Pharmacological treatment in adult patients with CRPS-I: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE Several pharmacological treatments have been proposed for the treatment of Complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) in adults, but data regarding the efficacy of various agents for this disease is scarce. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to analyse pharmacological approaches in adults with CRPS-I. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from the inception date to 30, June 2021 for identifying placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs using bisphosphonates, ketamine, corticosteroids, anti-epileptics, NSAIDs/COXIBs, opiates, antidepressants, scavengers/magnesium sulphate or intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of CRPS-I. The primary outcomes included changes in the visual analogue scale (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain before and after treatment. RESULTS We included 20 placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs (for a total of 818 CRPS-I adults) that used bisphosphonates (n = 7), ketamine (n = 2), corticosteroids (n = 2), anti-epileptics (n = 1), NSAIDs/COXIBs (n = 2), scavengers/magnesium (n = 5), or intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 1) to treat CRPS-I during a median follow-up of 26 weeks. The treatment with bisphosphonates showed a significant reduction of the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale compared with placebo or reference therapy (random effects weighted mean difference [WMD]: -23.8, 95%CI-28.0 to -19.6; I2=36.4%). Treatment with ketamine also documented a reduction in the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale (random effects WMD: -8.27,95%CI -12.9 to -3.70; I2=0%). Treatment with other agents did not improve the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale. CONCLUSION This systematic review and meta-analysis supports the recommendation of parenteral bisphosphonates as the first-line agent in the treatment of CRPS-I. REGISTRATION NUMBER Open Science Framework registries; osf.io/et9gu.
Epidemiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy in systemic sclerosis
The Journal of rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The epidemiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments of peripheral neuropathy in SSc. METHODS A systematic review of Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for literature reporting peripheral neuropathy in SSc was performed. Studies evaluating incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments were synthesized. Meta-analysis using a random effects model was used to evaluate the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS 113 studies reported 949 subjects with at least one type of peripheral neuropathy out of 2143 SSc patients studied. The mean age was 48.5 years. The mean time between SSc onset and detection of peripheral neuropathy was 8.85 years. The pooled prevalence of neuropathy was 27.4% (95%CI 22.4% - 32.7%). Risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in SSc included advanced diffuse disease, anticentromere antibodies, calcinosis cutis, ischemia of the vasa nervosum, iron deficiency anemia, metoclopramide, pembrolizumab, silicosis and uremia. There were 73 subjects with successful treatments (n=36 restoring sensation, n=37 restoring motor or sensorimotor function). Treatments included decompression surgery, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, carbamazepine, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, tricyclic antidepressants and IVIG. CONCLUSION All-cause peripheral neuropathy is not uncommon in SSc. Compression neuropathies can be treated with decompression surgery. Observational data reporting immunosuppressive and anticonvulsants to treat peripheral neuropathy in SSc is limited and conflicting. This data provides the signal of effect to justify RCT to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Immunoglobulin G Abnormalities and the Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Journal of personalized medicine. 2021;11(6)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting approximately 2% of children in the United States. Growing evidence suggests that immune dysregulation is associated with ASD. One immunomodulatory treatment that has been studied in ASD is intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the studies which assessed immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations and the therapeutic use of IVIG for individuals with ASD. Twelve studies that examined IgG levels suggested abnormalities in total IgG and IgG 4 subclass concentrations, with concentrations in these IgGs related to aberrant behavior and social impairments, respectively. Meta-analysis supported possible subsets of children with ASD with low total IgG and elevated IgG 4 subclass but also found significant variability among studies. A total of 27 publications reported treating individuals with ASD using IVIG, including four prospective, controlled studies (one was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study); six prospective, uncontrolled studies; 2 retrospective, controlled studies; and 15 retrospective, uncontrolled studies. In some studies, clinical improvements were observed in communication, irritability, hyperactivity, cognition, attention, social interaction, eye contact, echolalia, speech, response to commands, drowsiness, decreased activity and in some cases, the complete resolution of ASD symptoms. Several studies reported some loss of these improvements when IVIG was stopped. Meta-analysis combining the aberrant behavior checklist outcome from two studies demonstrated that IVIG treatment was significantly associated with improvements in total aberrant behavior and irritability (with large effect sizes), and hyperactivity and social withdrawal (with medium effect sizes). Several studies reported improvements in pro-inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-alpha). Six studies reported improvements in seizures with IVIG (including patients with refractory seizures), with one study reporting a worsening of seizures when IVIG was stopped. Other studies demonstrated improvements in recurrent infections, appetite, weight gain, neuropathy, dysautonomia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Adverse events were generally limited but included headaches, vomiting, worsening behaviors, anxiety, fever, nausea, fatigue, and rash. Many studies were limited by the lack of standardized objective outcome measures. IVIG is a promising and potentially effective treatment for symptoms in individuals with ASD; further research is needed to provide solid evidence of efficacy and determine the subset of children with ASD who may best respond to this treatment as well as to investigate biomarkers which might help identify responsive candidates.
Meta-analysis of effectiveness of steroid-sparing attack prevention in MOG-IgG-associated disorder
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2021;56:103310
OBJECTIVE To estimate the efficacy of the commonly used long-term immunotherapies in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG associated disorder (MOGAD) METHOD A comprehensive search of the databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database was performed for all studies that assessed the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), rituximab (RTX), and maintenance intravenous immunoglobulin (mIVIG) in MOGAD. The random-effect model is used to estimate the standard mean difference (SMD) of annualized relapse rate (ARR) and expanded disability status scale (EDSS), mean ARR, probabilities of relapse and worsening EDSS during treatment. RESULTS The initial search identified 714 articles, and 21 satisfied eligibility criteria. All immunotherapies significantly reduced ARR in both pediatric and adult populations. Relapse probabilities and pooled mean ARR (SE: standard error) during therapies were as follow: AZA 53.1% [95%CI 37.4% to 68.2%; ARR 0.291 (0.134)], MMF 38.5% [95%CI 19.4% to 62.0%; ARR 0.836 (0.176)], RTX 48.9% [95%CI 37.8% to 60.2%; ARR 0.629(0.162)], and mIVIG 25.3% [95%CI 14.0% to 41.3%; ARR 0.081 (0.058)]. Only RTX significantly improved EDSS, SMD -0.499 (95%CI -0.996 to -0.003). The proportion of worsening EDSS with immunotherapies were 20.7% (95%CI 8.8% to 41.6%), 8.1% (95%CI 1.1% to 41.2%), and 10.8% (95%CI 3.8% to 26.8%) for AZA, MMF, and RTX, respectively. CONCLUSION These commonly used immunotherapies significantly reduced ARR in MOGAD. Only RTX had a significant benefit in EDSS improvement. However, a substantial portion of patients continued to relapse with treatment. Randomized controlled studies are needed to verify these findings and perform head-to-head comparisons among these treatment options.
Aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with anti-MOG antibodies: A review
Journal of neuroimmunology. 2021;358:577653
BACKGROUND Aseptic meningitis can be caused by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and sarcoidosis. Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presentation of a neuroinflammatory syndrome associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-abs). MOG-abs is a serum biomarker for MOG-associated disorder (MOG-AD), an acquired demyelinating syndrome that includes features of neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to review cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with MOG-abs. METHODS Systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google Scholar up to December 2020 was performed. Cases of MOG-AD were included if they met the following criteria: 1) Initial clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis; 2) positive leptomeningeal enhancement and 3) MOG-Ab seropositivity. Descriptive statistics were used. This analysis was limited to the cases available in the literature. RESULTS 11 total cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement in setting of MOG-ab were identified. Demyelinating type T2 lesions were also present at time of presentation in 6/11; however, 5/11 of patients had leptomeningeal enhancement alone without demyelinating lesions. All 5 patients required immunotherapy for improvement, including one patient with symptoms for 28 days, with 4/5 receiving steroids and 1/5 receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). CONCLUSIONS Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presenting symptom of MOG-AD. MOG-ab testing should be considered in a patient presenting with aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement of unknown etiology.
Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Management of Neuropathic Pain: A Narrative Review
Journal of pain research. 2020;13:2879-2884
Administrations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), an immune-modulating blood-derived product, may be beneficial for managing neuropathic pain. Here, we review previous studies to investigate the effectiveness of IVIG in managing neuropathic pain due to various neurological disorders. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published up to February 2020. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Ten studies were included and qualitatively analyzed. The review included patients with pain due to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), diabetic polyneuropathy, and others, such as postherpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia. We found that IVIG may be one of the beneficial options for managing neuropathic pain from various neurological disorders. In the four articles reviewed, no major adverse effects were reported, and the trend was toward a positive pain-reducing effect in eight articles. However, to confirm the benefits of IVIG on reducing neuropathic pain, more high-quality studies are required.
Treatment of Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus: A Comprehensive Review by the American Epilepsy Society Treatments Committee
Epilepsy currents. 2020;:1535759720928269
PURPOSE Established tonic-clonic status epilepticus (SE) does not stop in one-third of patients when treated with an intravenous (IV) benzodiazepine bolus followed by a loading dose of a second antiseizure medication (ASM). These patients have refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and a high risk of morbidity and death. For patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (CRSE), we sought to determine the strength of evidence for 8 parenteral ASMs used as third-line treatment in stopping clinical CRSE. METHODS A structured literature search (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL) was performed to identify original studies on the treatment of CRSE in children and adults using IV brivaracetam, ketamine, lacosamide, levetiracetam (LEV), midazolam (MDZ), pentobarbital (PTB; and thiopental), propofol (PRO), and valproic acid (VPA). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), magnesium sulfate, and pyridoxine were added to determine the effectiveness in treating hard-to-control seizures in special circumstances. Studies were evaluated by predefined criteria and were classified by strength of evidence in stopping clinical CRSE (either as the last ASM added or compared to another ASM) according to the 2017 American Academy of Neurology process. RESULTS No studies exist on the use of ACTH, corticosteroids, or IVIg for the treatment of CRSE. Small series and case reports exist on the use of these agents in the treatment of RSE of suspected immune etiology, severe epileptic encephalopathies, and rare epilepsy syndromes. For adults with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists on the effectiveness of brivaracetam (level U; 4 class IV studies). For children and adults with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists on the effectiveness of ketamine (level U; 25 class IV studies). For children and adults with CRSE, it is possible that lacosamide is effective at stopping RSE (level C; 2 class III, 14 class IV studies). For children with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists that LEV and VPA are equally effective (level U, 1 class III study). For adults with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support the effectiveness of LEV (level U; 2 class IV studies). Magnesium sulfate may be effective in the treatment of eclampsia, but there are only case reports of its use for CRSE. For children with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support either that MDZ and diazepam infusions are equally effective (level U; 1 class III study) or that MDZ infusion and PTB are equally effective (level U; 1 class III study). For adults with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support either that MDZ infusion and PRO are equally effective (level U; 1 class III study) or that low-dose and high-dose MDZ infusions are equally effective (level U; 1 class III study). For children and adults with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support that MDZ is effective as the last drug added (level U; 29 class IV studies). For adults with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support that PTB and PRO are equally effective (level U; 1 class III study). For adults and children with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support that PTB is effective as the last ASM added (level U; 42 class IV studies). For CRSE, insufficient evidence exists to support that PRO is effective as the last ASM used (level U; 26 class IV studies). No pediatric-only studies exist on the use of PRO for CRSE, and many guidelines do not recommend its use in children aged <16 years. Pyridoxine-dependent and pyridoxine-responsive epilepsies should be considered in children presenting between birth and age 3 years with refractory seizures and no imaging lesion or other acquired cause of seizures. For children with CRSE, insufficient evidence exists that VPA and diazepam infusion are equally effective (level U, 1 class III study). No class I to III studies have been reported in adults treated with VPA for CRSE. In comparison, for children and adults with established convulsive SE (ie, not RSE), after an initial benzodiazepine, it is likely that loading doses of LEV 60 mg/kg, VPA 40 mg/kg, and fosphenytoin 20 mg PE/kg are equally effective at stopping SE (level B, 1 class I study). CONCLUSIONS Mostly insufficient evidence exists on the efficacy of stopping clinical CRSE using brivaracetam, lacosamide, LEV, valproate, ketamine, MDZ, PTB, and PRO either as the last ASM or compared to others of these drugs. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, IVIg, corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and pyridoxine have been used in special situations but have not been studied for CRSE. For the treatment of established convulsive SE (ie, not RSE), LEV, VPA, and fosphenytoin are likely equally effective, but whether this is also true for CRSE is unknown. Triple-masked, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the effectiveness of parenteral anesthetizing and nonanesthetizing ASMs in the treatment of CRSE.
Efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneously administered immunoglobulin in myasthenia gravis: A systematic review
Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2019
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) is an emerging therapeutic alternative in the management of myasthenia gravis (MG) due to its potential efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness and ease of administration. At present, there are no systematic reviews that summarized the effects of SCIg in patients with MG. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of SCIg in the treatment of adult patients with myasthenia gravis. Relevant records were identified from August 2018 to January 2019 systematic search. Five relevant articles with a total of 34 patients with MG were included in this review. Data on functional disability score and adverse events were obtained. Based on the included uncontrolled studies, the functional disability scores of adult MG patients after SCIg administration showed consistent improvement. Headache and local site injection reactions were the most common adverse events reported. The evidence from limited uncontrolled studies gathered in this review showed that SCIg may improve functional disability in patients with MG. Local and mild adverse events were reported with its administration, but no systemic and serious adverse events were noted.
Efficacy, Acceptability, and Safety of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Administration for Mild-To-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : Jad. 2018;66((4):):1379-1387.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy/safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was performed. Six randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (n = 801) were included in this study. No significant difference in cognitive function was observed between the groups. Moreover, IVIG was inferior to placebo in behavioral disturbances (mean difference = 2.19). Further, IVIG administration was associated with a higher incidence of rash than placebo. Our results do not support IVIG administration for mild-to-moderate AD, suggesting that IVIG is not effective to treat mild-to-moderate AD and that it deteriorates behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in mild-to-moderate AD.
Systematic review of rituximab for autoimmune diseases: a potential alternative to intravenous immune globulin
BACKGROUND The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has immune-modulatory effects similar to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of rituximab in autoimmune diseases that are also treated with IVIG. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The most common indications for immune modulation with IVIG, as identified from a 2012 regional audit in Canada, were chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), myasthenia gravis, multifocal motor neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, and pemphigus vulgaris. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library until July 2016 for studies evaluating rituximab in each of these conditions. The primary outcome in our meta-analysis was clinical response at 6 months as defined by disease-specific criteria in randomized trials. We also calculated pooled proportions of responders within disease types from observational studies. RESULTS Ninety-five rituximab studies were identified: 86 were observational studies in patients with ITP (n = 1746), SLE (n = 1047), pemphigus vulgaris (n = 564), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 138), myasthenia gravis (n = 66), and CIDP (n = 31) and nine were randomized controlled trials (n = 992) in patients with ITP, SLE, and Sjogren's syndrome that compared rituximab with placebo plus standard of care. Among randomized trials, response rates were higher with rituximab (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.83). The pooled proportion of rituximab responses ranged from 94% (95% CI, 88%-98%) for pemphigus vulgaris to 48% (95% CI, 30%-66%) for CIDP. Rituximab was generally well tolerated in observational studies although in the randomized trials, adverse events were more common in the rituximab group. CONCLUSION Rituximab is an immune-modulating agent with biologic activity across many autoimmune conditions. Our data support the use of comparative trials with broad eligibility criteria to evaluate rituximab as an alternative to IVIG in autoimmune diseases.