost of hospitalization and 28-day outcome of the two groups were compared. RESULTS (1) In TPO and control groups, there were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, proportion of patients with primary infection site, APACHEII score, PLT, coagulation function, myocardial enzymes, liver and kidney function and inflammation indexes before treatment (all P > 0.05). (2) The PLT levels of the TPO group were significantly higher than those of the control group on the 5th and 7th day after treatment (×10(9)/L: day 5, 63.94±44.01 vs. 49.85±29.26, day 7, 125.85±112.31 vs. 76.81±50.87, both P < 0.05), and there were no statistically significant differences in PT, PTA, Tn, CK, AST, TBil, Cr, PCT or CRP before and on the 1, 3, 5, 7 days after treatment between TPO and control groups (all P > 0.05). (3) The amount of platelet transfusion in the TPO group was lower than that in the control group [treatment amount: 0 (0, 0) vs 0 (0, 2.00), P = 0.001]. (4) There were no statistically significant differences in mechanical ventilation time, length of stay in ICU, total length of hospitalization, total cost of hospitalization or 28-day outcome between TPO and control groups (all P > 0.05). The mechanical ventilation time, ICU stay time and total hospitalization time of TPO A group were longer than those in TPO B group, but the differences were not statistically significant [mechanical ventilation time (hours): 131.00 (0, 311.00) vs. 50.00 (0, 192.00), ICU stay time (days): 14.44±8.57 vs. 11.73±9.24, total hospitalization time (days): 15.00 (6.00, 23.50) vs. 18.00 (8.00, 31.00), all P > 0.05]. The absolute value of PLT increase in TPO A group was higher than that of TPO B group, but the difference was not statistically significant [×10(9)/L: 65.00 (16.50, 131.50) vs. 36.00 (18.00, 130.00), P > 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS RhTPO can significantly increase the PLT of patients with sepsis-related thrombocytopenia, thereby reduce the amount of platelet transfusion, but it cannot shorten the length of ICU stay time and total hospitalization time, and it cannot reduce 28-day mortality.
Efficacy and Safety of Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin on Sepsis Patients With Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:940
BACKGROUND The efficacy and safety of the administration of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia were still inconclusive. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether rhTPO is a benefit for sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia. METHODS PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database were electronically searched to the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to March 4, 2020. The primary outcome was the level of platelet (PLT) on the 7(th) day of treatment, and secondary outcomes were 28-d mortality, the level of coagulation indicators, hepatic and renal function indicators, blood transfusion, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. RESULTS Ten RCTs involving 681 patients were included. For compared with conventional antibiotic therapy, rhTPO could significantly increase platelet counts (PCs) [standardized mean difference (SMD), 2.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.94; P < 0.001], decreased 28-d mortality [relative risk (RR), 0.66; 95%CI, 0.46-0.97; P=0.03], transfusion volume of blood products and length of ICU stay. Additionally, for compared with conventional antibiotic therapy combined with intravenous immunoglobulin, the pooled results shown that rhTPO also associated with an improvement of PCs on 7(th) of treatment (SMD, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.54-1.17; P < 0.001), and a reduced transfusion volume of blood products. However, there were no differences in 28-d mortality and the length of ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence shown that rhTPO could increase PCs on 7(th) day of treatment and reduce the transfusion volume of blood products in sepsis-related thrombocytopenia during hospitalization. The conclusions are needed to be verified indeed by more multicenter RCTs due to the limitation of the included studies.
The effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) on sepsis patients with acute severe thrombocytopenia: a study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RESCUE trial)
BMC infectious diseases. 2019;19(1):780
BACKGROUND Sepsis is still a common critical disease with high morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. Despite published guidelines for sepsis, development of antibiotic therapy and advanced organ support technologies, the mortality of sepsis patients is still 25% or more. It is necessary to distinguish the subtypes of sepsis, and the targeted therapy for the patients need to be explored. Platelets have various biological functions in hemostasis and thrombosis, host defense, inflammatory/immune responses and tissue repair/regeneration. Moreover, severe thrombocytopenia or sustained thrombocytopenia was closely associated with multiply organ dysfunction and higher mortality in sepsis patients. The clinical therapies for thrombocytopenia are platelet transfusion and platelet-elevating drugs. However, platelet transfusion has many defects in clinical practice in sepsis patients, and the impact of platelet-elevating drugs for sepsis patients is still unclear. RESCUE trial is aim to explore the effect of a platelet-elevating drug, recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO), as an effective rescue therapy on sepsis patients with acute severe thrombocytopenia. METHODS It is a randomized, open-label, multi-center, controlled trial in 5 tertiary academic hospitals including medical, surgical or general ICUs. In this study, a total of 200 sepsis patients with severe thrombocytopenia will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the control and rhTPO group. The patients will be followed up to 28 days after randomization. All patients in two groups receive the same treatment based on the guideline of Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Primary outcome is 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes are the changes of PCs, blood transfusion, biomarkers of infection and organ function, days free from advanced organ support, drug-related adverse events, the length of ICU and hospital stay. DISCUSSION RESCUE trial is the first randomized controlled trial to explore the impact of rhTPO for severe thrombocytopenia in sepsis patients diagnosed by sepsis-3.0 standard. Furthermore, RESCUE trial results will be of significant clinical value on the targeted therapy and add clinical evidence that rhTPO is an effective rescue therapy for these sepsis patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02707497. Registered Date: March 3rd, 2016. Protocol Version 3. Protocol Date: January 25th, 2019.
Evaluating the safety and efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin among severe sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND Sepsis is still a major health problem that causes high mortality in all populations. Organ dysfunction including sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia is prevalent among sepsis patients, resulting in increasing mortality rates. Considering the clinical role of platelets, thrombocytopenia in sepsis has led to a large spend in research activity and clinical trials in this area, yet there is no consensus upon which treatment should be administered. As a result, platelet transfusion is often indicated to resolve low platelet counts, leading to an increasing risk of the multiple risks transfusion brings, such as infectious or immune system complications. Given the role of thrombopoietin in stimulating proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes, our previous study investigated the potential benefits of recombinant human thrombopoietin in severe sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia. However, there are several limitations in the study, which may have led to bias in our conclusion. Thus, we are conducting this study in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin in a large, varied population. METHODS/DESIGN The study is designed as a randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled, multi-center study in tertiary academic centers for evaluating the safety and efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin over placebo. An established total of 708 patients with sepsis and thrombocytopenia will undergo prospective random assignment to recombinant human thrombopoietin or placebo (a 1:1 ratio). The primary endpoint is 7-day all-cause mortality and 28-day all-cause mortality. DISCUSSION To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin among severe sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia in a varied population. With our study, the level of evidence for the treatment of these patients will be significantly raised. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02094248 . Registration date: 23 March 2014.