Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison of Efficacy and Consumption of rVIII-SingleChain Versus Two Recombinant FVIII Products Used for Prophylactic Treatment of Adults/Adolescents with Severe Haemophilia A
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Given the relatively small number of patients with haemophilia A, head-to-head comparisons between recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products are difficult to conduct. This study compared the efficacy and consumption of rVIII-SingleChain (lonoctocog alfa, AFSTYLA(®)) with rAHF-PFM (octocog alfa, Advate(®)) and rFVIIIFc (efmoroctocog alfa, Elocta(®)), for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated adolescents/adults with severe haemophilia A, through a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC). METHODS A systematic literature review identified published clinical trials for rAHF-PFM and rFVIIIFc. Individual patient data for rVIII-SingleChain were used to match baseline patient characteristics to those from published trials, using an approach similar to propensity score weighting. After matching, annualized bleeding rates (ABR), percentage of patients with zero bleeds, and rFVIII consumption were compared across trial populations. RESULTS Published data were identified from two rAHF-PFM trials and one rFVIIIFc trial. rVIII-SingleChain had similar ABR (risk ratio [RR]: 0.74 [0.16; 3.48]; RR: 1.18 [0.85; 1.65]) and percentage of patients with zero bleeds (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34 [0.56; 3.22]; OR: 0.78 [0.47; 1.31]) versus rAHF-PFM and rFVIIIFc, respectively. Annual rVIII-SingleChain consumption was significantly lower than rAHF-PFM (mean difference: - 1507.66 IU/kg/year [- 2011.71; - 1003.61]) and equivalent to rFVIIIFc (RR: 0.96 [0.62; 1.49]). CONCLUSION Although limited to published information for comparator trials, these results suggest that with an annualized rFVIII consumption comparable to rFVIIIFc, but significantly lower than rAHF-PFM, routine prophylaxis with rVIII-SingleChain is able to maintain a similar ABR and percentage of patients with zero bleeds, attesting to the long-acting nature of rVIII-SingleChain.
Evaluation of fixed versus variable dosing of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;48:282-287
STUDY OBJECTIVE This study compares the safety and efficacy of a fixed dose of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4FPCC) to the FDA-approved variable dosing for reversal of warfarin-induced anticoagulation. METHODS This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized to 4FPCC at a fixed dose of 1500 IU or the FDA-approved variable dosing regimen. The primary efficacy outcome (reversal success) was defined as a post-intervention international normalized ratio (INR) of less than or equal to 1.5. Given that 4FPCC is the standard of care for reversal of warfarin-induced anticoagulation an active-controlled approach was employed with the two dosing regimens compared based on efficacy, cost, and safety outcomes. RESULTS 71 subjects (34 in the fixed dose group and 37 in the variable dose group) completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, initial INR, or indication for 4FPCC administration between the two treatment groups. Reversal success in the fixed-dose group was 61.8%, while in the variable dose group reversal success was 89.2%. Reversal success in the fixed-dose group was significantly lower than the rate of reversal success in the variable dose group (27.4% lower, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION The results of this study provide evidence that fixed dosing results in lower reversal success rates as compared to variable dosing of 4FPCC for warfarin-induced anticoagulation.
Factor VIII concentrate dosing with lean body mass, ideal body weight and total body weight in overweight and obesity: A randomized, controlled, open-label, 3 × 3 crossover trial
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION Obesity alters the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of drugs making it difficult to determine the appropriate dose when administering weight-based medications. Alternative descriptors of body weight, such as lean body mass (LBM) and ideal body weight (IBW), are sometimes used in these situations. METHODS We performed a single-centre, randomized, controlled, open-label, 3 × 3 crossover trial to determine whether recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) dosing based on LBM and IBW achieves a targeted FVIII recovery with better precision than based on total body weight (TBW) in overweight and obese, adult males with haemophilia A. Participants were randomized to 1 of 6 possible FVIII concentrate dosing sequence scenarios (TBW, LBM and IBW). Recombinant FVIII was administered on 3 separate weeks following a washout period of at least 72 hours. RESULTS A total of 19 participants were randomized and completed the study. FVIII recovery was lower at 30 minutes post-rFVIII infusion in LBM vs TBW and IBW vs TBW-based dosing, mean difference -0.38 (95% CI: -0.56, -0.20) and -0.28 (95% CI: -0.47, -0.10) IU/dL per IU/kg, respectively. In LBM vs TBW and IBW vs TBW-based dosing, there was a non-significant increase in the proportion of participants with a targeted FVIII recovery of 2.00 ± 0.20 IU/dl per IU/kg, OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 0.44, 8.55) and OR = 3.65 (0.80, 16.72), respectively. DISCUSSION Based on our study's findings, overweight and obese patients with haemophilia A may benefit from an individualized PK analysis using LBM and IBW to determine the most accurate, and potentially cost-effective, method of achieving targeted FVIII recovery.
Prothrombin complex concentrates and andexanet for management of direct factor Xa inhibitor related bleeding: a meta-analysis
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(6):2637-2653
There are potential concerns related to bleeding caused by oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. Andexanet alfa has been authorized for use to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. Off-label use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) for the reversal of oral factor Xa inhibitors is common. However, not much is known about their efficacy and safety profile. The intent of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4F-PCC and andexanet alfa for management of major bleeding due to oral factor Xa inhibitors. Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases. Studies that were retrospective record based or adopted prospective cohort approach and reported either of the three main outcomes, i.e., achieved hemostasis rate or rate of thrombotic events or mortality rate were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were done using STATA version 13.0. A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies had a single arm with no control/comparator group. The pooled rate of good to excellent hemostatic control upon use of andexanet was 80% (95% CI; 72% to 88%) and for 4F-PCC, it was 76% (95% CI; 70% to 83%). A comparatively higher pooled rate of thrombotic complications upon use of andexanet [13% (95% CI; 5% to 20%) was noted, compared to use of aPCC/4F-PCC [4% (95% CI; 3% to 5%). The pooled all-cause mortality rate within 30 days of administration was 24% (95% CI; 12% to 35%) with andexanet use and 19% (95% CI; 14% to 25%) for aPCC/4F-PCC. The findings suggest that use of both andexanet and aPCC/4F-PCC achieves a good hemostasis but there is an associated risk of thrombotic events and mortality. Future studies should have a control group to better establish evidence on efficacy and safety of these agents.
Effectiveness of ankle fusion in patients with hemophilia, advanced ankle degeneration, and unbearable pain for whom nonsurgical and surgical treatments have been ineffective
Expert review of hematology. 2021
INTRODUCTION In underdeveloped countries, patients with hemophilia often experience repetitive ankle joint hemorrhages due to a shortage of coagulation factors (factor VIII [FVIII] and factor IX [FIX] for hemophilia A and B, respectively). AREAS COVERED This is a narrative literature review in which we searched the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE for articles related to ankle arthrodesis in patients with hemophilia. The searches covered the period from the databases´ inception to February 28, 2021. In the event of unsuccessful hematologic prophylaxis and conservative measures (e.g., analgesics, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, taping, intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and corticosteroids, physical and rehabilitation medicine, orthoses, radiosynovectomy, and joint-preserving surgery (e.g., removal of the distal tibia by open surgery or by arthroscopic surgery, joint debridement by arthroscopic surgery), the only surgical solution is ankle arthrodesis, which does not preserve the ankle joint. EXPERT OPINION Ankle pain is reduced after ankle arthrodesis (75% of patients experience no pain). Approximately 5% of patients require reoperation due to lack of fusion, and deep infection occurs in 2.5%. After tibiotalar fusion, a self-reported activity scale shows that approximately 12% of patients improve, 9% worsen, and 79% show no improvement. The results of ankle arthrodesis therefore appear to be poor.
Biological stratification of clinical disease courses in childhood immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2021
BACKGROUND In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune bleeding disorder, there is a need for better prediction of individual disease courses and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE To predict the response to intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) and ITP disease course using genetic and immune markers. METHODS Children aged below seven years with newly diagnosed ITP (N = 147) from the TIKI study were included, which randomized children to an IVIg or observation group. A total of 46 variables were available: clinical characteristics, targeted genotyping, lymphocyte immune phenotyping, and platelet autoantibodies. RESULTS In the treatment arm, 48/80 children (60%) showed a complete response (platelets ≥100 x 10(9) /L) that lasted for at least one month (complete sustained response; CSR) and 32 exhibited no or a temporary response (absence of a sustained response; ASR). For a biological risk score, five variables were selected by regularized logistic regression that predicted ASR vs CSR: 1) hemoglobin; 2) platelet count; 3) genetic polymorphisms of FcγRIIc; 4) the presence of IgG anti-platelet antibodies; and 5) preceding vaccination. The ASR sensitivity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.80 - 1.00) and specificity was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.80). In the 67 patients of the observation arm, this biological score was also associated with recovery during one-year follow-up. The addition of the biological score to a predefined clinical score further improved the discrimination of favorable ITP disease courses. CONCLUSIONS The prediction of disease courses and IVIg treatment responses in ITP is improved by using both clinical and biological stratification.
Clinical value of different anti-D immunoglobulin strategies for preventing Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: A network meta-analysis
PLoS One. 2020;15(3):e0230073
BACKGROUND Several anti-D immunoglobulin strategies exist for preventing Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. This study systematically assessed the clinical value of those therapeutic strategies. METHODS The Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases were searched for eligible studies that evaluated the value of different anti-D immunoglobulin strategies in preventing maternal anti-D antibody sensitization. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The network meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 14.2 and WinBUGS 1.4.3 software. RESULTS Twenty-four original studies involving 64860 patients were included. Among all therapeutic measures, injecting 300 mug anti-D immunoglobulin at 28 and 34 gestational weeks (antenatal 5/E) appeared to be the most effective measure for preventing maternal antibody sensitization (surface under the cumulative ranking curve [SUCRA] = 96.8%), while a single injection at 28 gestational weeks (SUCRA = 89.2%) was the second most effective. Administering no injection or a placebo (SUCRA = 0.0%) was the least effective intervention measure. CONCLUSION Among the therapeutic measures, antenatal 5/E appeared to be the best method for reducing the positive incidence of anti-D antibodies in the maternal serum; thus, it may be the most effective treatment for preventing fetal hemolytic disease.
Anti-Platelet Antibodies in Childhood Immune Thrombocytopenia: Prevalence and Prognostic Implications
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2020
BACKGROUND Anti-platelet antibody testing may be useful for the diagnosis and management of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). OBJECTIVES Here we aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. METHODS Children with newly diagnosed ITP were included at diagnosis and randomized to an intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or careful observation group (TIKI trial). In this well-defined and longitudinally followed cohort (N = 179), anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were determined by MAIPA. RESULTS The dominant circulating anti-platelet antibody class in childhood ITP was IgM (62% of patients); but IgG antibodies were also found (10%). Children without IgM platelet antibodies were older and more often female. There was weak evidence for an association between IgM anti-GP IIb/IIIa antibodies and an increased bleeding severity (P=0.03). The IgM and IgG anti-platelet responses partially overlapped, and reactivity was frequently directed against multiple glycoproteins. During one year follow-up, children with IgM antibodies in the observation group displayed a faster platelet recovery compared to children without IgM, also after adjustment for age and preceding infections (P=7.1x10(-5) ). The small group of patients with detectable IgG anti-platelet antibodies exhibited an almost complete response to IVIg treatment (N=12; P=0.02), suggesting that IVIg was particularly efficacious in these children. CONCLUSIONS Testing for circulating anti-platelet antibodies may be helpful for the clinical prognostication and the guidance of treatment decisions in newly diagnosed childhood ITP. Our data suggest that the development of even more sensitive tests may further improve the clinical value of antibody testing.
Recombinant anti-D for prevention of maternal-foetal Rh(D) alloimmunization: a randomized multi-centre clinical trial
Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2020;63(3):315-322
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant anti-D (R-anti-D) with conventional polyclonal anti-D (Poly anti-D) in preventing maternal-fetal rhesus D (RhD) alloimmunization and to investigate the immunogenicity of R-anti-D. Methods: This was a randomized, open-label, multi-center clinical trial conducted in RhD-negative pregnant women who did not receive antenatal anti-D who delivered RhD-positive babies and showed negative indirect Coombs tests (ICTs) at baseline. The women were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to R-anti-D or Poly anti-D groups and were administered 300 mcg (IM) of the corresponding drug within 72 hours of delivery. ICT was performed 72 hours, 90 days, and 180 days after anti-D injection. Serum samples were collected to check for the development of antibodies against R-anti-D at days 90 and 180, using bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proportion of subjects who had positive ICT results at days 90 and 180 were compared between the groups using Fisher's exact test. Results: A total of 144 women were randomized to the R-anti-D group and 71 to the Poly anti-D group. Three women in the R-anti-D and none in the Poly anti-D group had a positive ICT result at day 90. No woman in either group had positive ICT result at day 180. Both drugs were well tolerated with only 4 reports of adverse events in each group-all were mild, non-serious, and resolved without sequelae. No subject developed antibodies against R-anti-D. Conclusion: The studied R-anti-D is comparable in efficacy to conventional Poly anti-D and is safe and non-immunogenic.Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India Identifier: Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India Identifier: CTRI/2017/03/008101.
RhD-negative pregnant women who did not receive antenatal anti-D and delivered RhD-positive babies and showed negative indirect Coombs tests (ICTs) at baseline (n= 215).
Recombinant anti-D (300 mcg), (n= 144).
Polyclonal anti-D (300 mcg), (n= 71).
Three women in the Recombinant anti-D and none in the Polyclonal anti-D group had a positive ICT result at day 90. No woman in either group had positive ICT result at day 180. Both drugs were well tolerated with only 4 reports of adverse events in each group-all were mild, non-serious, and resolved without sequelae. No subject developed antibodies against Recombinant anti-D.
Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) for Treatment of Autoimmune Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review
Ann Pharmacother. 2020;:1060028020943542
Objective: To evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (aHIT), including platelet recovery, IVIG dose, dosing weight, IVIG product used, and complications reported. Data Sources: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception through June 21, 2020. Search terms included heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, HIT, intravenous immune globulin, IVIG, autoimmune HIT, aHIT, and immune globulin. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Patients administered IVIG for HIT and diagnosed by immunoassay (optical density ≥2) or positive activation assay were included. Data Synthesis: Twenty-four cases were reviewed; 92% had persistent aHIT. Time to IVIG administration post-nonheparin anticoagulant initiation was 9 days (median). Most common IVIG cumulative dose was 2 g/kg (dosed as 1 g/kg/d for 2 consecutive days); 75% had a favorable platelet increase (≥50 × 10(9)/L) within 5 days of initial IVIG dosing. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: aHIT is characterized by critically low platelets, thrombosis, and a persistent delay in platelet recovery despite treatment with a nonheparin anticoagulant. An immunoassay and subsequent confirmatory activation assay (at low, high, and 0 IU/mL unfractionated heparin levels) is recommended to confirm diagnosis. Patients nonresponsive to nonheparin anticoagulants within 5 days of initiation should be evaluated for IVIG treatment (2 g/kg cumulative dose). More data are needed to clarify appropriate IVIG dosing weight, although based on current published literature, it is recommended to use actual body weight. Conclusions: Data reported support use of IVIG as adjunctive therapy for patients with aHIT. Judicious IVIG use based on key clinical and laboratory findings is critical.