Intravenous immunoglobulin for presumed viral myocarditis in children and adults
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2020;8:Cd004370
BACKGROUND This is an update of a previous review. Case reports and case series have described dramatic responses to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in people with presumed viral myocarditis, and its administration has become commonplace. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this review was to compare event-free (death, requirement for a cardiac transplant, or placement of a left ventricular assist device) or overall (death) survival of adults and children with presumed viral myocarditis treated with IVIG versus those who did not receive IVIG. A secondary objective was to determine if a group of patients with presumed viral myocarditis could be identified (on the basis of age, duration of symptoms, acuity of onset of symptoms, cardiac function at presentation, virological results, or the presence or absence of histological evidence of acute myocarditis on cardiac biopsy in patients in whom a biopsy was performed) who would be the most likely to benefit from IVIG. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, DARE, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection, and LILACS in July 2019, and two trial registries in November 2019. We contacted authors of trials and checked reference lists of relevant papers. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA We included studies if (1) participants had a clinical diagnosis of acute myocarditis with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 0.45, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) > 2 standard deviations (SDs) above the norm, or a left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) > 2 SDs below the mean, with duration of cardiac symptoms < 6 months; (2) participants had no evidence of non-infectious or bacterial cardiac disease; and (3) participants were randomly assigned to receive at least 1 g/kg of IVIG versus no IVIG or placebo. We excluded studies if (1) participants had received immunosuppression before outcome assessment; or (2) onset of myocarditis was reported to have occurred < 6 months postpartum. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently screened the search results and extracted data. We assessed risk of bias with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We conducted meta-analysis for two outcomes (overall survival and improvement in LVEF) with two adult trials. Other meta-analyses were not possible because only three relevant trials were included, and researchers analysed markedly different populations and used different outcome measures. MAIN RESULTS In this update we added two trials to the two previously included trials. A quasi-randomised trial was previously included due to a paucity of evidence from randomised trials; however, with the addition of two new randomised trials, it was removed from this update. For two adult trials, the overall risk of bias was unclear with very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes. The first trial studied 62 adults with recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy randomly assigned to receive IVIG or an equivalent volume of 0.1% albumin in a blinded fashion. The effect on event-free survival between groups was uncertain (risk ratio (RR) of any event 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 6.40). The second trial studied 41 adults with acute myocarditis randomised to either high-dose IVIG (1 to 2 g/kg over two days) or no treatment. The IVIG group reported greater survival time after 60 days (no raw data, P < 0.01), but the evidence is uncertain. We pooled the reported number of deaths in both trials, with no evidence of a difference between groups (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.23 to 3.62, I(2) = 31%, very low-certainty evidence). The evidence on the effect of IVIG treatment on LVEF (pooled mean difference (MD) -0.01, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.05) after 12 months and an unknown time frame is uncertain. The results for functional capacity, assessed by peak oxygen consumption at 12 months, were uncertain (MD -0.80, 95% CI -4.57 to 2.97). The results for infusion-related side effects were also uncertain due to a very large CI (RR 20.29, 95% CI 1.25 to 329.93). Lastly, there was uncertain evidence addressing failure to attain complete recovery (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.14). Evidence for improvement in LVEDD, left ventricular shortening fraction, and hospitalisation status in adults was not reported. In the single included paediatric trial, the overall risk of bias was low with very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes. The trial included 86 children in Egypt presenting with acute myocarditis. Children were randomly assigned to 1 g/kg IVIG daily for two consecutive days or placebo followed by echocardiography one and six months post randomisation for recording of LVEDD and LVSF. The evidence for overall survival after six months was uncertain (risk of death RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.15). The evidence was also uncertain for improvement in LVEDD and LVSF after six months (LVEDD MD -4.00, 95% CI -9.52 to 1.52; LVSF no raw data). Evidence for improvement in LVEF, functional capacity, side effects, complete recovery, and hospitalisation status in children was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Evidence from two trials of very low certainty and with unclear risk of bias provides contradictory evidence on the use of IVIG in the treatment of adults with presumed viral myocarditis. One trial reported that use of IVIG results in longer survival time after 60 days, whilst the other trial found that IVIG does not provide an appreciable benefit. The evidence of a difference in event-free or overall survival, LVEDD, or LVSF is of very low certainty in a single paediatric trial with a low risk of bias. Until higher-quality studies with low risk of bias and larger sample sizes have demonstrated benefit in a particular group of patients, the evidence for treatment with IVIG for presumed viral myocarditis is uncertain. Further studies of the pathophysiology of myocarditis would lead to improved diagnostic criteria, which would facilitate future research.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Adult Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy and Cardiac Parvovirus B19 persistence
European journal of heart failure. 2020
AIM: Previous uncontrolled studies indicated a possible benefit of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in parvovirus B19 (B19V)-related dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled single-centre trial investigated the benefits of IVIg beyond conventional therapy in idiopathic chronic DCM patients with B19V persistence (NCT00892112). METHODS AND RESULTS Fifty patients (39 men; mean(±SD) age 54±11years) with chronic (>6 months) idiopathic DCM on optimal medical therapy, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%, and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) B19V load of >200copies/μgDNA were blindly randomized to either IVIg (n=26, 2g/kg over four days) or placebo (n=24). The primary outcome was change in LVEF at six months after randomization. Secondary outcomes were change in functional capacity assessed by 6-minute walking test (6mwt), quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and EMB B19V load at six months after randomization. LVEF significantly improved in both IVIg and placebo group (absolute mean (±SD) increase 5±9%, P=0.011 and 6±10%, P=0.008, respectively), without a significant difference between both groups (P=0.609). Additionally, change in 6mwt (median [IQR] IVIg 36[13;82] vs placebo 32[5;80]m, P=0.573), MLHFQ (IVIg 0[-7;5] vs placebo -2[-6;6], P=0.904) and LVEDV (IVIg -16±49 vs placebo -29±40ml/m(2) , P=0.334) did not significantly differ between both groups. Moreover, despite increased circulating B19V antibodies upon IVIg administration, reduction in cardiac B19V did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSION IVIg therapy does not significantly improve cardiac systolic function or functional capacity beyond standard medical therapy in patients with idiopathic chronic DCM and cardiac B19V persistence.
The therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a meta-analysis
Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2019
OBJECTIVES The therapeutic effects of IVIG in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have not been established so far. This study aims to estimate the effects of IVIG on AAV by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews And Meta-analyses). PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search for original studies on AAV and collect clinical data before and after IVIG treatment. A meta-analysis of each clinical parameter was performed, and standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI were calculated using the random effects model. RESULTS A total of 220 studies were identified, and nine met the selection criteria for the meta-analysis. IVIG was administered to active AAV patients as an immunomodulatory therapy in the nine studies selected. Significant reductions in BVAS (SMD -1.7; 95% CI [-2.66, -0.73]; P = 0.0006), ANCA (SMD -0.72; 95% CI [-1.13, -0.31]; P = 0.0006) and CRP (SMD -0.92; 95% CI [-1.49, -0.35]; P = 0.002) were noted within 6 months after administration of IVIG. Subgroup analysis in the unmodified immunotherapy population showed reductions in BVAS (SMD -1.39; 95% CI [-2.31, -0.48]; P = 0.003) and CRP (SMD -0.56; 95% CI [-0.93, -0.19]; P = 0.002) within half a month after IVIG treatment. CONCLUSION IVIG was associated with rapid improvements in disease activity and the related biomarkers in patients with active AAV.
Role of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in the survival rate of pediatric patients with acute myocarditis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Scientific reports. 2019;9(1):10459
The treatment of pediatric myocarditis is controversial, and the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are inconclusive due to limited data. We searched studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases since establishment until October 1st, 2018. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. We included a total of 812 patients with IVIG treatment and 592 patients without IVIG treatment. The meta-analysis showed that the survival rate in the IVIG group was higher than that in the non-IVIG group (odds ratio = 2.133, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-3.43, p = 0.002). There was moderate statistical heterogeneity among the included studies (I(2) = 35%, p = 0.102). However, after adjustment using Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill method, the point estimate of the overall effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 0.83, 2.35), which became insignificant. Moreover, the meta-regression revealed that age (coefficient = -0.191, 95% CI (-0.398, 0.015), p = 0.069) and gender (coefficient = 0.347, 95% CI (-7.586, 8.279), p = 0.93) were not significantly related to the survival rate. This meta-analysis showed that IVIG treatment was not associated with better survival. The use of IVIG therapy in acute myocarditis in children cannot be routinely recommended based on current evidence. Further prospective and randomized controlled studies are needed to elucidate the effects of IVIG treatment.
Efficacy and safety of prothrombin complex concentrate for vitamin K antagonist-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2019
BACKGROUND Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is the treatment of choice in vitamin K antagonist-associated intracranial hemorrhage (VKA-ICH). However, the efficiency and safety associated with their use remain unclear. AIMS This study aimed to assess the current evidence of the clinical outcomes in patients with VKA-ICH treated with or without PCC. A meta-analysis was conducted. Two randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies were included. PCC use demonstrated a significant increased likelihood of international normalized ratio (INR) normalization (OR = 3.76; 95% CI 1.74-8.12), shortened time to INR correction (MD = - 1.30; 95% CI - 2.08 to - 0.53) and reduction of hematoma expansion (HE) rate (OR = 0.37; 95% CI 0.23-0.60). Although PCC use revealed a statistical reduction at 30-day mortality (OR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.50-0.78), the result was inconsistent with mortality at discharge (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.68-1.57) and 90-day follow-up (OR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.24-1.07), both of which yielded no significant difference. When subgroup analyses were performed focus on PCC only treatment with FFP, no statistically significant difference was observed in 30-day mortality (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.11-1.71) as well. Besides, significant difference was not found in neurologic improvement at discharge (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 0.32-10.75), 30-day follow-up (OR = 3.00; 95% CI 0.93-9.70), or 90-day follow-up (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 0.84-2.86). No statistically significant difference was noted in the risk of thromboembolism following PCC administration (OR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.23-1.63). CONCLUSIONS PCC use for VKA-ICH reversal was associated with a significant reduction in INR and HE rate, without an increased risk of thromboembolic events. However, this reduction was not associated with improvement in neurologic deficits or overall survival. Well-designed randomized trials with special considerations to the aspect are necessary.
Corticosteroids and Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Pediatric Myocarditis: A Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2019;7:342
Background: The efficacy of corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in pediatric myocarditis remains controversial. Objectives: The authors performed a meta-analysis to assess the therapeutic efficacy of corticosteroids and IVIG in children with myocarditis. Methods: We retrieved the trials on corticosteroids and IVIG therapy, respectively, in pediatric myocarditis from nine databases up to December 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: Our analysis included 8 studies and 334 pediatric patients. The data demonstrated that children receiving corticosteroids showed no significant improvement on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from 1 to 8 month-follow-up (MD = 5.17%, 95% CI = -0.26% to 10.60%, P = 0.06), and no significant improvement in death or heart transplantation incidence at the end of follow-up (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.27-6.70, P = 0.73). However, children receiving IVIG revealed a statistically remarkable increase in LVEF at a follow-up over the course of 6 months to 1 year (MD = 18.91%, 95% CI = 11.74-26.08%, P < 0.00001), and a decrease in death or heart transplantation at the end of follow-up (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.75, P = 0.01). Further comparisons showed that the mortality and heart transplantation rate of children with myocarditis treated with IVIG were significantly lower than those with corticosteroid therapy (t' = 11.336, P < 0.001). Conclusions: IVIG might be beneficial to improve LVEF and survival for myocarditis in children. However, the present evidence does not support corticosteroids as superior to conventional therapy in children with myocarditis. Further randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size are required.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy for Acute Myocarditis in Children and Adults
International heart journal. 2019
The efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of acute myocarditis remains controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of IVIG in children and adults with acute myocarditis.We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website. Eligible studies were clinical trials of patients with acute myocarditis who received IVIG therapy. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the outcomes.Thirteen studies with 1534 cases were incorporated into our meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that IVIG therapy significantly reduced in-hospital mortality (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.71, P < 0.001) and improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.13, P < 0.001) in acute myocarditis patients. Furthermore, patients with acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) exhibited a significantly higher survival rate (OR: 2.80, 95% CI 1.16 to 6.77, P = 0.022) in the IVIG group.IVIG therapy can not only result in lower in-hospital mortality and superior recovery of left ventricular function in patients with acute myocarditis, but also increase the survival rate of AFM patients. The present study provides some supportive evidence for IVIG therapy in acute myocarditis patients.
Intravenous immunoglobulin fails to improve ARDS in patients undergoing ECMO therapy
Journal of Intensive Care. 2018;6:11.
Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality rates. ARDS patients suffer from severe hypoxemia, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy may be necessary to ensure oxygenation. ARDS has various etiologies, including trauma, ischemia-reperfusion injury or infections of various origins, and the associated immunological responses may vary. To support the immunological response in this patient collective, we used intravenous IgM immunoglobulin therapy to enhance the likelihood of pulmonary recovery. Methods: ARDS patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who were placed on ECMO and treated with (IVIG group; n = 29) or without (control group; n = 28) intravenous IgM-enriched immunoglobulins for 3 days in the initial stages of ARDS were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups, although the IVIG group showed a significantly reduced oxygenation index compared to the control group. We found no differences in the length of ICU stay or ventilation parameters. We did not find a significant difference between the groups for the extent of inflammation or for overall survival. Conclusion: We conclude that administration of IgM-enriched immunoglobulins as an additional therapy did not have a beneficial effect in patients with severe ARDS requiring ECMO support. Trial registration: Clinical Trials: NCT02961166; retrospectively registered.
Intravenous human immunoglobulins for refractory recurrent pericarditis: a systematic review of all published cases
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. 2016;17((4)):263-9.
AIMS: Refractory recurrent pericarditis is a major clinical challenge after colchicine failure, especially in corticosteroid-dependent patients. Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) have been proposed as possible therapeutic options for these cases. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of IVIGs in this context. METHODS Studies reporting the use of IVIG for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis and published up to October 2014 were searched in several databases. All references found, upon initial assessment at title and abstract level for suitability, were consequently retrieved as full reports for further appraisal. RESULTS Among the 18 citations retrieved, 17 reports (4 case series and 13 single case reports, with an overall population of 30 patients) were included. The mean disease duration was 14 months and the mean number of recurrences before IVIG was 3. Approximately 47% of patients had idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, 10% had an infective cause, and the remainder a systemic inflammatory disease. Nineteen out of the 30 patients (63.3%) were on corticosteroids at IVIG commencement. IVIGs were generally administered at a dose of 400-500 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days with repeated cycles according to the clinical response. Complications were uncommon (headache in ~3%) and not life-threatening. After a mean follow-up of approximately 33th months, recurrences occurred in 26.6% of cases after the first IVIG cycle, and 22 of the 30 patients (73.3%) were recurrence-free. Five patients (16.6%) were on corticosteroids at the end of the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS IVIGs are rapidly acting, well tolerated, and efficacious steroid-sparing agents in refractory pericarditis.
Intravenous immunoglobulin for presumed viral myocarditis in children and adults. Update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD004370; PMID: 15674945
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. 2015;2015:CD004370.
BACKGROUND This is an update of a previous review. Case reports and case series have described dramatic responses to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in people with presumed viral myocarditis, and its administration has become commonplace. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this review was to compare transplant-free survival of adults and children with presumed viral myocarditis treated with IVIG versus those who did not receive IVIG. A secondary objective was to determine if a group of patients with presumed viral myocarditis could be identified (on the basis of age, duration of symptoms, acuity of onset of symptoms, cardiac function at presentation, virological results or the presence or absence of histological evidence of acute myocarditis on cardiac biopsy in patients in whom a biopsy was performed) who would be the most likely to benefit from IVIG. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 12 of 12), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (2013, Issue 4 of 4), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to January Week 3 2014), EMBASE (Ovid, 1980 to Week 4 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCO, Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, 1970 to 24 January 2014), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS) (1982 to 30 January 2014), trials registries and conference proceedings. We contacted authors of trials and checked reference lists of relevant papers. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA We included studies if (1) participants had a clinical diagnosis of acute myocarditis with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 0.45, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) > 2 standard deviations (SDs) above the norm or a shortening fraction (SF) > 2 SDs below the mean with duration of cardiac symptoms < 6 months; (2) participants had no evidence of non-infectious or bacterial cardiac disease; and (3) participants were randomly assigned to receive at least 1 g/kg of IVIG versus no IVIG or placebo. We excluded studies if (1) participants had received immunosuppression before outcome assessment; or (2) onset of myocarditis was reported to occur < 6 months post partum. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors screened searches and extracted data independently. We assessed quality using the 'Risk of bias' tool. Meta-analysis was not possible because only two relevant studies were found, and researchers analysed markedly different populations. MAIN RESULTS In this update, review authors added one study to the study from the original review. The first relevant study involved 62 adults with recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy randomly assigned to receive IVIG or an equivalent volume of 0.1% albumin in a blinded fashion. The overall risk of bias was unclear. The incidence of death or the requirement for cardiac transplant or placement of a left ventricular assist device was low in both groups (odds ratio (OR) for event-free survival 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 2.30). Follow-up at six months and at 12 months showed equivalent improvement in LVEF (mean difference (MD) 0.00, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.07 at six months; MD 0.01, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.08 at 12 months). Functional capacity as assessed by peak oxygen consumption was equivalent in the two groups at 12 months (MD -0.80, 95% CI -4.57 to 2.97). Infusion-related side effects were more common in the treated group, but all were reported to be mild (OR 30.16, 95% CI 1.69 to 539.42).The second study added at this update included 83 children in India with suspected viral encephalitis and myocarditis. The overall risk of bias was high. The odds ratio for event-free survival was 7.39 (95% CI 0.91 to 59.86). Follow-up occurred only until hospital discharge, and LVEF was 49.5% in the treated group versus 35.9% in the placebo group (risk difference 13.6%, 95% CI 5.1 to 22.1%; P value = 0.001). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Evidence from one trial does not support the use of IVIG for the treatment of adults with presume