Avatrombopag for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with non-haematological malignancies: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2022;9(3):e179-e189
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia is common and causes chemotherapy dose reductions or treatment delays, bleeding, and suboptimal oncological outcomes. We aimed to evaluate avatrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist that increases platelet counts, in patients with non-haematological cancer and platelet counts lower than 50 ×10(9) cells per L. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, patients aged 18 years or older at 71 hospitals or cancer treatment centres in China, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine, and the USA and with ovarian, bladder, or lung cancer receiving chemotherapy who had severe thrombocytopenia were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral avatrombopag 60 mg or oral placebo once daily given 5 days before and after chemotherapy, with randomisation stratified by number of chemotherapy drugs used. Patients, investigators, and data collectors were masked to group allocation. Eligibility required two previous lines of chemotherapy or fewer, an ECOG performance status of 2 or less, and no previous history of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The composite primary endpoint was the proportion of responders not requiring platelet transfusion or either a 15% or more chemotherapy dose reduction or a 4-day or more chemotherapy delay due to thrombocytopenia following study treatment until the start of the subsequent cycle. Analyses were done on the intention-to-treat and per protocol populations. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of avatrombopag. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03471078, and has been completed. FINDINGS Between Oct 12, 2018, and June 28, 2020, 122 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive avatrombopag (n=82) or placebo (n=40). Median follow-up was 31 days (IQR 22-61). Similar proportions of patients reached the primary endpoint in the avatrombopag and placebo groups (intention-to-treat: 57 [70%, 95% CI 58-79] of 82 vs 29 [73%, 95% CI 56-85] of 40; difference -3·0% (95% CI -21·6 to 15·6); p=0·72; per protocol: 51 [85%, 95% CI 73-93] of 60 vs 27 [84%, 95% CI 67-95] of 32; 0·6% (95% CI -20·8 to 22·1); p=0·96). 15 (18%) of 82 patients had serious adverse events in the avatrombopag group and eight (20%) of 40 in the placebo group, of which thrombocytopenia was most common (4 [5%] of 82 and 4 [10%] of 40 patients). Common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (22 [27%] of 82 and 16 [40%] of 40 patients), leukopenia (19 [23%] of 82 and 5 [13%] of 40), anaemia (16 [20%] of 82 and 9 [23%] of 40), and thrombocytopenia (16 [20%] of 82 and 14 [35%] of 40). Most adverse events were considered unrelated to study drug. No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION In this population of patients with non-haematological malignancies who are relatively chemotherapy naive, chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia treatment outcomes were similar between the avatrombopag and placebo groups. Given its safety and ability to augment platelet counts in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, evaluation of avatrombopag in populations with more persistent chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia is warranted. FUNDING Dova Pharmaceuticals, a Sobi company.
Romiplostim for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia: Efficacy and safety of extended use
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;6(3):e12701
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is common during treatment with antineoplastic therapies and may adversely impact chemotherapy dose intensity. There is no approved therapy for CIT. In our recent phase II randomized study, romiplostim led to correction of platelet counts in 85% of treated patients and allowed resumption of chemotherapy, with low rates of recurrent CIT in the first two cycles or 8 weeks of chemotherapy. However, there is a lack of long-term data on the efficacy and safety of romiplostim in CIT. OBJECTIVES To analyze efficacy and safety of romiplostim in the patients in the phase 2 study, who received romiplostim for ≥1 year. PATIENTS/METHODS Twenty-one patients remained on romiplostim for ≥1 year. We analyzed the effect of romiplostim on platelet counts, absolute neutrophil counts, and hemoglobin, as well as impact on ongoing chemotherapy. We also tracked venous or arterial thrombotic events. RESULTS During the study period, romiplostim was effective in preventing reduction of chemotherapy dose intensity due to CIT. Fourteen of the 20 (70%) analyzable patients experienced no episode of CIT, 4 subjects experienced a single chemotherapy dose delay due CIT, and 2 patients required a chemotherapy dose reduction. Platelet counts were preserved throughout the duration of the extension analysis. One patient experienced a proximal deep vein thrombosis, and one patient experienced multiple tumor-related ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS Long-term use of romiplostim for treatment of CIT was effective and safe, with no evidence of resistance or increased risk of thrombosis.
Recombinant human thrombopoietin prior to mobilization chemotherapy facilitates platelet recovery in autologous transplantation in patients with lymphoma: Results of a prospective randomized study
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2021;7(3):190-198
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) regimen is one of the available approaches to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). It causes thrombocytopenia and delays leukapheresis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) before mobilization chemotherapy in facilitating leukapheresis in patients with lymphoma. METHODS In this randomized open-label phase 2 trial, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive mobilization with rhTPO plus GCSF in combination with chemotherapy (the rhTPO plus GCSF arm) or GCSF alone in combination with chemotherapy (the GCSF alone arm). The recovery of neutrophils and platelets and the amount of platelet transfusion were monitored. RESULTS Thirty patients were enrolled in this study between March 2016 and August 2018. Patients in the rhTPO plus GCSF arm (n = 10) had similar platelet nadir after mobilization chemotherapy (P=0.878) and similar amount of platelet transfusion (median 0 vs. 1 unit, P=0.735) when compared with the GCSF alone arm (n = 20). On the day of leukapheresis, the median platelet count was 86 × 10(9)/L (range 18-219) among patients who received rhTPO and 73 × 10(9)/L (range 42-197) among those who received GCSF alone (P=0.982). After the use of rhTPO, the incidence of platelet count <75 × 10(9)/L on the day of leukapheresis did not decrease significantly (30.0% vs. 50.0%, P=0.297). Platelet recovery after PBPC transfusion was more rapid in the rhTPO plus GCSF arm (median 8.0 days [95% confidence interval 2.9-13.1] to platelets ≥50 × 10(9)/L vs. 11.0 days [95% confidence interval 8.6-13.4], P=0.011). The estimated total cost of the mobilization and reconstitution phases per patient was similar between the two treatmtent groups (P=0.362 and P=0.067, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that there was no significant clinical benefit of rhTPO use in facilitating mobilization of progenitor cells, but it may promote platelet recovery in the reconstitution phase after high-dose therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION This trial has been registered in Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03014102.
Eltrombopag treatment during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia: a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study
The Lancet. Haematology. 2019
BACKGROUND Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia frequently have thrombocytopenia during induction chemotherapy. Eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, stimulates platelet production by a similar mechanism to endogenous thrombopoietin. This study investigated safety and efficacy of eltrombopag versus placebo during anthracycline-based induction treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study, treatment-naive patients were recruited from clinical centres across 10 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Greece, Hungary, Israel, South Korea, Poland, Russia, and the USA). Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia of any subtype except M3 and M7 were stratified by antecedent malignant haematological disorder (yes or no) and age (18-60 years or >60 years) and were then randomly assigned (1:1) using an automated interactive voice-response system randomisation schedule. Investigators and patients were blinded to study treatment. Starting on day 4, patients received standard induction chemotherapy (daunorubicin bolus intravenous infusion on days 1-3 [90 mg/m(2) for patients aged 18-60 years or 60 mg/m(2) for patients aged >60 years], plus cytarabine continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-7 [100 mg/m(2)]), with eltrombopag 200 mg (100 mg for east Asians) or placebo once daily, until platelet counts were 200 x 10(9)/L or higher, until remission, or after 42 days from the start of induction chemotherapy. The primary objective of the study was safety and tolerability assessed by adverse events, changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and clinical laboratory parameters in all treated patients. This study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01890746. FINDINGS Between Sept 7, 2013, and Jan 30, 2015, 149 patients were assessed for eligibility and 148 were then randomly assigned to receive eltrombopag (n=74) and placebo (n=74). Groups were matched in mean (SD) age (56.7 years [12.3] in the eltrombopag group vs 56.6 years [11.6] in the placebo group), mean (SD) initial platelet count (59.5 x 10(9)/L [43.3] vs 63.7 x 10(9)/L [48.0]), and poor-risk karyotype (16 [22%] of 74 patients in both groups). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events (≥10% in either group) were febrile neutropenia (31 [42%] vs 28 [39%]), decreased white blood cell count (8 [11%] vs 5 [7%]), and hypophosphataemia (3 [4%] vs 9 [13%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 24 (32%) patients in the eltrombopag group compared with 14 (20%) patients in the placebo group. 39 (53%) patients in the eltrombopag group died versus 29 (41%) patients in the placebo group. Thromboembolic events (5 [7%] vs 4 [6%]) and mean (SD) change in LVEF (-2.5% [7.8] vs -4.3% [8.5]) were similar. INTERPRETATION Data from this trial do not support combining eltrombopag with induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. FUNDING Novartis Pharma AG.
Efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia: a meta-analysis
Background and Aim: Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) have been shown to be safe and effective for adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists for children with chronic ITP. Materials and Methods: Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of TPO-RAs in pediatric ITP patients published up to June 2017 were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Relevant data were extracted, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale was used to assess the methodological quality. Stata/SE 12.0 was used to perform a meta-analysis. Results: Seven RCTs were included, with 238 patients and 107 patients in the TPO-RA group and the control group, respectively. Assessing efficacy, better results were found in the TPO-RA group for the rate of overall platelet response, durable response, and rescue medication needed. Furthermore, the TPO-RA group yielded superior results in the incidence of clinically significant bleeding events but had a comparable result in the incidence of any bleeding events and severe bleeding events. No significant difference was found between the two groups in health-related quality of life and parental burden. Assessing safety, no significant difference was found between the two groups in the incidence of any adverse events and severe adverse events. Conclusions: TPO-RAs are effective and safe agents for the treatment of chronic ITP in pediatric patients. Eltrombopag appears to be better than romiplostim in terms of the rate of rescue medication needed and clinically significant bleeding events.
Eltrombopag for thrombocytopenia in patients with advanced solid tumors receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 study
International Journal of Hematology. 2017;106((6):):765-776
In this phase 2 study, patients with solid tumors receiving gemcitabine monotherapy or gemcitabine plus cisplatin/carboplatin were randomized 2:1 to eltrombopag 100 mg (n = 52) or placebo (n = 23) for 5 days before and after chemotherapy was started. The primary endpoint was prechemotherapy (Day 1) platelet count across ≤6 cycles. Prechemotherapy platelet counts were numerically higher with eltrombopag than placebo. Frequencies of grades 3/4 thrombocytopenia were lower with eltrombopag in both the combination therapy (77 vs. 100%) and monotherapy (36 vs. 42%) groups. Proportionately fewer eltrombopag-treated patients had platelet counts <100 x 109/L at nadir. Among patients receiving combination chemotherapy, mean time to recovery from platelet nadir was 8 days with eltrombopag vs. 15 days with placebo. Eltrombopag-treated patients had fewer dose delays/reductions or missed doses due to thrombocytopenia in both the combination therapy (77 vs. 91%) and monotherapy (62 vs. 83%) groups. Adverse events and serious adverse events were less frequent with eltrombopag in both chemotherapy groups, with reduced rates of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia in patients receiving combination chemotherapy. In conclusion, eltrombopag treatment shortened the time to recovery from platelet nadir in patients treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy and reduced dose delays/reductions due to thrombocytopenia.
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with solid tumours
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;11:CD012035.
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is defined as a peripheral platelet count less than 100x10(9)/L, with or without bleeding in cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. CIT is a significant medical problem during chemotherapy, and it carries the risk of sub-optimal overall survival and bleeding. Alternative interventions to platelet transfusion are limited. Different stages of preclinical and clinical studies have examined the thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) for CIT in patients with solid tumours. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of TPO-RAs to prevent and treat CIT in patients with solid tumours:(1) to prevent CIT in patients without thrombocytopenia before chemotherapy, (2) to prevent recurrence of CIT, and (3) to treat CIT in patients with thrombocytopenia during chemotherapy. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, to 28 September 2017), MEDLINE (from 1950 to 28 September 2017), as well as online registers of ongoing trials (Clinical Trials, Chinese Clinical Trial Register, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, WHO ICTRP Search Portal, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Study Register, and Amgen Clinical Trials) and conference proceedings (American Society of Hematology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Hematology Association, European Society of Medical Oncology, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, from 2002 up to September 2017) for studies. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TPO-RAs alone, or in combination with other drugs, to placebo, no treatment, other drugs, or another TPO-RAs for CIT in patients with solid tumours. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently screened the results of the search strategies, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and analysed data according to standard methodological methods expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS We identified six trials eligible for inclusion, of which two are ongoing, and one awaiting classification study. The three included trials were conducted at many different sites in Europe, America, and Asia. All of the three studies recruited adult and elder participants (no children were included) with solid tumours, and compared TPO-RAs with placebo. No studies compared TPO-RAs alone, or in combination with other drugs, to no treatment, or other drugs, or another TPO-RAs.We judged the overall risk of bias as high as we found a high risk for detection bias. We assessed the risk of bias arising from inadequate blinding of outcome assessors as high for number and severity of bleeding episodes (one of the primary outcomes).To prevent CIT: We included two trials (206 participants) comparing TPO-RAs (eltrombopag, multiple-dose oral administration with chemotherapy) with placebo. The use of TPO-RAs may make little or no difference to the all-cause mortality at 33 weeks of follow-up (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.53 to 3.45; one trial, 26 participants; low quality of evidence). There is not enough evidence to determine whether TPO-RAs reduce the number of patients with at least one bleeding episode of any severity (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.78; two trials, 206 participants; very low quality of evidence). There is not enough evidence to determine whether TPO-RAs reduce the number of patients with at least one severe/life-threatening bleeding episode (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06 to 2.06; two trials, 206 participants; very low quality of evidence). No studies were found that looked at overall survival (one of the primary outcomes), the number of treatment cycles with at least one bleeding episode, the number of days on which bleeding occurred, the amount of bleeding, or quality of life.To prevent recurrence of CIT: We included one trial (62 participants) comparing TPO-RAs (romiplostim, single-dose subcutaneous administration with chemotherapy) with placebo. There is not enough evidence to determine whether TPO-RAs reduce the number of patients wit
Eltrombopag with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors: a randomized phase I study
Cancer Medicine. 2015;4((1):):16-26.
Preventing chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia could avoid chemotherapy dose reductions and delays. The safety and maximum tolerated dose of eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, with gemcitabine-based therapy was evaluated. Patients with advanced solid tumors and platelets <300 x 10(9) /L receiving gemcitabine plus cisplatin or carboplatin (Group A) or gemcitabine monotherapy (Group B) were randomized 3:1 to receive eltrombopag or placebo at a starting dose of 100 mg daily administered on days -5 to -1 and days 2-6 starting from cycle 2 of treatment. Nineteen patients (Group A, n = 9; Group B, n = 10) received eltrombopag 100 mg and seven (Group A, n = 3; Group B, n = 4) received matching placebo. Nine eltrombopag patients in Group A and eight in Group B had 38 and 54 occurrences of platelet counts >400 x 10(9) /L, respectively. Mean platelet nadirs across cycles 2-6 were 115 x 10(9) /L and 143 x 10(9) /L for eltrombopag-treated patients versus 53 x 10(9) /L and 103 x 10(9) /L for placebo-treated patients in Groups A and B, respectively. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported for eltrombopag; however, due to several occurrences of thrombocytosis, a decision was made not to dose-escalate eltrombopag to >100 mg daily. In Groups A and B, 14% of eltrombopag versus 50% of placebo patients required chemotherapy dose reductions and/or delays for any reason across cycles 3-6. Eltrombopag 100 mg once daily administered 5 days before and after day 1 of chemotherapy was well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile, and will be further tested in a phase II trial. Fewer patients receiving eltrombopag required chemotherapy dose delays and/or reductions compared with those receiving placebo. Copyright 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose ranging study to assess the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in patients receiving carboplatin/paclitaxel for advanced solid tumors
Current Medical Research & Opinion. 2010;26((10):):2339-46.
OBJECTIVES Eltrombopag, an oral, nonpeptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been shown to increase platelet counts in adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia and chronic hepatitis C. This multicenter phase 2 study assessed the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in patients receiving first-line carboplatin/paclitaxel for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients (N = 183) were randomized to placebo or eltrombopag 50 mg, 75 mg, or 100 mg given orally following chemotherapy on days 2 through 11 of each 21-day cycle, for at least two cycles. The primary endpoint was the difference in platelet count from day 1 in cycle 2 to the platelet nadir in cycle 2. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER NCT00102726. RESULTS Although the primary endpoint was not met, postnadir platelet counts increased during cycles 1 and 2 in all eltrombopag treatment groups compared with placebo. The most commonly reported adverse events across all study arms (including placebo) were nausea and alopecia and eltrombopag was generally well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS This study provides preliminary information that eltrombopag does increase platelets in patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced solid tumors. Further investigation is needed to identify the optimal dose(s) and schedule of eltrombopag in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
Hepatobiliary (HB) safety of eltrombopag administered after carboplatin+paclitaxel (Carb+Pac) in patients (pts) with solid tumors
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009;27((15_suppl)):e20667.
e20667 Background: Eltrombopag is an oral, small molecule, non-peptide, TPO-receptor agonist studied for the treatment of thrombocytopenia (TCP) due to various causes, including chemotherapy (CT)-induced TCP and is approved for the treatment of chronic ITP in the US. Since eltrombopag is excreted primarily through the liver and liver function is an important safety parameter, HB lab values and AEs were analyzed in a double-blind, placebo (pbo)-controlled, multicenter ph II study. METHODS The safety of eltrombopag was evaluated in adults with advanced solid tumors (mainly NSCLC and ovarian). Pts received up to 8 cycles of Carb (AUC 5-6 IV) + Pac (175-225 mg/m2 IV), both administered on day 1 q 21 days. 183 pts were randomized to eltrombopag 50, 75, 100mg, or pbo (1:1:1:1). Eltrombopag or pbo were taken from Day 2 - 11 in each cycle of CT. RESULTS Baseline characteristics, prior medical conditions and number of CT cycles during the study were similar between the treatment groups. At baseline, one pt reported liver metastases (75mg group). Similar numbers of pts had HB lab abnormalities in all groups ( table ). Additionally, HB AEs (34 AEs) occurred in 15 pts across all treatment groups ( table ). CONCLUSIONS In this study, eltrombopag did not increase the incidence of HB AEs or HB lab abnormalities compared to pbo. [Table: see text] [Table: see text].