Immunoglobulin for multifocal motor neuropathy
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;1(1):Cd004429
BACKGROUND Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare, probably immune-mediated disorder characterised by slowly progressive, asymmetric, distal weakness of one or more limbs with no objective loss of sensation. It may cause prolonged periods of disability. Treatment options for MMN are few. People with MMN do not usually respond to steroids or plasma exchange. Uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005, with an amendment in 2007. We updated the review to incorporate new evidence. OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin in people with MMN. SEARCH METHODS We searched the following databases on 20 April 2021: the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO ICTRP for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, and checked the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We considered RCTs and quasi-RCTs examining the effects of any dose of IVIg and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) in people with definite or probable MMN for inclusion in the review. Eligible studies had to have measured at least one of the following outcomes: disability, muscle strength, or electrophysiological conduction block. We used studies that reported the frequency of adverse effects to assess safety. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently reviewed the literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, assessed risk of bias of included studies, and extracted data. We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS Six cross-over RCTs including a total of 90 participants were suitable for inclusion in the review. Five RCTs compared IVIg to placebo, and one compared IVIg to SCIg. Four of the trials comparing IVIg versus placebo involved IVIg-naive participants (induction treatment). In the other two trials, participants were known IVIg responders receiving maintencance IVIg at baseline and were then randomised to maintenance treatment with IVIg or placebo in one trial, and IVIg or SCIg in the other. Risk of bias was variable in the included studies, with three studies at high risk of bias in at least one risk of bias domain. IVIg versus placebo (induction treatment): three RCTs including IVIg-naive participants reported a disability measure. Disability improved in seven out of 18 (39%) participants after IVIg treatment and in two out of 18 (11%) participants after placebo (risk ratio (RR) 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89 to 10.12; 3 RCTs, 18 participants; low-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants with an improvement in disability at 12 months was not reported. Strength improved in 21 out of 27 (78%) IVIg-naive participants treated with IVIg and one out of 27 (4%) participants who received placebo (RR 11.00, 95% CI 2.86 to 42.25; 3 RCTs, 27 participants; low-certainty evidence). IVIg treatment may increase the proportion of people with resolution of at least one conduction block; however, the results were also consistent with no effect (RR 7.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 51.70; 4 RCTs, 28 participants; low-certainty evidence). IVIg versus placebo (maintenance treatment): a trial that included participants on maintenance IVIg treatment reported an increase in disability in 17 out of 42 (40%) people switching to placebo and seven out of 42 (17%) remaining on IVIg (RR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13 to 5.24; 1 RCT, 42 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and a decrease in grip strength in 20 out of 42 (48%) participants after a switch to placebo treatment compared to four out of 42 (10%) remaining on IVIg (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.54; 1 RCT, 42 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events, IVIg versus placebo (induction or maintenance): four trials comparing IVIg and placebo reported adverse events, of which data from two studies could be meta-analysed. Transient side effects were reported in 71% of IVIg-treated participants versus 4.8% of placebo-treated participants in these studies. The pooled RR for the development of side effects was 10.33 (95% CI 2.15 to 49.77; 2 RCTs, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was only one serious side effect (pulmonary embolism) during IVIg treatment. IVIg versus SCIg (maintenance treatment): the trial that compared continuation of IVIg maintenance versus SCIg maintenance did not measure disability. The evidence was very uncertain for muscle strength (standardised mean difference 0.08, 95% CI -0.84 to 1.00; 1 RCT, 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence was very uncertain for the number of people with side effects attributable to treatment (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.40; 1 RCT, 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Low-certainty evidence from three small RCTs shows that IVIg may improve muscle strength in people with MMN, and low-certainty evidence indicates that it may improve disability; the estimate of the magnitude of improvement of disability has wide CIs and needs further studies to secure its significance. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, it is probable that most IVIg responders deteriorate in disability and muscle strength after IVIg withdrawal. SCIg might be an alternative treatment to IVIg, but the evidence is very uncertain. More research is needed to identify people in whom IVIg withdrawal is possible and to confirm efficacy of SCIg as an alternative maintenance treatment.
Furosemide and albumin for the treatment of nephrotic edema: a systematic review
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND Edema is one of the cardinal clinical features of nephrotic syndrome (NS). It may vary from mild periorbital edema to severe generalized edema (anasarca). In patients where edema does not improve with prednisone therapy, the most common supportive medications are diuretics and albumin. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of edema formation in NS patients resulting in intravascular normovolemia or hypovolemia, optimal therapy for edema is still debated. We conducted a systematic review with the objective of evaluating the change in urine volume and urine sodium excretion after treatment with furosemide only versus furosemide with albumin in edematous patients with NS. OBJECTIVES (1) To evaluate efficacy of furosemide alone versus furosemide with albumin in the treatment of nephrotic edema in adults and children. (2) To compare the harms and benefits of different doses of furosemide for treating nephrotic edema. SEARCH METHODS The search included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in English and French using MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL Trials Registry of the Cochrane Collaboration using the Ovid interface. ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were also searched. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all RCTs and randomized cross-over studies in which furosemide and furosemide plus albumin are used in the treatment of children or adults with nephrotic edema. We excluded patients with hypoalbuminemia of non-renal origin and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a glomerular filtration rate below 30 ml/min/1.74 m(2) and patients with congenital NS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS All abstracts were independently assessed by at least two authors to determine which studies met the inclusion criteria. Information on study design, methodology, and outcome data (urine volume, urine sodium excretion, adverse effects) from each identified study was entered into a separate data sheet. The differences in outcomes between the types of therapy were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The search yielded 525 records, and after screening, five studies were included in the systematic review and four of those studies in the meta-analysis. One study had high risk of bias and the remaining three studies were deemed to have some concerns. Urine excretion was greater after treatment with furosemide and albumin versus furosemide (SMD 0.85, 95% CI = 0.33 to 1.38). Results for sodium excretion were inconclusive (SMD 0.37, 95%CI = - 0.28 to 1.02). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The current evidence is not sufficient to make definitive conclusions about the role of albumin in treating nephrotic edema. High-quality randomized studies with adequate samples sizes are needed. Including an assessment of intravascular volume status may be helpful. TRIAL REGISTRATION Prospero: CRD4201808979. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Autologous Cultured Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Fibrin Spray to Treat Venous Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Study
Surgical technology international. 2022;40
We treated a small cohort of venous ulcers that were very unresponsive to standard and advanced therapies with autologous cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This pilot clinical trial was randomized, controlled, and double-blinded. Subjects were treated with either normal saline (Group A), fibrin spray alone (Group B), or MSCs in fibrin (1 million cells/cm2 of wound bed surface) (Group C). The control and test materials were applied to the wound using a double-barreled syringe with thrombin and fibrinogen (with or without MSCs) in each barrel, or saline alone in both barrels. The MSCs were separated, cultured in vitro, and expanded in a dedicated Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facility from 30-50 ml of bone marrow aspirate obtained from the iliac crest in Group C subjects. To ensure that the study remained controlled and blinded, subjects who were randomized to one of the two control arms (saline or fibrin) underwent sham bone marrow aspiration performed by a hematologist who anesthetized the iliac crest area down to and pushing against the periosteum, but without penetrating the bone marrow. Therefore, both the clinician who evaluated wound progress and the study subjects had no knowledge of whether bone aspiration was actually performed and what treatment had been applied to the wound. The study was performed after full FDA investigational new drug (IND) approval. The primary endpoint was the rate of healing (wound closure as linear healing from the wound margins in cm/week), as measured by the Gilman equation. One-way ANOVA was used to calculate the statistical significance of differences between the mean healing rates of each of the 3 treatment groups every 4 weeks and over the 24 weeks of treatment. Overall, treatment with MSCs accelerated the healing rate by about 10-fold compared to those in the saline and fibrin control groups. Although the total number of patients in this pilot study was small (n=11), the statistical significance was surprisingly promising: p<0.01 and f-ratio of 15.9358. No serious adverse events were noted. This small but carefully performed prospective, controlled, randomized, and double-blinded pilot study in a rare population of totally unresponsive patients adds to previous reports showing the promise of MSCs in the treatment of chronic wounds and provides proof of principle for how to approach this type of very demanding clinical and translational research.
Randomized trial of three IVIg doses for treating chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Brain : a journal of neurology. 2022
Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy usually starts with a 2.0 g/kg induction dose followed by 1.0 g/kg maintenance doses every 3 weeks. No dose-ranging studies with intravenous immunoglobulin maintenance therapy have been published. The Progress in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating polyneuropathy (ProCID) study was a prospective, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, phase III study investigating the efficacy and safety of 10% liquid intravenous immunoglobulin (panzyga®) in patients with active chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Patients were randomised 1:2:1 to receive the standard intravenous immunoglobulin induction dose and then either 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg maintenance doses every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the response rate in the 1.0 g/kg group, defined as an improvement ≥ 1 point in adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score at Week 6 versus baseline and maintained at Week 24. Secondary endpoints included dose response and safety. This trial was registered with EudraCT (Number 2015-005443-14) and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02638207). Between August 2017 and September 2019, the study enrolled 142 patients. All 142 were included in the safety analyses. As no post infusion data were available for three patients, 139 were included in the efficacy analyses, of whom 121 were previously on corticosteroids. The response rate was 80% (55/69 patients) (95% confidence interval: 69-88%) in the 1.0 g/kg group, 65% (22/34; confidence interval: 48-79%) in the 0.5 g/kg group, and 92% (33/36; confidence interval 78-97%) in the 2.0 g/kg group. While the proportion of responders was higher with higher maintenance doses, logistic regression analysis showed that the effect on response rate was driven by a significant difference between the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg groups, whereas the response rates in the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg groups did not differ significantly from the 1.0 g/kg group. Fifty-six percent of all patients had an adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score improvement 3 weeks after the induction dose alone. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 16 (45.7%), 32 (46.4%) and 20 (52.6%) patients in the 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg dose groups, respectively. The most common adverse reaction was headache. There were no treatment-related deaths. Intravenous immunoglobulin 1.0 g/kg was efficacious and well tolerated as maintenance treatment for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Further studies of different maintenance doses of intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are warranted.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating pharmacologic therapies for acute and recurrent pericarditis
Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2022
Acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP) is a benign inflammatory condition associated with high recurrence rates. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and colchicine are the recommended therapies. Our objective was to systematically assess effects of pharmacological therapies on recurrences or treatment failure in patients with first and subsequent AIP episodes. PubMed, BioMedCentral, Cochrane, Clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar and EMBASE (Ovid) were searched up to April 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating NSAIDs, indomethacin, colchicine, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, immunomodulators, or interleukin receptor antagonists in adult patients with acute episode of idiopathic pericarditis. Mantel-Haenzel random effects models were used for meta-analyses, and effects were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six RCTs of colchicine plus NSAIDs (n=914 patients) and one RCT of anakinra (n=21) were found. No RCTs testing NSAIDs or corticosteroids were identified. Colchicine plus NSAIDs and anakinra significantly reduced recurrence (OR 0.37; 95%CI 0.27-0.51; and OR 0.02; 95%CI, 0.00-0.32, respectively). Colchicine plus NSAIDs also reduced treatment failure (OR 0.29; 95%CI 0.21-0.41). No differences in adverse events between colchicine and placebo were found (OR 1.16; 95%CI 0.72 to 1.86). In conclusion, Colchicine plus NSAIDS and anakinra are efficacious for preventing AIP recurrences. Colchicine reduces treatment failure as well. Although its use is supported by clinical experience, no solid evidence is currently available for the role of NSAIDs or steroids in the treatment of AIP.
Comparison of 3-factor versus 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC emergency medicine. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Patients requiring emergent warfarin reversal (EWR) have been prescribed three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3) and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC4) to reverse the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. There is no existing systematic review and meta-analysis of studies directly comparing PCC3 and PCC4. METHODS The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of achieving study defined target INR goal after PCC3 or PCC4 administration. Secondary objectives were to determine the difference in safety endpoints, thromboembolic events (TE), and survival during the patients' hospital stay. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR), and heterogeneity associated with the outcomes. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. RESULTS Ten full-text manuscripts and five abstracts provided data for the primary and secondary outcomes. Patients requiring EWR had more than three times the odds of reversal to goal INR when they were given PCC4 compared to PCC3 (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.97-6.60, p < 0.001). There was no meaningful clinical association or statistically significant result between PCC4 and PCC3 groups in TE (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.83-2.91, p = 0.17), or survival during hospital stay (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.81-2.23, p = 0.25). CONCLUSION PCC4 is more effective than PCC3 in meeting specific predefined INR goals and has similar safety profiles in patients requiring emergent reversal of the anticoagulant effects of warfarin.
Pharmacological treatment in adult patients with CRPS-I: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE Several pharmacological treatments have been proposed for the treatment of Complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) in adults, but data regarding the efficacy of various agents for this disease is scarce. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to analyse pharmacological approaches in adults with CRPS-I. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from the inception date to 30, June 2021 for identifying placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs using bisphosphonates, ketamine, corticosteroids, anti-epileptics, NSAIDs/COXIBs, opiates, antidepressants, scavengers/magnesium sulphate or intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of CRPS-I. The primary outcomes included changes in the visual analogue scale (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain before and after treatment. RESULTS We included 20 placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs (for a total of 818 CRPS-I adults) that used bisphosphonates (n = 7), ketamine (n = 2), corticosteroids (n = 2), anti-epileptics (n = 1), NSAIDs/COXIBs (n = 2), scavengers/magnesium (n = 5), or intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 1) to treat CRPS-I during a median follow-up of 26 weeks. The treatment with bisphosphonates showed a significant reduction of the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale compared with placebo or reference therapy (random effects weighted mean difference [WMD]: -23.8, 95%CI-28.0 to -19.6; I2=36.4%). Treatment with ketamine also documented a reduction in the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale (random effects WMD: -8.27,95%CI -12.9 to -3.70; I2=0%). Treatment with other agents did not improve the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale. CONCLUSION This systematic review and meta-analysis supports the recommendation of parenteral bisphosphonates as the first-line agent in the treatment of CRPS-I. REGISTRATION NUMBER Open Science Framework registries; osf.io/et9gu.
COVID-19 associated vasculitis: A systematic review of case reports and case series
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2022;:103249
Vasculitis is one of the complications of COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review analysing the association of COVID-19 with vasculitis. We searched Google Scholar and PubMed from December 1, 2019, to October 11, 2021. The review included 8 studies (7 case reports and 1 case series) reporting 9 cases of vasculitis secondary to COVID-19. The mean age was 29.17 ± 28.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 83 years. The male to female ratio was 4:5. Maculopapular, violaceous, papular and erythematous rash were common. Heparin(n = 2), corticosteroids (n = 6) (methylprednisolone) and intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 4) were prescribed in these patients. Significant clinical improvement was observed in 8 out of 9 patients. One person died during treatment. Our study discusses vasculitis as one of the complications of COVID-19. Furthermore, the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of COVID-19 associated vasculitis is discussed.
Effectiveness of the Fibrinogen-Thrombin-Impregnated Collagen Patch in the Prevention of Postoperative Complications after Parotidectomy: A Single-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(3)
We investigated whether a fibrinogen-thrombin collagen sponge patch reduces postoperative complications of parotid gland surgery. This single-blinded, randomized controlled study included 165 patients who underwent parotid surgery for benign tumors (2018-2019) at a tertiary center. Primary outcomes were postoperative drain amount, days until drain removal, and discharge. Patients were scheduled for follow-up at 1 and 4 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. Complications including surgical site infection, pain, seroma, sialocele, salivary fistula, facial nerve palsy, Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, and facial asymmetry were analyzed. After identifying confounding variables, multivariate approaches were used. Histologic analysis was performed in a mouse model of salivary gland surgery. In total, 162 patients (77, fibrinogen-thrombin collagen patch group; 85, controls) were included, with no significant between-group differences other than resected tissue. Among postoperative total drain amount and days until drain removal and discharge, the only postoperative total drain was significantly lower in the patch group than in the control group in the adjusted model. Additionally, although validation through robust trials with longer follow-up is needed, we found the potential benefit of the fibrinogen patch on Frey's syndrome and facial asymmetry. In conclusion, fibrinogen-thrombin-impregnated collagen patches in parotidectomy can reduce postoperative drainage and improve outcomes.
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin use in immunoglobulin-naive patients with primary immunodeficiency: a systematic review
Aim: Identify and describe published literature on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) as initial immunoglobulin (IG)-replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Methods: We systematically identified and summarized literature in MEDLINE, Embase, BioSciences Information Service and Cochrane Library assessing efficacy/effectiveness, safety/tolerability, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and dosing regimens of SCIG for IG-naive patients with PID. Results: Sixteen studies were included. In IG-naive patients, SCIG managed/reduced infections and demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic parameters to IG-experienced patients; adverse events were mostly minor injection-site pain or discomfort. Three studies reported improvements in HRQoL. Quality of studies was difficult to assess due to limited reporting. Conclusion: Although studies were lacking, available data suggest IG-naive and IG-experienced patients initiating SCIG likely have similar outcomes.