Efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with lupus nephritis: A systematic review of the literature
Autoimmunity reviews. 2022;:103182
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an anti-inflammatory drug with an unclear role in the treatment of patients with lupus nephritis (LN). This systematic review evaluates the evidence for IVIg in the care of patients with LN. METHODOLOGY A systematic search was done in the PubMed, EMBASE, BVS and OVID databases - All EBM Reviews following the PRISMA methodology (registration in PROSPERO CRD42021236662). The variables were extracted: indications for use, dosage, partial or complete response, adverse reactions, initiation of renal replacement therapy, reduction of proteinuria, and mortality. The quality assessment was done with the "The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal tools for use in Systematic Reviews Checklist". In addition, synthesis reports were prepared through the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis - SWiM guide. RESULTS A total of 2328 articles were obtained (28 were considered for inclusion). When the studies were evaluated, IVIg therapy was found to be between 60% to 70% effective (except for patients with class V LN) with overall responses (complete + partial) even for patients who are refractory to first line treatment. Normalization (<0.5 g) of nephrotic proteinuria occurred in 24% of cases with infrequent adverse events and a mortality plus dialysis composite of 11.5% and 24.1% (most representative study). CONCLUSION In patients with LN refractory to conventional treatment or co-infection situations, the reported data seem to demonstrate effectiveness of IVIg therapy. There are few adverse reactions and caution is exercised when using it on patients with class V NL. However, given the lack of controlled studies with long-term follow-up, these data should be interpreted cautiously thus encouraging the development of high-quality RCTs.
Patients with lupus nephritis (LN), (28 studies).
Systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg).
Various comparisons, including: indications for use, and dosage.
When the studies were evaluated, IVIg therapy was found to be between 60% to 70% effective (except for patients with class V LN) with overall responses (complete + partial) even for patients who were refractory to first line treatment. Normalization (<0.5 g) of nephrotic proteinuria occurred in 24% of cases with infrequent adverse events and a mortality plus dialysis composite of 11.5% and 24.1% (most representative study).
Corticosteroids for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;5:Cd011188
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD), or mucocutaneous syndrome, is the leading cause of childhood-acquired heart disease in high-income countries. There is much controversy on how best to treat children with KD and in particular who may benefit from additional treatment beyond the standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin, such as the addition of corticosteroids. This is an update of the review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of corticosteroid use on the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in KD as either first-line or second-line treatment. SEARCH METHODS The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and two trials registers to 8 February 2021. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles for additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We selected randomised controlled trials involving children with all severities of KD who were treated with corticosteroids, including different types of corticosteroids, different durations of treatment, and where corticosteroids were used alone or in conjunction with other accepted KD treatments. We included trials using corticosteroids for both first- and second-line treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data using standard Cochrane methods. We performed fixed-effect model meta-analyses with odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. The outcomes of interest were incidence of coronary artery abnormalities, serious adverse events, mortality, duration of acute symptoms (such as fever), time for laboratory parameters to normalise, length of hospital stay and longer-term coronary morbidity. MAIN RESULTS This update identified one new study, therefore the analysis included eight trials consisting of 1877 participants. Seven trials investigated the use of corticosteroids in first-line treatment and one investigated second-line treatment. The trials were all of good methodological quality. On pooled analysis, corticosteroid treatment reduced the subsequent occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.75; 8 studies, 986 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), without resultant serious adverse events (0 events; 6 studies, 737 participants; moderate-certainty) and mortality (0 events; 8 studies, 1075 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In addition, corticosteroids reduced the duration of fever (MD -1.34 days, 95% CI -2.24 to -0.45; 3 studies, 290 participants; low-certainty evidence), time for laboratory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) to normalise (MD -2.80 days, 95% CI -4.38 to -1.22; 1 study, 178 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and length of hospital stay (MD -1.01 days, 95% CI -1.72 to -0.30; 2 studies, 119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the included studies reported long-term (greater than one year after disease onset) coronary morbidity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Moderate-certainty evidence shows that use of steroids in the acute phase of KD can be associated with reduced coronary artery abnormalities, reduced inflammatory markers and shorter duration of hospital stay when compared to no corticosteroids. There were no serious adverse events or deaths reported with or without corticosteroid use. Low-certainty evidence shows use of corticosteroids can reduce duration of clinical symptoms (fever and rash). None of the included studies reported on long-term (greater than one year after disease onset) coronary morbidity. Evidence presented in this systematic review agrees with current clinical guidelines on the use of corticosteroids in the first-line treatment in KD.
Immunoglobulin Use for the Management of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pain and therapy. 2022
BACKGROUND Immunoglobulins (IG) are widely used for the treatment of a variety of immune-mediated diseases. The exact mechanism of action remains unknown, but IG modulate the expression and function of Fc receptors, interfere with complement activation and production of cytokines, neutralize pathogenic autoantibodies, and affect the activation and effector functions of B and T lymphocytes. Immunoglobulins are usually delivered intravenously, and are effective in ameliorating motor symptoms, and/or preventing disease progression in immune-mediated neuropathies, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. OBJECTIVE The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to study the potential of IG for the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathy (PPN). The outcome of interest was the percentage of patients with PPN who achieved pain relief following IG administration. METHODS We performed a systematic literature search on March 17, 2022, in the PubMed database without any publication date restrictions. We also looked for unpublished or ongoing trials in clinicaltrials.org. Pain reduction following IG treatment had to be within the aims (primary or secondary). RESULTS The aforementioned literature search strategy revealed five studies (two open-label, three randomized placebo-controlled) eligible to be included. The pooled estimate of the percentage of patients with PPN who received immunoglobulins and reported pain relief was found to be 65% (95% CI 58-71%). The likelihood of achieving pain relief with immunoglobulin treatment was 2.9 times higher (95% CI 1.6-5.2) compared to placebo (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSION The use of IG for the treatment of pain due to peripheral neuropathy has a potential therapeutic benefit. Further studies across patients with different types of painful peripheral neuropathy are needed to better characterize this effect. Registration number on PROSPERO CRD42022319614.
Effectiveness and tolerability of different therapies in preventive treatment of MOG-IgG-associated disorder: A network meta-analysis
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:953993
BACKGROUND Immunotherapy has been shown to reduce relapses in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorder (MOG-AD); however, the superiority of specific treatments remains unclear. AIM: To identify the efficacy and tolerability of different treatments for MOG-AD. METHODS Systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 1, 2021, were performed. Published articles including patients with MOG-AD and reporting the efficacy or tolerability of two or more types of treatment in preventing relapses were included. Reported outcomes including incidence of relapse, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and side effects were extracted. Network meta-analysis with a random-effect model within a Bayesian framework was conducted. Between group comparisons were estimated using Odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS Twelve studies that compared the efficacy of 10 different treatments in preventing MOG-AD relapse, including 735 patients, were analyzed. In terms of incidence of relapse, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), oral corticosteroids (OC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), and rituximab (RTX) were all significantly more effective than no treatment (ORs ranged from 0.075 to 0.34). On the contrary, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) (OR=1.3, 95% CrI: 0.31 to 5.0) and tacrolimus (TAC) (OR=5.9, 95% CrI: 0.19 to 310) would increase the incidence of relapse. Compared with DMT, IVIG significantly reduced the ARR (MD=-0.85, 95% CrI: -1.7 to -0.098). AZA, MMF, OC and RTX showed a trend to decrease ARR, but those results did not reach significant differences. The combined results for relapse rate and adverse events, as well as ARR and adverse events showed that IVIG and OC were the most effective and tolerable therapies. CONCLUSIONS Whilst DMT should be avoided, IVIG and OC may be suited as first-line therapies for patients with MOG-AD. RTX, MMF, and AZA present suitable alternatives.
Pharmacologic interventions for Kawasaki disease in children: A network meta-analysis of 56 randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Although the current consensus recommends a standard treatment of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with high-dose aspirin to manage Kawasaki disease (KD), the use of different adjunctive therapies remains controversial. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different existing interventions for the initial and refractory stages of KD. METHODS An NMA of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using the frequentist model applied after electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, ClinicalKey, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science. The main outcomes were reduced fever duration/diminished severity of fever subsided. The initial stage of KD was defined as the first stage to treat patients with KD; the refractory stage of KD represents KD patients who failed to respond to standard KD treatment. The cut-off points for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were low (100-400 mg), medium (1 g), and high (at least 2 g). FINDINGS A total of fifty-six RCTs with 6486 participants were included. NMA demonstrated that the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [mean difference=-1.76 days (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): -3.65 to 0.13 days) compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the shortest fever duration; likewise, the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [odds ratio (OR)=0.50, 95% CIs: 0.18-1.37 compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the smallest incidence of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in the initial-stage KD. In the refractory-stage KD, the high-dosage IVIG + pulse steroid therapy (OR=0.04, 95% CIs: 0.00-0.43 compared to the high-dosage IVIG only) had the best rate of decline of fever; likewise, the high-dosage IVIG + ciclosporin [OR=0.05 (95% CIs: 0.00-1.21) compared to the high-dosage IVIG only] exhibited the smallest incidence of CAL. Infliximab significantly improved resolution compared to the high-dosage IVIG only group (OR=0.20, 95%CIs: 0.07-0.62) in refractory-stage KD. INTERPRETATION The NMA demonstrated that the combination therapy with the standard therapy of IVIG and aspirin might have an additional effect on shortening the duration of fever and lowering the CAL incidence rate in patients with acute KD. Moreover, the combination therapy with high-dose IVIG and pulse steroid therapy or cyclosporine therapy might have an additional effect on improving the rate of decline of fever and lowering the incidence rate of CAL in children with refractory KD. Because some of the findings of this NMA should be considered hypothesis-generating rather than confirmatory, further evidence from de novo randomised trials is needed to support our results. FUNDING None.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin for treating refractory livedoid vasculopathy: a systematic review
Therapeutic advances in chronic disease. 2022;13:20406223221097331
INTRODUCTION Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was reported to be the third most used monotherapy in livedoid vasculopathy (LV). There is currently a lack of randomized controlled clinical trials and no standardized therapeutic regimen for IVIG therapy in LV. METHODS We performed a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of IVIG in treating patients with LV using PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases. RESULTS Eighty LV patients from 17 articles were included, receiving IVIG therapy at a dose of 1-2.1 g/kg body weight every 4 weeks. The effective rate of IVIG therapy in LV patients was 95% (76/80) in published studies, showing a good clinical response for resolution of pain, skin ulcerations, and neurological symptoms, and reducing the dependence on glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. IVIG therapy was well tolerated, and no severe adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION Overall, to a certain degree, IVIG is probably a safe and effective treatment alternative for refractory LV patients, which still need to be confirmed by large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials.
Pharmacological treatment in adult patients with CRPS-I: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE Several pharmacological treatments have been proposed for the treatment of Complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) in adults, but data regarding the efficacy of various agents for this disease is scarce. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to analyse pharmacological approaches in adults with CRPS-I. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from the inception date to 30, June 2021 for identifying placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs using bisphosphonates, ketamine, corticosteroids, anti-epileptics, NSAIDs/COXIBs, opiates, antidepressants, scavengers/magnesium sulphate or intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of CRPS-I. The primary outcomes included changes in the visual analogue scale (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain before and after treatment. RESULTS We included 20 placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs (for a total of 818 CRPS-I adults) that used bisphosphonates (n = 7), ketamine (n = 2), corticosteroids (n = 2), anti-epileptics (n = 1), NSAIDs/COXIBs (n = 2), scavengers/magnesium (n = 5), or intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 1) to treat CRPS-I during a median follow-up of 26 weeks. The treatment with bisphosphonates showed a significant reduction of the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale compared with placebo or reference therapy (random effects weighted mean difference [WMD]: -23.8, 95%CI-28.0 to -19.6; I2=36.4%). Treatment with ketamine also documented a reduction in the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale (random effects WMD: -8.27,95%CI -12.9 to -3.70; I2=0%). Treatment with other agents did not improve the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale. CONCLUSION This systematic review and meta-analysis supports the recommendation of parenteral bisphosphonates as the first-line agent in the treatment of CRPS-I. REGISTRATION NUMBER Open Science Framework registries; osf.io/et9gu.
Use of human albumin infusion in cirrhotic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Hepatology international. 2022
BACKGROUND Human albumin infusion is effective for controlling systemic inflammation, thereby probably managing some liver cirrhosis-related complications, such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and hepatorenal syndrome. However, its clinical benefits remain controversial. METHODS EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding use of human albumin infusion in cirrhotic patients were eligible. Mortality and incidence of liver cirrhosis-related complications were pooled. Effect of human albumin infusion on mortality was also evaluated by subgroup analyses primarily according to target population and duration of human albumin infusion treatment. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS Forty-two RCTs were finally included. Meta-analysis showed that human albumin infusion could significantly decrease the mortality of cirrhotic patients (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that human albumin infusion could significantly decrease the mortality of cirrhotic patients with SBP (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.20-0.64, p = 0.0005) and HE (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22-0.85, p = 0.02), but not those with ascites or non-SBP infections or undergoing large-volume paracentesis. Short-term human albumin infusion treatment could significantly decrease short-term mortality (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89, p = 0.005), but not long-term mortality. Long-term human albumin infusion treatment could not significantly decrease long-term mortality (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.48-1.08, p = 0.11). In addition, human albumin infusion could significantly decrease the incidence of renal impairment (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.45-0.88, p = 0.007) and ascites (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.25-0.81, p = 0.007), but not infections or gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Human albumin infusion may improve the outcomes of cirrhotic patients. However, its indications for different complications and infusion strategy in liver cirrhosis should be further explored.
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin use in immunoglobulin-naive patients with primary immunodeficiency: a systematic review
Aim: Identify and describe published literature on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) as initial immunoglobulin (IG)-replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Methods: We systematically identified and summarized literature in MEDLINE, Embase, BioSciences Information Service and Cochrane Library assessing efficacy/effectiveness, safety/tolerability, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and dosing regimens of SCIG for IG-naive patients with PID. Results: Sixteen studies were included. In IG-naive patients, SCIG managed/reduced infections and demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic parameters to IG-experienced patients; adverse events were mostly minor injection-site pain or discomfort. Three studies reported improvements in HRQoL. Quality of studies was difficult to assess due to limited reporting. Conclusion: Although studies were lacking, available data suggest IG-naive and IG-experienced patients initiating SCIG likely have similar outcomes.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating pharmacologic therapies for acute and recurrent pericarditis
Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2022
Acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP) is a benign inflammatory condition associated with high recurrence rates. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and colchicine are the recommended therapies. Our objective was to systematically assess effects of pharmacological therapies on recurrences or treatment failure in patients with first and subsequent AIP episodes. PubMed, BioMedCentral, Cochrane, Clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar and EMBASE (Ovid) were searched up to April 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating NSAIDs, indomethacin, colchicine, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, immunomodulators, or interleukin receptor antagonists in adult patients with acute episode of idiopathic pericarditis. Mantel-Haenzel random effects models were used for meta-analyses, and effects were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six RCTs of colchicine plus NSAIDs (n=914 patients) and one RCT of anakinra (n=21) were found. No RCTs testing NSAIDs or corticosteroids were identified. Colchicine plus NSAIDs and anakinra significantly reduced recurrence (OR 0.37; 95%CI 0.27-0.51; and OR 0.02; 95%CI, 0.00-0.32, respectively). Colchicine plus NSAIDs also reduced treatment failure (OR 0.29; 95%CI 0.21-0.41). No differences in adverse events between colchicine and placebo were found (OR 1.16; 95%CI 0.72 to 1.86). In conclusion, Colchicine plus NSAIDS and anakinra are efficacious for preventing AIP recurrences. Colchicine reduces treatment failure as well. Although its use is supported by clinical experience, no solid evidence is currently available for the role of NSAIDs or steroids in the treatment of AIP.