Lusutrombopag for thrombocytopenia in Chinese patients with chronic liver disease undergoing invasive procedures
Hepatology International. 2023;17(1):180-189
PURPOSE Probing efficacy and safety of lusutrombopag in Chinese chronic liver disease (CLD) and severe thrombocytopenia (PLT < 50 × 10(9)/L) patients undergoing elective invasive procedures. METHODS In this double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 study, 66 patients with CLD and severe thrombocytopenia were randomized 2:1 to lusutrombopag or placebo arm treatment regimens for seven days at 9 centers in China. Responders (PLT ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L that increased to ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L from the baseline and not received rescue therapy for bleeding) on Day 8 (the day after seven-day treatment) were assessed. PLT ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L on or after Day 8 and within 2 days before invasive procedure (alternative criteria for not requiring platelet transfusion) were also analyzed. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. RESULTS The proportion of responders on Day 8 was evidently higher (p = 0.0011) in the lusutrombopag group (43.2%, 19/44) versus placebo (4.5%, 1/22). And 72.7% (32/44) patients receiving lusutrombopag met the alternative criteria for not requiring platelet transfusion, while 18.2% (4/22) in the placebo group. The median maximum PLT in lusutrombopag group increased to 80.5 × 10(9)/L, and median time to reach maximum was 14.5 days. Compared with placebo, the lusutrombopag group had a lower incidence of bleeding events (6.8% versus 13.6%), and only one patient had thrombotic-related AE. Overall, the incidence of treatment-emergent AEs was comparable between two groups. CONCLUSIONS Lusutrombopag was effective in raising PLT, diminishing platelet transfusion requirement, and documented a safety profile like the placebo in CLD and severe thrombocytopenia patients in a Chinese cohort undergoing elective invasive procedures. Chinese clinical trial registration number: CTR20192384.
Phase 2 Study of Avatrombopag in Japanese Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Thrombocytopenia
Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology. 2022
AIM: Avatrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can reduce the need for platelet transfusions or rescue interventions for bleeding in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and thrombocytopenia undergoing scheduled procedures. A model analysis indicated that the effect of avatrombopag on platelet production was reduced in East Asian versus non-East Asian patients; however, the difference was deemed not clinically significant. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis of pooled Phase 3 trials showed similar avatrombopag efficacy across racial subgroups. The aim of this Phase 2 study was to corroborate the efficacy and safety of avatrombopag in Japanese patients with thrombocytopenia due to CLD. METHODS Japanese patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia were randomized to receive placebo or avatrombopag 20, 40, or 60 mg daily for 5 days. The primary endpoint was responder rate in platelet counts at Visit 4 (10-13 days after treatment initiation), defined as the proportion of patients with platelet count ≥50×10(9) /L and ≥20×10(9) /L increase from baseline. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were randomized and completed the study (placebo, n=11; avatrombopag 20 mg, n=7; 40 mg, n=11; 60 mg, n=10). Avatrombopag treatment was associated with significant increases in responder rate at Visit 4 in the 40 mg (63.6%; P=0.004) and 60 mg (40%; P=0.024) groups versus placebo (9.1%). Avatrombopag was well tolerated and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSIONS Efficacy and safety results from this study were consistent with previous studies in patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia undergoing elective procedures, supporting treatment with avatrombopag in the Japanese population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02227693. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Avatrombopag ethnic sensitivity analysis in chronic liver disease and thrombocytopenia patients: individual-level pooled analysis
Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology. 2022;15:17562848221105976
INTRODUCTION Few data have been published on the ethnic sensitivity of effectiveness, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of avatrombopag for the management of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS An ethnic sensitivity analysis was performed based on the results from two phase III studies (ADAPT-1 and ADAPT-2), with a primary endpoint of the proportion of patients without the requirement of platelet transfusion or rescue treatment for bleeding after randomization to 7 days following a scheduled procedure, and three phase I studies in healthy subjects. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the differences in effectiveness in different ethnicities and overall population. RESULTS In total, 435 patients (placebo, n = 158; avatrombopag, n = 277) were stratified into various ethnic groups: 121 East Asians, including the subgroup of 27 Chinese, and 259 Caucasians. The proportion of patients who did not receive a platelet transfusion and those with a platelet count ⩾50 × 10(9)/L in the avatrombopag 40 and 60 mg groups were higher than that of placebo for all ethnicities and in the overall population. Statistical significance was obtained in the overall population and for all ethnicities other than Chinese patients, a group with a very small sample size. No significant difference was observed in the proportion of responders in each ethnic group compared to overall population (p > 0.05). The incidence of adverse events in East Asians was similar to that in both Caucasians and the overall population. CONCLUSION Avatrombopag was effective and safe in the management of thrombocytopenia in Chinese patients with CLD. Ethnicity does not appear to influence the efficacy, safety, PK, or PD of avatrombopag.
Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis: Efficacy and Safety of Lusutrombopag for Severe Thrombocytopenia in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease Undergoing Invasive Procedures
Advances in Therapy. 2022;39(9):4169-4188
INTRODUCTION Lusutrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA). Clinical trials have shown lusutrombopag's efficacy in reducing need for preoperative platelet transfusion in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and severe thrombocytopenia. This analysis assessed efficacy and safety of lusutrombopag in patients with severe thrombocytopenia and CLD undergoing planned invasive procedures. METHODS An electronic database search (through 1 December 2020) identified three randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials comparing lusutrombopag with placebo in patients with CLD and platelet count below 50 × 10(9)/L scheduled to undergo a procedure with a perioperative bleeding risk. A random-effects meta-analysis examined treatment effect, with Cochrane Collaboration's tool assessing risk of bias. RESULTS The meta-analysis included 343 (lusutrombopag 3 mg, n = 173; placebo, n = 170) patients. More patients met the criteria for treatment response (platelet count at least 50 × 10(9)/L and increase of at least 20 × 10(9)/L from baseline anytime during the study) with lusutrombopag versus placebo (risk ratio [RR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.69, 11.07; p < 0.0001). The primary efficacy outcome, proportion of patients requiring no platelet transfusion and no rescue therapy for bleeding for at least 7 days post procedure, was achieved by more patients treated with lusutrombopag versus placebo (RR 3.42; 95% CI 1.86, 6.26; p = 0.0001). The risk of any bleeding event was significantly lower with lusutrombopag compared to placebo (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.32, 0.95; p = 0.03); conversely, thrombosis event rates were similar between lusutrombopag and placebo (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.19, 3.24; p = 0.74). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis showed that treatment of severe thrombocytopenia with lusutrombopag in patients with CLD prior to a planned invasive procedure was efficacious and safe in increasing platelet counts, avoiding the need for platelet transfusions, and reducing risk of bleeding, thereby enhancing the certainty of evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of lusutrombopag.
The efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in patients with chronic liver disease undergoing elective procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) can mitigate preprocedural thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) however their effects on procedural outcomes is unclear. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to better define the efficacy, thrombotic risk and bleeding mitigation associated with the use of preoperative TPO-RAs in patients with CLD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials to assess the use of preprocedural TPO-RAs in patients with CLD, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library database. Six publications comprising eight randomized trials (1229 patients; 717 received TPO-RAs, 512 received placebo) and three unique TPO-RAs were retrieved. The majority of the included procedures were endoscopic. TPO-RAs were significantly more likely to result in a preoperative platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L (72.1% vs 15.6%, RR 4.8, 95% CI 3.6-6.4 p < .00001. NNT 1.8) and reduced the incidence of platelet transfusions (22.5% vs 67.8%, RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.3-0.4 p < .00001. NNT 2.2). Total periprocedural bleeding was decreased in patients who received TPO-RAs (11.6% vs 15.6%, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 p = .01. NNT 24.7) and there was no increase in the rate of thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.8% RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.6-2.9 p = .60. NNH 211.1). In patients with CLD the use of preprocedural TPO-RAs resulted in significant increased platelet counts, and decreased the incidence of platelet transfusions as compared to placebo. TPO use likewise decreased the incidence of total periprocedural bleeding without increasing the rate of thrombosis.
Lusutrombopag for the Treatment of Thrombocytopenia in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease Undergoing Invasive Procedures (L-PLUS 2)
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2019;70(4):1336-1348
Thrombocytopenia may be associated with increased bleeding risk impacting timing and outcome of invasive procedures in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Lusutrombopag, a small-molecule, thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, was evaluated as a treatment to raise platelet counts (PCs) in patients with thrombocytopenia and CLD undergoing invasive procedures. L-PLUS 2 was a global, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Adults with CLD and baseline PCs < 50 × 10(9) /L were randomized to receive once-daily lusutrombopag 3 mg or placebo ≤ 7 days before an invasive procedure scheduled 2-7 days after the last dose. The primary endpoint was avoidance of preprocedure platelet transfusion and avoidance of rescue therapy for bleeding. A key secondary endpoint was number of days PCs were ≥ 50 × 10(9) /L throughout the study. Safety analysis was performed on patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study occurred between June 15, 2015, and April 19, 2017, with a total of 215 randomized patients (lusutrombopag, 108; placebo, 107); 64.8% (70/108) of patients in the lusutrombopag group versus 29.0% (31/107) in the placebo group met the primary endpoint (P < 0.0001; difference of proportion 95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7 [24.9, 48.5]). The median duration of PCs ≥ 50 × 10(9) /L was 19.2 days with lusutrombopag (without platelet transfusion) compared with 0.0 in the placebo group (with platelet transfusion) (P = 0.0001). Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, and rates were similar in the lusutrombopag and placebo groups (47.7% and 48.6%, respectively). Conclusion: Lusutrombopag was superior to placebo for reducing the need for platelet transfusions and achieved durable PC response in patients with thrombocytopenia and CLD undergoing invasive procedures, with a safety profile similar to placebo.
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists and risk of portal vein thrombosis in patients with liver disease and thrombocytopenia: A meta-analysis
Digestive and Liver Disease : Official Journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2018;51((1):):24-27
BACKGROUND Treatment of thrombocytopenia with thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPORAs) seems to be associated with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We performed a meta-analysis of the trials carried out in this clinical setting to assess if such association is detectable. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis with studies that compared the effect of TPORAS vs placebo in patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia. RESULTS Four studies, including 1953 patients, reported the incidence of PVT in patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia treated with TPORAs or placebo. No significant difference was found for incidence of PVT in patients treated with TPORAs compared with placebo (O.R.: 2.8; 95% C.I., 0.97-8.16; p=0.055). A significant association between PVT and TPORAs was observed only in patients treated with eltrombopag (O.R.: 3.8; 95% C.I., 1.14-13.2; p=0.03). Three studies, including 514 patients who were undergoing an elective invasive procedure, analyzed the incidence of PVT in TPORAs-treated patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia; no significant difference was found for incidence of PVT in patients treated with TPORAs compared with placebo (O.R.: 2.6; 95% C.I., 0.6-11.6; p=0.212). A significant difference was found for incidence of arterial and venous thrombo-embolic events in CLD patients treated with eltrombopag compared with placebo-treated patients (O.R.: 3.4; 95% C.I., 1.5-7.7; p=0.003). CONCLUSION The results of this meta-analysis show that TPORAs are not associated with PVT in CLD patients even in the case of surgical procedure. PVT risk seems to be associated only with eltrombopag use.
Avatrombopag Increases Platelet Count but Not Platelet Activation in Patients with Thrombocytopenia due to Liver Disease
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2018;16((12):):2515-2519.
BACKGROUND The thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA) avatrombopag has recently been FDA-approved for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) scheduled for a procedure. The TPO receptor c-mpl is expressed on the platelet surface and TPO lowers the threshold for platelet activation. TPO-RAs may therefore also lead to platelet activation. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of avatrombopag on platelet activation. PATIENTS/METHODS CLD patients with thrombocytopenia participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. No patient received a platelet transfusion within 10 days of study blood draws. Platelet activation was evaluated by whole blood flow cytometry (which, unlike other methods, is accurate in thrombocytopenic samples). RESULTS Avatrombopag, but not placebo, increased platelet counts. As measured by platelet surface P-selectin and activated GPIIb-IIIa: 1) Circulating activated platelets were not increased in avatrombopag-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients. 2) Platelet reactivity to low and high concentrations of ADP and thrombin receptor activating peptide was not increased in avatrombopag-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of CLD patients with thrombocytopenia, avatrombopag increased platelet counts but did not increase platelet activation in vivo or platelet reactivity in vitro. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Health-related quality of life in thrombocytopenic patients with chronic hepatitis C with or without cirrhosis in the ENABLE-1 and ENABLE-2 studies
Health & Quality of Life Outcomes. 2016;14((1)):49.
BACKGROUND Despite changes in the treatment paradigm towards non-interferon-based therapies, interferon-based treatments are still used in some geographical regions for treating patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Use of eltrombopag with interferon-based treatment for patients with thrombocytopenia and HCV was assessed in two similarly designed phase 3 trials (Eltrombopag to Initiate and Maintain Interferon Antiviral Treatment to Benefit Subjects With Hepatitis C-Related Liver Disease [ENABLE-1 and ENABLE-2]). These trials also aimed to determine whether response to antiviral therapy (e.g., sustained virologic response [SVR]) is associated with changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This pooled, post-hoc analysis aimed to (1) determine whether or not specific aspects of clinical response to treatment (i.e., achieving SVR) are associated with a significant change in HRQoL, and (2) to determine the magnitude and direction of the association between important changes in HRQoL, clinical response to interferon-based therapy (e.g., SVR) and treatment (eltrombopag or placebo), and patient and disease attributes. METHODS The Short-Form 36 Health Survey version 2 and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Hepatitis C Virus version were administered at various time points during the studies. Results from both trials were pooled for the analyses. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of 5 clinical factors (SVR, early virologic response [EVR], genotype [2/3 vs. non-2/3], treatment [eltrombopag or placebo], and cumulative interferon dose), plus other factors including ethnicity, model of end-stage liver disease score, and platelets as predictors of meaningful changes in HRQoL. RESULTS Between antiviral therapy baseline and the end of the 24-week post-treatment follow-up, declines in HRQoL were smaller in eltrombopag-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients, but the differences were not statistically significant. Mean changes among patients achieving SVR and EVR were small in comparison to thresholds of minimally important changes. Logistic models did not confirm the strength of the 5 clinical factors as predictors of meaningful changes in HRQoL during antiviral therapy, with the exception of the interaction between SVR and EVR (P=0.0009). Asian ethnicity had a consistent effect on HRQoL, with East Asian patients being more likely to experience deterioration in HRQoL compared with white and/or other non-East Asian patients. CONCLUSIONS While on active antiviral therapy, declines in HRQoL were not statistically different for eltrombopag-treated patients versus placebo-treated patients, suggesting that eltrombopag neither worsened HRQoL nor mitigated the effects of antiviral therapy on HRQoL.
Phase II study of avatrombopag in thrombocytopenic patients with cirrhosis undergoing an elective procedure
Journal of Hepatology. 2014;61((6):):1253-9.
BACKGROUND & AIMS This is a phase II multicentre study to investigate the efficacy and safety of avatrombopag (E5501), an investigational second-generation thrombopoietin receptor agonist, administered one week prior to elective procedures in patients with thrombocytopenia secondary to cirrhosis. METHODS Adults with cirrhosis and platelet counts 10 to 58x10(9)/L were randomized to placebo or avatrombopag in two sequential cohorts. Cohort A: placebo vs. one of 3 different doses (100mg loading dose followed by 20, 40, or 80mg/day on days 2-7) of a first-generation avatrombopag formulation. Cohort B: placebo vs. one of 2 different doses (80mg loading dose followed by 10mg/day for days 2-7, or 20mg/day for days 2-4) of a second-generation avatrombopag formulation. Primary end point was achievement of a platelet increase of 20x10(9)/L from baseline and >50x10(9)/L at least once during days 4-8. RESULTS A total of 130 patients were randomized: 93 patients (51, cohort A; 42, cohort B) to avatrombopag and 37 (16, cohort A; 21 cohort B) to placebo. The primary end point was achieved by 49.0% of treated patients in cohort A and 47.6% in cohort B compared to 6.3% and 9.5% of controls; a dose response was seen. Each avatrombopag regimen had a higher proportion of responders compared with their respective cohort placebo arms (p<0.01), except for the 100/40mg group in cohort A (p=0.17). The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, and headache. One patient in the (100/80) avatrombopag group, without a Doppler assessment at screening was diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis during post-treatment follow-up. CONCLUSIONS In this study avatrombopag was generally well-tolerated and increased platelet counts in patients with cirrhosis undergoing elective invasive procedures. Copyright 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.